Marion Pepper

Marion Pepper
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Department of Immunology

PhD

About

78
Publications
9,336
Reads
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5,141
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2006 - August 2011
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
January 2002 - February 2006
University of Pennsylvania
Field of study
  • Immunology
September 1991 - June 1995
Williams College
Field of study
  • Biology and English

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Listeria monocytogenes infection generates T helper 1 (Th1) effector memory cells and CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)(+) cells resembling central memory cells. We tracked endogenous L. monocytogenes-specific CD4(+) T cells to determine how these memory cells are formed. Two effector cell populations were already present several days after infection....
Article
Full-text available
Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is the cause of a variety of clinical conditions, ranging from pharyngitis to autoimmune disease. Peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII) tetramers have recently emerged as a highly sensitive means to quantify pMHCII-specific CD4+ helper T cells and evaluate their contribution t...
Article
Full-text available
Lineage-committed effector CD4(+) T cells are generated at the peak of the primary response and are followed by heterogeneous populations of central and effector memory cells. Here we review the evidence that T helper type 1 (T(H)1) effector cells survive the contraction phase of the primary response and become effector memory cells. We discuss the...
Article
Humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 can be supplemented with polyclonal sera from convalescent donors or an engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) product. While pentameric IgM antibodies are responsible for much of convalescent sera's neutralizing capacity, all available mAbs are based on the monomeric IgG antibody subtype. We now show that IgM mAbs deri...
Article
Immune memory is tailored by cues that lymphocytes perceive during priming. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic created a situation in which nascent memory could be tracked through additional antigen exposures. Both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination induce multifaceted, functional immune memory, but together...
Preprint
Full-text available
Immune memory is tailored by cues that lymphocytes perceive during priming. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic created a situation in which nascent memory could be tracked through additional antigen exposures. Both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination induce multifaceted, functional immune memory, but together...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory viral infections present a major threat to global health and prosperity. Over the past century, several have developed into crippling pandemics, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Although the generation of neutralizing serum antibodies in response to natural immunity and vaccination are considered to be hallmarks of viral immune protectio...
Article
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Multimeric immunoglobulin-like molecules arose early in vertebrate evolution, yet the unique contributions of multimeric IgM antibodies to infection control are not well understood. This is partially due to the difficulty of distinguishing low-affinity IgM, secreted rapidly by plasmablasts, from high-affinity antibodies derived from later-arising m...
Article
Background To determine how serologic antibody testing outcome links with virus neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, we evaluated a unique set of individuals for SARS-CoV-2 antibody level and viral neutralization. Methods We compared serum Ig levels across platforms of viral antigens and antibodies with 15 positive and 30 negative SARS-CoV-2 controls fol...
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is causing a global pandemic, and cases continue to rise. Most infected individuals experience mildly symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is unknown whether this can induce persistent immune memory that could contribute to immunity. We performed a longitudina...
Article
Influenza vaccination induces a protective memory immune response. The finding that human naive and memory B cells enter vaccine-induced germinal-centre structures suggests that both cell types aid this memory response. Analysis reveals the type of B cell found in human germinal centres.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background To determine how serologic antibody testing outcome links with virus neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 to ascertain immune protection status, we evaluated a unique set of individuals for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection and viral neutralization. Methods Herein, we compare several analytic platforms with 15 positive and 30 negative SARS-CoV-2 in...
Preprint
The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently causing a global pandemic and cases continue to rise. The majority of infected individuals experience mildly symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is unknown whether this can induce persistent immune memory that might contribute to herd immunity. Thus, we performed a longitudinal...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently causing a global pandemic and cases continue to rise. The majority of infected individuals experience mildly symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is unknown whether this can induce persistent immune memory that might contribute to herd immunity. Thus, we performed a longitudinal...
Article
Early plasmablasts responding to Plasmodium infection may outcompete germinal center B cells for l-glutamine and delay pathogen control.
Article
Full-text available
Antibodies play a critical protective role in the host response to blood-stage malaria infection. The role of cytokines in shaping the antibody response to blood-stage malaria is unclear. Interferon lambda (IFNλ), a type III interferon, is a cytokine produced early during blood-stage malaria infection that has an unknown physiological role during m...
Article
The discovery of CD4+ T cell subset–defining master transcription factors and framing of the Th1/Th2 paradigm ignited the CD4+ T cell field. Advances in in vivo experimental systems, however, have revealed that more complex lineage-defining transcriptional networks direct CD4+ T cell differentiation in the lymphoid organs and tissues. This review f...
Article
Despite being a staple of our science, the process of pre-publication peer review has few agreed-upon standards defining its goals or ideal execution. As a community of reviewers and authors, we assembled an evaluation format and associated specific standards for the process as we think it should be practiced. We propose that we apply, debate, and...
Article
Full-text available
CD4 ⁺ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells dominate the acute response to a blood-stage Plasmodium infection and provide signals to direct B cell differentiation and protective antibody expression. We studied antigen-specific CD4 ⁺ Tfh cells responding to Plasmodium infection in order to understand the generation and maintenance of the Tfh response. We...
Article
Targeting Ags to the CD180 receptor activates both B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to become potent APCs. After inoculating mice with Ag conjugated to an anti-CD180 Ab, B cell receptors were rapidly internalized. Remarkably, all B cell subsets, including even transitional 1 B cells, were programed to process, present Ag, and stimulate Ag-specific...
Article
Full-text available
The generation of high-affinity neutralizing antibodies, the objective of most vaccine strategies, occurs in B cells within germinal centers (GCs) and requires rate-limiting “help” from follicular helper CD4+ T (Tfh) cells. Although Tfh differentiation is an attribute of MHC II-restricted CD4+ T cells, the transcription factors driving Tfh differen...
Article
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FCRL5⁺ atypical memory B cells (atMBCs) expand in many chronic human infections, including recurrent malaria, but studies have drawn opposing conclusions about their function. Here, in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi, we demonstrate expansion of an antigen-specific FCRL5⁺ population that is distinct from previously described FCRL5⁺ innate- l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humoral immunity depends upon the development of long-lived, antibody-secreting plasma cells and rapidly responsive memory B cells (MBCs). The differentiation of high affinity, class-switched MBCs after immunization is critically dependent upon BCL6 expression in germinal center (GC) B cells and CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. It is less well...
Article
Full-text available
Memory CD4+ T cells mediate long-term immunity, and their generation is a key objective of vaccination strategies. However, the transcriptional circuitry controlling the emergence of memory cells from early CD4+ antigen-responders remains poorly understood. Here, using single-cell RNA-seq to study the transcriptome of virus-specific CD4+ T cells, w...
Article
Full-text available
Cytopenias are an important clinical problem associated with inflammatory disease and infection. We show that specialized phagocytes that internalize red blood cells develop in Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)–driven inflammation. TLR7 signaling caused the development of inflammatory hemophagocytes (iHPCs), which resemble splenic red pulp macrophages bu...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a de novo computational approach for designing proteins that recapitulate the binding sites of natural cytokines, but are otherwise unrelated in topology or amino acid sequence. We use this strategy to design mimics of the central immune cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) that bind to the IL-2 receptor βγc heterodimer (IL-2Rβγc) but have no...
Chapter
The identification and analysis of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells is critical for understanding how these cells contribute to atopic disease and how to subvert their behavior through immune therapy. The advent of fluorescently labeled soluble tetramers of peptide:MHCII complexes (pMHCII tetramers) has provided investigators with an invaluable means...
Article
Humoral immune responses are crucial for protection against invading pathogens and are the underlying mechanism of protection for most successful vaccines. Our understanding of how humoral immunity develops is largely based on animal models utilizing experimental immunization systems. While these studies have made enormous progress for the field an...
Article
Activated B cells mature in germinal centers (GCs), but GC initiation during infection is poorly understood. Gaya et al. (2018) show that NKT cells, activated by CD169+macrophages, produce an early wave of interleukin-4 (IL-4) that promotes GC formation during viral infection.
Article
Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous repo...
Article
B cells that persist for long periods of time after antigen encounter exist as either antibody-producing plasma cells (long-lived plasma cells, LLPCs) that reside primarily in the bone marrow or rapidly responsive memory B cells (MBCs) that reside in the spleen and circulation. Although LLPCs are thought to be non-responsive to a secondary infectio...
Article
Type 2 immune responses have evolved to sense and respond to large, non-replicating infections or non-microbial noxious compounds in tissues. The development of these responses therefore depends upon highly coordinated and tightly regulated tissue-residing cellular sensors and responders. Multiple exposure to type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-inducing sti...
Article
CD4+ tissue resident cells are an important first line of defense against viral infections in the lungs and are critical for promoting the localization of lung resident CD8+ T cells. However, relatively little is known about the signaling programs required for the development of viral-specific CD4+ tissue resident cells in the lungs. Recently, it w...
Article
Full-text available
Many current malaria vaccines target the pre-erythrocytic stage of infection in the liver. However, in malaria-endemic regions, increased blood stage exposure is associated with decreased vaccine efficacy, thereby challenging current vaccine efforts. We hypothesized that pre-erythrocytic humoral immunity is directly disrupted by blood stage infecti...
Article
Full-text available
Humoral immunity consists of pre-existing antibodies expressed by long-lived plasma cells and rapidly reactive memory B cells (MBC). Recent studies of MBC development and function after protein immunization have uncovered significant MBC heterogeneity. To clarify functional roles for distinct MBC subsets during malaria infection, we generated tetra...
Article
Full-text available
Antigen receptor diversity underpins adaptive immunity by providing the ground for clonal selection of lymphocytes with the appropriate antigen reactivity. Current models attribute T cell clonal selection during the immune response to T-cell receptor (TCR) affinity for either foreign or self peptides. Here, we report that clonal selection of CD4+ T...
Data
Supplementary Figures 1-5 and Supplementary Table 1
Article
Exposure to inhaled allergens generates T helper 2 (Th2) CD4(+) T cells that contribute to episodes of inflammation associated with asthma. Little is known about allergen-specific Th2 memory cells and their contribution to airway inflammation. We generated reagents to understand how endogenous CD4(+) T cells specific for a house dust mite (HDM) all...
Article
Full-text available
The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex contains 10 copies of a di-tyrosine Immunoreceptor-Tyrosine-based-Activation-Motif (ITAM) that initiates TCR signalling by recruiting protein tyrosine kinases. ITAM multiplicity amplifies TCR signals, but the importance of this capability for T-cell responses remains undefined. Most TCR ITAMs (6 of 10) are...
Article
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates immune cell homeostasis and has been used to treat a range of disorders including cancer and autoimmune disease. IL-2 signals via interleukin-2 receptor-β (IL-2Rβ):IL-2Rγ heterodimers on cells expressing high (regulatory T cells, Treg) or low (effector cells) amounts of IL-2Rα (CD25). Wh...
Article
Full-text available
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential in the induction of high-affinity, class-switched antibodies. The differentiation of Tfh cells is a multi-step process that depends upon the co-receptor ICOS and the activation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase leading to the expression of key Tfh cell genes. We report that ICOS signaling inactivates the tra...
Article
Full-text available
β-Catenin signaling has recently been tied to the emergence of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). In this article, we demonstrate a novel role for β-catenin in directing DC subset development through IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) activation. We found that splenic DC precursors express β-catenin, and DCs from mice with CD11c-specific constitutive β...
Article
Full-text available
Antibodies are capable of blocking infection of the liver by Plasmodium sporozoites. Accordingly the induction of anti-sporozoite antibodies is a major aim of various vaccine approaches to malaria. In recent years our knowledge of the specificity and quantities of antibodies required for protection has been greatly expanded by clinical trials of va...
Article
Vaccines are desired that maintain abundant memory T cells at nonlymphoid sites of microbial exposure, where they may be anatomically positioned for immediate pathogen interception. Here, we test the impact of antigen persistence on mouse CD8 and CD4 T cell distribution and differentiation by comparing responses to infections with different strains...
Article
CD8(+) memory T cells are critical for immunity against intracellular pathogens. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that bystander infection can impact immune responses to co-infection or vaccination. A recent paper in Immunity demonstrates that persistent bystander inflammation can negatively impact CD8(+) T cell effector to memory transition a...
Article
The mechanisms whereby different vaccines may expand distinct Ag-specific T cell clonotypes or induce disparate degrees of protection are incompletely understood. We found that several delivery modes of a model retroviral Ag, including natural infection, preferentially expanded initially rare high-avidity CD4(+) T cell clonotypes, known to mediate...
Article
Full-text available
Immune responses can make protein therapeutics ineffective or even dangerous. We describe a general computational protein design method for reducing immunogenicity by eliminating known and predicted T-cell epitopes and maximizing the content of human peptide sequences without disrupting protein structure and function. We show that the method recapi...
Article
Full-text available
Regulatory T (T reg) cells play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity but can also impair clearance of foreign pathogens. Paradoxically, signals known to promote T reg cell function are abundant during infection and could inappropriately enhance T reg cell activity. How T reg cell function is restrained during infection to allow the generati...
Article
Full-text available
During infection with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the presentation of parasite-derived antigens to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is essential for long-term resistance to this pathogen. Fundamental questions remain regarding the roles of phagocytosis and active invasion in the events that lead to the processing and presentation of parasite...
Article
Primary Leishmania major infection typically produces cutaneous lesions that heal but also harbor persistent parasites. While the opposing roles of CD4(+) T-cell-derived IFN-γ and IL-10 in promoting parasite killing and persistence have been well established, how these responses develop from naïve precursors has not been directly monitored througho...
Article
Full-text available
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract contains a large and diverse population of commensal bacteria and is also one of the primary sites of exposure to pathogens. How the immune system perceives commensals in the context of mucosal infection is unclear. Here, we show that during a gastrointestinal infection, tolerance to commensals is lost, and micr...
Article
CD28 is required for maximal proliferation of CD4(+) T cells stimulated through their TCRs. Two sites within the cytoplasmic tail of CD28, a YMNM sequence that recruits PI3K and activates NF-κB and a PYAP sequence that recruits Lck, are candidates as transducers of the signals responsible for these biological effects. We tested this proposition by...
Data
Primary intranasal GAS infection induces a Th17 response in both 2W:I-Ab+ and 2W:I-Ab- CD4+ T cell populations. B6 Mice were inoculated once intranasally with 2×108 CFU of GAS-2W. 10 days after the infection mice were restimulated in vivo with IV injection of heat killed GAS-2W. 2W:I-Ab+ CD4+ T cells from spleen were enriched on magnetized columns....
Article
Full-text available
Naive CD4(+) T cell populations that express TCRs specific for different foreign peptide-MHC class II complex (pMHCII) ligands can vary in size over several orders of magnitude. This variation may explain why immune responses to some peptides are stronger than others. In this study, we used a sensitive pMHCII-tetramer-based cell enrichment method t...
Article
Full-text available
The Toxoplasma gondii population consists of multiple strains, defined by genotype and virulence. Previous studies have established that protective immunity to this organism is mediated by IL-12, which drives T cells to produce IFN-gamma. Paradoxically, although type I and type II strains of T. gondii both induce IL-12 and IFN-gamma in the mouse, t...
Article
Full-text available
We used a sensitive method based on tetramers of peptide and major histocompatibility complex II (pMHCII) to determine whether CD4(+) memory T cells resemble the T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper (T(H)17) subsets described in vitro. Intravenous or intranasal infection with Listeria monocytogenes induced pMHCII-sp...
Article
Full-text available
T cell receptors (TCRs) on T lymphocytes in an individual bind foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules expressed in that individual (designated MHC(A)). Results from radiation bone marrow chimeras and TCR transgenic mice indicate that this complex form of antigen recognition is the result of positive selection of...