Marja Holmila

Marja Holmila
Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare | THL · Department of Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction

Ph.D

About

86
Publications
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1,249
Citations

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have shown that children of alcohol abusing parents have a higher risk for mental and behavioural disorders compared to other children. Using a retrospective population-based cohort study, based on health care and social welfare registers that include children born in Finland in 1997 and their biological parents, we evaluated whether t...
Article
Background: Implementation of alcohol screening and brief intervention in emergency departments is inadequate and the evidence base more mixed than in primary health care (PHC). This comparison study investigates the feasibility of alcohol screening and interventions by nurses in emergency departments, seven based in PHC and two in specialised heal...
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Background: Typically, research on parents’ and children’s interactions around alcohol issues focuses on how parenting styles and parents’ examples affect teenager’s drinking habits. In this paper, we approach the theme from the youngsters’ perspective. We ask how teenagers describe the interaction on alcohol-related issues with their parents and h...
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Aims: This study looks at the connection between parents’ substance abuse and their 0–6 years old children’s somatic and psychological health. Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study based on Finnish health care and social welfare registers. The participants were all children born in Finland in 1997 (N = 58,667) and 2002 (N = 55,146)...
Article
There is a growing body of research on the effects of parents’ alcohol and substance abuse problems on family members, which examines for example the effects and risks to children. In this article, we approach the theme from the perspective of parents who have recovered from alcohol and substance abuse problems. The research question in this study...
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Aims: In this study we look at (1) changes in parenting practices related to adolescents’ alcohol use in Finland from 2006 to 2012 and (2) whether parents’ own drinking behaviour is related to the parenting practices. Methods: Two surveys of parents with children were conducted in 2006 (n = 2864) and 2012 (n = 2965). The data were analysed using χ2...
Article
Introduction and aims: Adverse childhood experiences and their accumulation over childhood have negative outcomes to children, yet earlier findings on the independent effect of parental substance abuse seem inconsistent. Our aims were to examine: (i) whether parental substance abuse is associated with children's mental disorders in mid-childhood (...
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Aim: To assess whether retail outlets comply with the minimum legal age of 18 for the purchase of alcohol and tobacco and for gambling on slot machines in Finland. Methods: A test-purchase research in 117 retail outlets selling alcohol, tobacco and supplying slot machines in two towns. Five-hundred fifty-seven purchase attempts were made for alcoho...
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Objectives To estimate the prevalence of parental alcohol abuse (PAA) or parental drug abuse (PDA), to compare families with PAA/PDA to non-PAA/PDA families, and to identify different types of families with PAA/PDA in terms of mental disorders in parents, family separation, financial difficulties and educational level. Methods Register-based data f...
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AimsTo compare benzodiazepine (BZD) purchases in different groups of mothers of small children.DesignProspective population-based cohort study based on the Finnish social and health care registers.SettingFinnish women of child-bearing age.ParticipantsAll women who gave birth in 2002 in Finland (n = 54 519).MeasurementsLatent class analysis was used...
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Aims: The study compares young adults’ cultural understandings of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its connections with alcohol use and gender roles. Data and analyses: Comparative focus group interview data were collected in seven countries (Argentina, Finland, Italy, Nigeria, Uganda, Uruguay, Sri Lanka). Similar lists of codes and coding proce...
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Introduction and AimsTo study (i) whether the children of substance-abusing mothers are hospitalised because of injury or illness more often than other children; (ii) how often these children are placed out of home; and (iii) how the type of substance used by the mother affects her children. Design and Methods This was a retrospective population-ba...
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AIMS - The study looks at the prevalence and register-based indicators of substance abuse-related harms among mothers of small children. We examined the living conditions, various health and social harms and the differences between the users of different kinds of substances (alcohol only vs. drugs only vs. alcohol and other drugs). DATA & METHODS -...
Article
Holmila, M. & Warpenius, K. (2012). Community-based prevention of alcohol-related injuries: Possibilities and experiences. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 1(1), 27-39. doi: 10.7895/ijadr.v1i1.43 (http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v1i1.43)Aims: This paper discusses the possibilities of community-based prevention of alcohol-related...
Article
Full-text available
Women’s drinking increased six-fold from 1968 to 2008. In the 2000s there has also been an increase in the number of young women reporting at least occasional use of some illegal drug. Alcohol and drug abuse remain considerably lower in women than men, but maternal substance abuse is an increasingly common problem. There are more and more families...
Article
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This study compares the enforcement of legal age limits on purchases of alcohol, tobacco and on the use of slot machines in retail outlets, and in the case of alcohol additionally in state alcohol monopoly outlets. The data were collected by hidden participant observation. Young-looking research assistants aged 18 years made a total of 566 (=N) att...
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The ambivalent characteristic of the Finnish drinking culture is particularly evident in the context of family life. While drinking to intoxication in the home environment is widely tolerated, attitudes towards drinking in the presence of children appear negative, and there is broad political concern about harms to children. This study aims to both...
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Aims: The article describes the lives of children with problem drinking parents from children's own perspective, emphasizing their experiences, agency and coping. Methods: The qualitative data were collected with a web-based questionnaire advertised on two children's and adolescents’ help pages. The final sample consisted of 70 volunteers between t...
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Aims: The study presents the evaluation results of the age-limit component of a community-based prevention project called PAKKA. The project aimed to reduce alcohol availability among those under 18, which is the legal age for purchasing alcohol. The interventions consisted of law enforcement, community coalitions and community mobilization. Data a...
Article
To assess the effects of an alcohol prevention programme to reduce the serving of alcoholic beverages to intoxicated clients on licensed premises. A controlled pre- (2004) and post-intervention study (2006) design. A community-based programme combining law enforcement, responsible beverage service training, information campaigns and policy initiati...
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Aim: This article looks at alcohol policy opinions from the point of view of the possibilities and frames for creating local alcohol control policy. Local action against harms related to drinking is a compromise between different points of view, and the question of public support is important for community-based prevention. Data and analyses: The r...
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This article examines the relationship between experiences of external influence from spouses and partners to influence one's drinking and one's own concern over drinking; whether spouse's control attempts and concern over one's own drinking are in congruence; how the level of drinking and the frequency of drinking to intoxication and the estimate...
Article
Aims: To discuss three alternative roles and associated challenges for researchers as participants in community action projects for prevention of alcohol and other drug problems. Methods: To undertake a case study of alternative roles for researchers in community action projects in three Nordic countries. Findings: There are three alternatives role...
Article
To an increasing degree, alcohol policy and prevention in the Nordic countries is expected to be carried out on the local level as the free-trade agreements and international harmonization of alcohol taxes and regulations are limiting the scope of traditional national alcohol policies. In recent reviews on the effectiveness of alcohol political int...
Article
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The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sw...
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A number of studies have shown that pressure from others is an important element in decision making concerning entering treatment and that the pressure most often comes from one's partner. Is has also been found that, besides actual drinking habits, togetherness of drinking, i.e. proportion of drinking occasions spent together with partner, is reve...
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The focus of this paper is on informal control of drinking, indicated by criticism of people in the social network on someone's alcohol consumption. It studies country and gender differences in the extent drinkers suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use report informal control from others (reactive informal control), and c...
Article
This study is based on an analysis of discussions of local experts on the prevention of alcohol-related harms. Dismantling of the centralized and hierarchical alcohol control system in Finland has shifted responsibilities from the state to the local level, and restructured the system of alcohol policy and prevention. At the state level greater emph...
Article
This study is based on an analysis of discussions of local experts on the prevention of alcohol-related harms. Dismantling of the centralized and hierarchical alcohol control system in finland has shifted responsibilities from the state to the local level, and restructured the system of alcohol policy and prevention. At the state level greater emph...
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Full-text available
The paper discusses the kinds of reasoning that have been presented as possible mechanisms and reasons for gender differences in alcohol consumption. An overview of the existing literature from different countries is presented. The existing studies provide a picture of great cultural variance in patterns of alcohol use among men and women. The gend...
Article
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This study evaluates the impact of a self-help pamphlet designed to support self-control of drinking. It was conducted in Helsinki, Finland, in 2001 and 2002 and focused on men between 30 and 49 years of age. The respondents were randomly selected in an intervention and a control area and compared with each other before and after the intervention u...
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Full-text available
Artikkeli pyrkii selvittämään, mistä alaikäiset saavat juomansa alkoholin ja millaisia kokemuksia heillä näistä hankinnoista on. Lisäksi tarkastellaan teini-ikäisten nuorten vanhempien kokemusta tilanteesta ja pohditaan, mistä saman paikkakunnan nuorten ja vanhempien antamien kuvausten erilaisuudet mahtavat johtua. Artikkeli pohjautuu Pakka-projekt...
Chapter
The European Alcohol Action Plan recognizes the importance of community programmes and local action in promoting healthy lifestyles as well as in securing public and political support for modifying the sale and consumption of alcohol. In addition to developing local policy, local action can exert a powerful influence on national and even internatio...
Article
Many community action projects from around the world exist to reduce alcohol problems at the local level. The role of research within this international movement is discussed within this introduction for the entire special issue on community action research in alcohol problem prevention. Previous community prevention programs have utilized a variet...
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This article looks at the present Finnish situation in planning and development of community-level prevention of alcohol and drug problems, and the experiences gained so far. Results from the first extensive evaluated project of this kind in Finland, the Lahti Project, and the program and evaluation plans for a new project in the Helsinki metropoli...
Article
The roles and expectations characterizing the stressful lives of drinkers’ significant others are not to be understood by individual psychology alone, as cultural definitions of this social tie determine them as well. In this article an attempt is made to develop the necessary empirical basis for developing a non-biased and helpful understanding of...
Chapter
This book is aimed at increasing knowledge on two interlinking issues: local community as a system of preventing alcohol problems and the art of planning and implementing community prevention projects. The community perspective means that the local community is the director of the story, the main hero and the most cumbersome villain.
Chapter
Evaluation results depend on the criteria one uses to assess the successes or failures of the action. The apparently simple question ‘How well did it work?’ is in reality a very complex one. How to define what is to be considered an achievement or a change, who makes these definitions, what scientific methods are best in describing the examined phe...
Chapter
The local media were seen as an important mediator of alcohol-related knowledge, opinions and modes of thinking. For that reason the representatives of the local media were involved in the project intervention as much as possible. Local press-conferences were arranged as a part of each significant happening. All in all, 14 small conferences were ar...
Chapter
Family relations are for most people the most encompassing and enduring of their social ties. The family’s relevance for the prevention and treatment of alcohol problems is well-known. For these reasons alone, families deserve a special focus in community action. In Lahti, however, the interest in family was based on the awareness of the widespread...
Chapter
Alcohol education is among the most widely used tools in the primary prevention of alcohol-related problems. It is assumed that providing people with information about alcohol and about the risks related with drinking will contribute to the formation of attitudes that are unfavourable toward drinking, which in turn will contribute to changes in dri...
Chapter
Availability of alcohol is one of the most important factors influencing drinking habits and, consequently, alcohol-related harms. In the world of international marketing and trade agreements, localities are losing what little influence they have had in where and at what price these beverages are sold. The experience of trying to create action on r...
Chapter
In any community, young people are the ones whose drinking arouses the most concern. Intervention in young people’s lives is considered legitimate as they are not thought to have the same sovereignty as adults. The society has a moral right to interfere in their lives. Being young they are also believed to be more receptive than older persons who a...
Book
This book is an action research study of a community at work. The community prevention project set the system in motion, revealing its character and internal dynamics. This process and its context are analyzed from a sociological point of view. It is shown that the type of community prevention that really works and creates sustainable changes, is n...
Article
The paper discusses an experimental community action programme aimed at the prevention of alcohol-related harm. The project site is the city of Lahti in Finland. It includes work in developing local alcohol policy discussion, education and information, health care intervention for heavy drinkers, youth work and self-help for heavy drinkers and thei...
Article
The harmful or risky use of alcohol among the Finnish population is studied on the basis of data gathered in a national survey. Harms are examined in relation to different styles of drinking, and they are measured using both the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 1992 Drinking Habits Study of the Finnish Foundation for Alcoho...
Article
This paper sets out to examine the experience of being a significant other by first discussing the existing notions and research traditions of the phenomenon. In the light of survey data it is shown that drinking problems are not only met within the circle of the nuclear family, or between the spouses. This approach presents an alternative perspect...
Article
The study attempts to understand how women experience heavy drinking, factors affecting their drinking and women's means of influencing their own behaviour. The data consist of two parts. First, a postal survey was conducted among the female population of the Helsinki region. Harmful drinking was measured using the AUDIT instrument. Secondly, 88 he...
Article
The paper reports the results of a comparative study conducted in Finland and in Estonia. A representative sample of young couples were interviewed in both countries. Husbands in both countries usually drink more often than their wives and are less dependent on their spouses' drinking company. Wives are more likely to attempt to control their spous...
Article
This article examines the role families have in regulating the individuals' drinking. The data consists of the interviews of 291 young couples in Helsinki. The spouses affect each others drinking through informal control and through social contagion. Controlling drinking within the family is still almost exclusively a wifely duty. In about half of...
Article
This article deals with the two-year way-of-life project arranged together with the Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions The underlying idea of the project was to seek ways in which the trade union movement might influence people's ways of life and to make it easier to discuss such matters in a trade union context The approach of the ev...

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