Mariusz Gałka

Mariusz Gałka
University of Lodz · Department of Biogeography Paleoecology and Nature Conservation

Professor Associate

About

213
Publications
62,999
Reads
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3,587
Citations
Introduction
I'm a palaeoecologist/palaeobotanist broadly interested in paleo reconstructions e.g. vegetation succession vs climate change and human activity; migration of plants, relicts, fire impact on the plant populations. I specialise in plant macrofossil analysis of organic deposits accumulated on peatlands (bogs, fens), lakes, rivers, lagoons etc. I cooperate with biologists, geographers, geologists. I'm involved in projects that are conducted in biogeographic zones from the high Arctic to the tropics. Presently I'm working mainly on bog ecosystems where I have possibility meet with lovely fossil Sphagnum species. If you need result of plant macrofossil analysis to know what is hidden in your deposits and is waiting for reveal, just write: gamarga@wp.pl or mariusz.galka@biol.uni.lodz.pl
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - present
University of Lodz
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2015 - February 2019
Adam Mickiewicz University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 2006 - July 2010
Adam Mickiewicz University
Position
  • researcher/lecturer

Publications

Publications (213)
Article
Mountain peatland ecosystems are unique islands of biodiversity, hosting endangered, vulnerable, and protected plants and animals. In addition, these ecosystems constitute important natural carbon stores. Their stratigraphy can be used to reconstruct the development of these ecosystems as well as the impact of various human activity over millennia....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Carbonate precipitating alkaline fens are highly valued for hosting many rare and protected calciphilous species with low nutrient demands, sedge-moss communities in particular, accompanied with characteristic molluscs assemblages. Factors controlling CaCO3 precipitation at alkaline fens are complex and include: changes in temperature; variations o...
Poster
Full-text available
Alkaline fens are valuable ecosystems inhabited by a number of endangered and legally protected species of plants and animals. Their existence depends on the active supply of soligenous waters rich in calcium ions. The time-varying environmental conditions, including changes in temperature and intensity of water outflow onto the surface of the fen,...
Article
Here, we present a palaeoecological study from the Valdai Hills to examine the Holocene dynamics of forest and lake ecosystems as apparent from the isolated Lake Chernoye, which developed on an island within the greater Lake Seliger middle of the East European Plain, Russia. Palaeobotanical (plant macrofossils and pollen), geochemical and quartz gr...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire is the most common disturbance type in boreal forests and can trigger significant changes in forest composition. Waterlogging in peatlands determines the degree of tree cover and the depth of the burnt horizon associated with wildfires. However, interactions between peatland moisture, vegetation composition and flammability, and fire regim...
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands are a significant landscape component in temperate mountain ranges and serve multiple functions. However, many peatlands were damaged, altered, or drained over the past centuries, and knowledge about their development is needed for their protection and sustainable management. In our study, we analysed two peat cores from a bog site locate...
Article
Despite the increasing interest in spring-fed fens’ sediments as a palaeoenvironmental archive, their potential as high-precision climatic records is rarely used to its full extent. Here, we present a detailed early to mid-Holocene record of environmental changes in the Turtul hanging spring-fed fen, northeastern Poland, to test whether the well pr...
Article
Long-term ecological studies can provide useful information on forest ecosystem resilience against past climatic change and human caused disturbances. Here, we present a high-resolution 2200-year-long record of forest development in north-eastern Poland, Suwalki region, using paleobotanical proxies (pollen, plant macrofossils, and charcoal). We sho...
Article
Full-text available
In the time of the global climate crisis, it is vital to protect and restore peatlands to maintain their functioning as carbon sinks. Otherwise, their transformations may trigger a shift to a carbon source state and further contribute to global warming. In this study, we focused on eutrophication, which resulted in its transition from rich fen to p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Torfowiska alkaliczne zasilane wodami gruntowymi o podwyższonej zawartości jonów Ca2+ to nie tylko cenny ekosystem zamieszkany przez szereg chronionych gatunków fauny i flory ale również sprawdzone archiwum wiedzy o przeszłych warunkach środowiskowych zapisanych w naprzemiennych warstwach torfu i martwicy wapiennej. Celem niniejszej pracy jest pozn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Torfowiska źródliskowe to unikalne ekosystemy zamieszkane przez szereg chronionych gatunków roślin i zwierząt, do funkcjonowania których niezbędna jest aktywna dostawa wód soligenicznych bogatych w jony wapnia. Zmienne warunki środowiska i wahania klimatyczne wpływają na zróżnicowanie intensywności wypływu wód w trakcie funkcjonowania torfowiska źr...
Article
Full-text available
Sedimentary charcoal records are widely used to reconstruct regional changes in fire regimes through time in the geological past. Existing global compilations are not geographically comprehensive and do not provide consistent metadata for all sites. Furthermore, the age models provided for these records are not harmonised and many are based on olde...
Article
Full-text available
We aim to identify conditions that influence the preservation of a complete record of channel planforms in the topmost layer of floodplains, prior to the maintenance in the rock record. We have tested a hypothesis that a successive decrease of stream power and channel belt width are necessary to preserve the record of channel planforms in the topmo...
Article
This study investigates authigenic metal (Zn, Cd, and Pb) sulfides formed in the upper (4-20 cm) layer of severely degraded soil close to ZnPb smelter in CE Europe (southern Poland). The soil layer is circumneutral (pH 6.0–6.8), organic, occasionally water-logged, and contains on average 26,400 mg kg⁻¹ Zn, 18,800 mg kg⁻¹ Pb, 1300 mg kg⁻¹ Cd, and 25...
Article
The Wietrzychowice Cultural Park protects one of the last preserved megalithic barrows constructed by the Funnel Beaker Culture societies at the Kuyavia Lakeland (Central Poland). The nearby archaeological site at Śmieły located on the shore of Karaśnia Lake provided numerous Mesolithic and Neolithic remains such as flint artefacts, potsherds, arro...
Article
Full-text available
We present results from a palaeoecological analysis conducted on deposits accumulated in an oxbow lake of the Prosna River (Poland), next to the Grodzisko fortified settlement. Palaeobotanical and geochemical analyses—supported by radiocarbon dating—were performed to (i) reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions of the oxbow lake and its surroundi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wildfire is the most common disturbance type in boreal forests and can trigger significant changes in forest composition. Waterlogging in peatlands determines the degree of tree cover and the depth of the burning horizon associated with wildfires. However, interactions between peatland moisture, vegetation composition and flammability, and fire reg...
Article
Peatlands are long-term sinks of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) that are exposed to anthropogenic pressure. This has often induced a vegetation shift from peat mosses towards increasing presence of vascular plants. However, the impact of this vegetation shift on the sink function of peatlands remains unclear. To address this research gap, we studied C...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sedimentary charcoal records are widely used to reconstruct regional changes in fire regimes through time in the geological past. Existing global compilations are not geographically comprehensive and do not provide consistent metadata for all sites. Furthermore, the age models provided for these records are not harmonised and many are based on olde...
Article
Mountain regions harbour high biodiversity; however, in numerous areas, they are strongly degraded by human activity. Our study reconstructs the development of the submontane forest belt (400 and 650 m a.s.l.) in the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains (Western Carpathians, Central Europe) affected by climate, humans, fire, and parasitic fungi during the Holo...
Article
Full-text available
The calcareous substrate of spring-fed fens makes them unique islands of biodiversity, hosting endangered, vulnerable, and protected vascular plants. Hence, spring-fed fens ecosystems require special conservation attention because many of them are destroyed (e.g. drained, forested) and it is extremely difficult or even impossible to restore the uni...
Article
Peatlands cover a small portion of the Earth's land surface but hold ~30% of soil carbon (C) globally. However, few studies have focused on the early stage of peatland development, which is a key stage in the initial C sink function of peatlands. An immature peatland is vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions, e.g., temperature and water...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the past environmental history inferred from a fen located in northwestern Poland, in a historically important location. Pollen, plant macrofossils, micro- and macrocharcoal particles, and non-pollen palynomorphs were analyzed continuously in a 1-cm resolution, supplemented with archeological data and historical written sources. The las...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-00991-1.
Article
Knowledge about the evolution of rivers planforms in loess landscapes of Europe is incomplete. While there are studies on river evolution conducted in loess areas of central and western Europe, the area of Transdanubia (Hungary) remains poorly recognized. Our research work extends previous findings by studying a unique example of alluvial fill main...
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost peatlands are found in high-latitude regions and store globally-important amounts of soil organic carbon. These regions are warming at over twice the global average rate, causing permafrost thaw, and exposing previously inert carbon to decomposition and emission to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. However, it is unclear how peatland h...
Article
Landslide mountain fens formed in landslide depressions are dynamic environments as their development is disturbed by a number of factors, for example, landslides, slopewash, and surface run-off. These processes lead to the accumulation of mineral material and wood in peat. Disturbed peatlands are interesting archives of past environmental changes,...
Article
A better understanding of past long-term environmental changes in the subarctic region is crucial for mitigation of the possible negative effects of climate warming in this vulnerable region. This study provides a new multi-proxy reconstruction of regional vegetation changes and peatland development for north-eastern Fennoscandia (Russia) during mo...
Article
Full-text available
The carbon balance of peatlands is predicted to shift from a sink to a source this century. However, peatland ecosystems are still omitted from the main Earth system models that are used for future climate change projections, and they are not considered in integrated assessment models that are used in impact and mitigation studies. By using evidenc...
Chapter
Full-text available
Settlement archaeology is often supported by geoarchaeology in which human habitation is drawn on the timeframe of landscape changes derived through interdisciplinary research. An example of a geoarchaeological approach to settlement study is the Bruszczewo Lake project conducted in Central-Western Poland. The area of Bruszczewo and the Samica Rive...
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands are remarkable for their specific biodiversity, crucial role in carbon cycling and climate change. Their deposits preserve organism remains that can be used to reconstruct long-term ecosystem and environmental changes as well as human impact in the prehistorical and historical past. This study presents a new multi-proxy reconstruction of...
Article
Full-text available
During European states’ development, various past societies utilized natural resources, but their impact was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed. Considerable changes resulted in landscape fragmentation, especially during the Middle Ages. Changes in state advances that affected the local economy significantly drove trajectories of ec...
Article
Peatlands cover a small portion of the Earth's land surface but hold 30–50% of soil carbon (C) globally. However, few studies have focused on the early stage of peatland development, which is a key stage in the initial C sink function of peatlands. An immature peatland is vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions, e.g., temperature and wate...
Article
Full-text available
The Eurasian (née European) Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) was established in 2013 to provide a public database of high-quality modern pollen surface samples to help support studies of past climate, land-cover and land-use using fossil pollen. The EMPD is part of, and complementary to, the European Pollen Database (EPD) which contains data on fossil...
Article
Wildfires in Siberia are documented to have increased in frequency and severity over recent decades. However, in the absence of long-term records, it is unclear how far and why this trend deviates from centennial to millennial scale variability. Here we reconstruct past patterns of fire frequency and fire type, and explore how the fire-related trai...
Article
Full-text available
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum—the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands—remains unclear. We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Wietrzychowice Cultural Park protects one of the last preserved megalithic barrows of the Funnel Beaker Culture people at the Kuyavia Lakeland (Central Poland). Archaeological excavations of the lake palaeolittoral zone were conducted on the nearby Karaśnia Lake shore. Numerous Mesolithic and Neolithic remains were excavated including: flint ar...
Article
Full-text available
Although several studies provide a broad overview of vegetation changes in the Carpathian Basin during the Holocene, stand-scale vegetation changes are lesser known because of the rarity of suitable sampling sites. In this study we investigated the sediment of a small closed-canopy site (Nagy-forrás forest hollow, 685 m a.s.l., 0.1 ha), located in...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Peatlands are globally important ecosystems but many are degraded and some are eroding. However, some degraded peatlands are undergoing apparently spontaneous recovery, with switches from erosion to renewed carbon accumulation – a type of ecological regime shift. We used a palaeoecological approach to investigate and help understand such a switch i...
Article
In this article, we examined the indicative value of a relationship between two non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), fungal HdV-10, related to the presence of Calluna vulgaris, and HdV-31A, which is testate amoeba – Archerella flavum. Both are frequently present on slides designated for pollen analysis, prepared from Sphagnum peat. We analysed three pro...
Article
In this paper, we present high-resolution, contiguous plant macrofossil records taken from two glacial cirque mountain wetland ecosystems located in the subalpine zone of the Eastern Carpathians. We provide 1) a detailed reconstruction of plant succession from mountain peatland ecosystems; 2) a possible scenario of Holocene paleohydrological change...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire occurrence is influenced by climate, vegetation and human activities. A key challenge for understanding fire-climate-vegetation interactions is to quantify the effect vegetation has in mediating fire regime. Here, we explore the relative importance of Holocene land cover and dominant functional forest type, and climate dynamics on biomass...
Article
Wildfire occurrence is influenced by climate, vegetation and human activities. A key challenge for understanding the risk of fires is quantifying the mediating effect of vegetation on fire regimes. Here, we explore the relative importance of Holocene land cover, land use, dominant functional forest type, and climate dynamics on biomass burning in t...
Article
Full-text available
Lowering of the water table and substantial drying are observed in peatlands worldwide. A significant drying of European peatlands in the last 200–300 years influenced the vegetation, lowered carbon storage potential in peatlands, and modified microbial diversity. Here, we reconstructed in high resolution hydrological changes, local and extra-local...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. The Eurasian (née European) Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) was established in 2013 to provide a public database of high-quality modern pollen surface samples to help support studies of past climate, land-cover and land-use using fossil pollen. The EMPD is part of, and complementary to, the European Pollen Database (EPD) which contains data...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we aim to decipher the effect of fire on the changes in the forest composition during the past ca. 10,700 years in the lower montane zone of the Polish Western Carpathians (Beskid Makowski Mountains, Central Europe). The results revealed that during the Early Holocene, the Ulmus population (a fire-intolerant taxon) was well-establi...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain ombrotrophic peatlands in Central Europe are an important stock of transboundary contamination both of natural and anthropogenic origin. The Snie _ zka Mountain (West Sudetes) forms a significant orographic barrier and receives aerosols from broadly-recognized anthropogenic sources (production and use of stainless steel, processing of uran...
Article
Full-text available
River deltas are complex aggradational systems preserving the history of their evolution in the depositional record. While coastal deltas are extensively studied, little is known about “false delta”, multi-channel systems situated at a certain distance from the sea. The term “false delta” is used here in reference to a system of bifurcating alluvia...
Article
Full-text available
Despite many models describing the evolution of meandering rivers, little is known about low-energy rivers formed in loess landscapes. This is the first study that focuses on a spatial and temporal evolution of meandering river planforms in Transdanubia (south Hungary). Field research was conducted in the Kapos and Koppány valleys. Geological and g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the first geomorphological study on the evolution of inland "false deltas" in postglacial areas of central Europe. Term "false delta" is used here to describe low-gradient multi-channel systems that evolved owing to the interplay of sea level changes, and variations in discharge and sediment delivery. The outcome was a multitude of chann...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Low-energy meanders replaced a braided river system in the Koppány valley at least 14000 cal. BP. The meandering system was characterized by elongated, compound bends with widened channel cross-sections near apexes. Silts constituting the river bed, oblique accretion within the inner banks, cutoffs formation between 14000 and 11300 cal. BP, and flo...
Article
Full-text available
The climate of Siberia is primarily influenced by the Siberian High (SH), although other large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, in particular North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) storm tracks, play an important role. How variability in the relative strength and trajectory of these climatic systems has affected local to regional palaeoclimatic con...