Marjorie Taylor

Marjorie Taylor
University of Oregon | UO · Department of Psychology

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57
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Publications

Publications (57)
Chapter
Both past and current research indicates that the creation of an imaginary companion is a common, normative, and healthy form of elaborated role-play that emerges in early childhood. Imaginary companions are often the invisible friends that children create for themselves, or the special stuffed animals or dolls that children imbue with personalitie...
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The invention of imaginary worlds (“paracosms”) is a creative activity of middle childhood that has previously been investigated primarily with retrospective adult reports and biographical accounts. In descriptions collected from 8‐ to 12‐year‐old children, the prevalence was 16.9% in Study 1 (n = 77) and 17.4% in Study 2 (n = 92). Children with an...
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This study was designed to provide some preliminary information about the imaginary companions created by children who have lived in foster care, including prevalence rates and qualitative descriptions of the imaginary companions. We were also interested in how descriptions of the imaginary companions created by children who had lived in foster car...
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Imagining alternatives to actual experiences is an important part of everyday life that can take many forms. One manifestation in middle childhood is the creation of elaborate imaginary worlds, called paracosms. Retrospective reports of adults indicate that having a childhood paracosm is more commonly reported in individuals acknowledged for being...
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The development of the correspondence between real and imagined motor actions was investigated in two experiments. Experiment 1 evaluated whether children imagine body position judgments of fine motor actions in the same way as they perform them. Thirty-two 8-year-old children completed a task in which an object was presented in different orientati...
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Elaborated role play (i.e., pretending in which children imagine and act out the part of another individual on a regular basis) is often considered an early indicator of creativity, but there is not strong research evidence of a relation between this type of pretend play and performance on creativity tasks during the preschool years. One possible r...
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Role‐play (i.e., pretending in which children imagine and act out the part of another individual) was assessed with child interviews and parent questionnaires about invisible friends, personified objects, and pretend identities in a sample of 208 young children. Children who engaged in role‐play did not differ from other children in age or vocabula...
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This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when gi...
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In this study we interviewed children about their experiences of visual and auditory images when interacting with imaginary companions, and explored the extent that the nature of those experiences was related to children's performance on visual imagery tasks. Eighty-three 5-year-old children and their parents were asked about the children's imagina...
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Children's ability to discriminate events that could happen in real life from fantasy events was examined by asking 62 preschool children if events depicted in illustrations from storybooks could happen in real life. For half the children, the pictures showed emotionally neutral events and for the other half, the pictures showed emotionally charged...
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In a recent study by Gelman & Markman (1986), boys and girls were found to show different patterns of inductive inference. Children were asked to infer whether an object (e.g. a shark) would be more likely to share a property with a dissimilar-looking object from the same category (e.g. a tropical fish), or with a similar-looking object from a diff...
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The creation and cultivation of an imaginary companion is considered to be a healthy form of pretend play in early childhood, but there tends to be a less positive view of older children who have them. To test the extent that having an imaginary companion in middle school is associated with positive or negative outcomes, an ethnically diverse sampl...
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Reviews the book The Fundamentals of Brain Development: Integrating Nature and Nurture by Joan Stiles. This volume examines the complex interactions between inheritance and experience by detailing the hows and whys of brain development from conception through adolescence. Weaving together evidence from neuroscience, embryology, genetics, physiology...
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In three experiments, 3½- to 6-year-old children were presented with analogical problems in which the protagonists were either real people or fantasy characters. Children were more likely to transfer solutions from the stories about real people rather than the stories about fantasy characters. These results suggest that the use of a fantasy charact...
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Children's role play activities are included in symptom checklists of dissociative disorders, yet little is known about the potential relation between individual differences in role play and dissociative behaviors in normative development. This issue was examined in a study of 147 children aged 3 and 4 from a nonclinical population. Parents complet...
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This research examined visual and auditory imagery in adults and 5-year-old children. We focused on 3 broad issues: 1) parallels between visual and auditory imagery; 2) static and dynamic imagery processes within the visual and auditory modalities; and 3) individual differences in these imagery processes. In Experiments 1 and 2, adults completed a...
Chapter
This chapter discusses children's private role play with imaginary companions and playmates which the children created and interacted with and/or talked about regularly. Although imaginary companions are at times integrated into play with other children or family members, this type of role play in general occurs within a solitary context. Imaginary...
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We compared the incidence of imaginary companions and impersonated characters in 152 three- and four-year-old children (75 males and 77 females). Children and their parents were interviewed about role play in two sessions. Although there were no sex differences in verbal ability or fantasy predisposition, there was a significant difference in the f...
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Past research with 152 preschoolers found that having an imaginary companion or impersonating an imaginary character was positively correlated with theory of mind performance. Three years later, 100 children from this study were retested to assess the developmental course of play with imaginary companions and impersonation of imaginary characters a...
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In 4 experiments, the capacity of children and adults to distinguish pretending from lying was investigated. Children aged 4 to 7 years heard a series of short narratives in which the main character made a factually incorrect statement, either because he or she was trying to deceive someone or because he or she was pretending. By 5 years of age, ch...
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The illusion of independent agency (IIA) occurs when a fictional character is experienced by the person who created it as having independent thoughts, words, and/or actions. Children often report this sort of independence in their descriptions of imaginary companions. This study investigated the extent that adult writers experience IIA with the cha...
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Teacher attitudes about pretend play were compared in Old Order Mennonite, New Order Mennonite, and non-Mennonite Christian schools. These subcultures differ in modernity, media exposure, and encouragement of pretend play. Non-Mennonite teachers were the most positive about pretend play, but Old Order Mennonite teachers were the most positive about...
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Teacher attitudes about pretend play were compared in Old Order Mennonite, New Order Mennonite, and non-Mennonite Christian schools. These subcultures differ in modernity, media exposure, and encouragement of pretend play. Non-Mennonite teachers were the most positive about pretend play, but Old Order Mennonite teachers were the most positive about...
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Young children's ability to differentiate fantasy from reality has been seriously underestimated because of methodological problems and overgeneralization from children's performance in situations in which they had no control over the content of the fantasy and/or were presented with misleading information. It is important to keep in mind that ther...
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The relation between early fantasy/pretense and children's knowledge about mental life was examined in a study of 152 3- and 4-year-old boys and girls. Children were interviewed about their fantasy lives (e.g., imaginary companions, impersonation of imagined characters) and were given tasks assessing their level of pretend play and verbal intellige...
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Young children often absorb the information they are taught without being aware they are learning something new. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that children are more aware of transitions in their own knowledge that involve changes in behavior than transitions that involve changes in vocabulary or general knowledge. In Experiment 1, 4...
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in this review, [the author describes] how concepts such as belief and desire fit into the child's developing theory of mind and theory of mind provides a conceptual framework for exploring issues related to children's understanding of emotion, the development of self, [and] social cognition in infancy / focus on how and why theory of mind research...
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Children's attention to knowledge-acquisition events was examined in 4 experiments in which children were taught novel facts and subsequently asked how long they had known the new information. In Experiment 1, 4- and 5-year-olds tended to claim they had known novel animal facts for a long time and also reported that other children would know the no...
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Children's attention to knowledge-acquisition events was examined in 4 experiments in which children were taught novel facts and subsequently asked how long they had known the new information. In Experiment 1, 4- and 5-year-olds tended to claim they had known novel animal facts for a long time and also reported that other children would know the no...
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12 4-yr-olds with imaginary companions (ICs) and 15 without ICs were asked to describe and pretend to interact with the IC or a real friend. Children with ICs readily described them and were more willing than children without ICs to pretend the IC or real friend was in the lab. Children were interviewed about 7 mo later, and the IC descriptions wer...
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In 3 experiments, children's ability to vary their responses on perspective-taking tasks as a function of the other person's age was examined. In Experiment 1,4- and 5-year-olds were shown to be accurate in their judgments about the knowledge of a 6-month-old baby, a 4-year-old child, and an adult. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds were asked to determi...
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In 3 experiments, children's ability to vary their responses on perspective-taking tasks as a function of the other person's age was examined. In Experiment 1, 4- and 5-year-olds were shown to be accurate in their judgments about the knowledge of a 6-month-old baby, a 4-year-old child, and an adult. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds were asked to determ...
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Full-text available
Classic research on conceptual hierarchies has shown that the interaction between the human perceiver and objects in the environment specifies one level of abstraction for categorizing objects, called the basic level, which plays a primary role in cognition. The question of whether the special psychological status of the basic level can be modified...
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Recent research on the appearance-reality distinction indicates that preschool children often have difficulty reporting that an object can have an appearance that is discrepant from what the children know to be true about the object. This problem could be due to a general difficulty that young children have in representing the same object or event...
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In 4 experiments, we examined how young children incorporate new word meanings into their lexicons. 2-year-olds were each taught a new noun for an object that already had a known label (e.g., a "fep" for a dog). Children's interpretations of the new nouns were assessed by asking subjects to select the named toy from an array of 4 toys (e.g., "Point...
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One part of understanding the difference between external reality and mental life involves the ability to differentiate what is seen from what is known. This research investigated the development of children's ability to make the seeing-knowing distinction in the context of conceptual perspective taking. In Experiment 1, 2 developmental levels were...
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In this research, we examined 2 strategies that children use to figure out new word meanings: attention to linguistic form class (e. g., whether a word is a noun or an adjective), and the assumption of lexical contrast (assuming that 2 words cannot have the same meaning). In Experiment 1, 2-year-old children were each taught a new word, either a co...
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When young children are asked questions about objects with misleading appearances, they make two kinds of errors: (1) phenomenism--they report appearance when asked to report reality; and (2) intellectual realism--they report reality when asked to report appearance. Two studies with 3-year-old children tested the hypothesis that phenomenism errors...
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The linguistic form class of a word and the kind of object the word refers to both provide information for discovering whether a new noun refers to an object as a category member (e.g., a dog) or as an individual (e.g., Lassie). This study investigated children's use of both syntactic (i.e., form class) and semantic (i.e., type of referent) informa...
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Errors made by young children when they are asked to draw a model were investigated in two studies. In the first study, the experimenter asked 5- and 8-year-old children to draw a cup that had a flower decal (transfer) attached to its outside surface, attached to its inside surface or positioned beside it. The 8-year-old children in all conditions...
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The present study examined the possibility that children's drawing conventions may affect their performance on nondrawing tasks. 33 children 3, 4, and 5 years old were asked to choose the figure that looked most like a real man from an array of 3 figures constructed to be consistent with different drawing formulas used by children to depict humans....
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re-examine a very old social psychological question: why do our labels for social categories possess such extraordinary power / the argument we propose in this paper utilizes a distinction between 'natural kind' categories (such as birds, fish, gold, and daffodils) and 'human artifact' categories (such as chair, bicycle, sweater, and house) / argue...
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Mississippi, 1974. Vita.
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Typescript; issued also on microfilm. Type C project. Thesis (Ed.D.)--Teachers College, Columbia University, 1949. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [345])

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