Mario Pino

Mario Pino
Universidad Austral de Chile and FEPPO Foundation · Ciencias de la Tierra & TAQUACH

Dr. rer. nat.

About

177
Publications
67,782
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Introduction
I'm working as geoarchaeologist (I'm a Quaternary geologist) in early sites in the Chilean Northpatagonia and Piaui Brazil
Additional affiliations
July 1977 - present
Universidad Austral de Chile
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • also preparing my retirement and looking for new jobs
July 1977 - March 2016
Universidad Austral de Chile
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
March 1984 - July 1987
University of Münster
Field of study
  • Geowissenchaft
March 1970 - December 1975
University of Chile
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for reconstructing the past. However, environmental factors not previously considered can lead to misinterpretations. Our study presents a novel analysis of the feeding behavior of the megafauna that inhabited the Pilauco ecosystem in south-central Chile during the last glacial termination. We analyzed a suite of...
Article
Full-text available
New findings of fossil remains of one of the Pilauco dung beetles, Onthophagus pilauco Tello, Verdú, Rossini and Zunino, 2021 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), extinct at the base of the Younger Dryas chronozone at the end of the Pleistocene (~12,800 years before the present) in northern Patagonia, Chile, are described and illustrated. Recent analyses of...
Poster
Full-text available
El sitio Pilauco, en la Patagonia Noroccidental chilena, presenta evidencias de ocupación humana en Sudamérica ca. 16500 cal yr BP. En 2019, el primer artefacto de basalto (12B-P120-220319) fue registrado en un nivel datado en 17300 cal yr BP. Se trata de una pieza excepcional manufacturada sobre un hemiguijarro, hallada en asociación estratigráfic...
Article
The Pilauco site, in northwestern Chilean Patagonia, presents evidence of human occupation in South America ca. 16,500 cal yr BP. This article presents the techno-functional analysis of a unifacial artifact belonging to a 17,300 cal yr BP level, found in association with five other lithic pieces. Artifacts of this type have long been considered exp...
Experiment Findings
Two hundred obsidian clasts obtained from Laguna Blanca, Atacama Desert (Seelenfreund et al. 2010) were selected; 100 rounded clasts without fractures and 100 rounded clasts that were intentionally fractured. These were divided equally into groups of 50 clasts, for experimental transport using two motorized devices (modified concrete mixer and a bi...
Article
Full-text available
Current archaeological paradigm proposes that the first peopling of the Americas does not exceed the Last Glacial Maximum period. In this context, the acceptance of the anthropogenic character of the earliest stone artefacts generally rests on the presence of projectile points considered no more as typocentric but as typognomonic, since it allows,...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of a sudden rainfall (40 mm d-1) event on the surface waters covering muddy tidal flats were studied during April 2016 at the estuarine Cruces River wetland in south-central Chile (~40ºS). The study area included flooded vestigial tree trunks, which is evidence of coseismic subsidence associated with the 1960 Valdivia earthquake as a so...
Article
Full-text available
At Chaihuín marsh, south of Valdivia (39°56’ S/73°33’ W), a sand bed was deposited during the 1960 earthquake. The aim of this study is to map the 1960 tsunami deposit in detail and to associate earlier sand layers with past tsunamis. Geologic field mapping by means of stratigraphic sections constructed using 111 cores in the marsh revealed the exi...
Article
Full-text available
The recently reported discovery of cultural evidence at Chiquihuite Cave (Zacatecas, Mexico), produced by humans of at least 26,500 calendar years ago, is a major advance in research into early human occupations in the Americas. Thirteen of the 239 lithic artifacts recovered from the SC-C stratigraphic component, dated during and before the Last Gl...
Article
This comment is a brief response to the opinion statement made by Politis and Prates in this issue of PaleoAmerica. Some of their errors and misunderstandings are corrected. We maintain that the psephites from Monte Verde-I and Chinchihuapi-I are allochthonous and cultural in origin.
Article
In a review of the early archaeology of South America, Politis and Prates challenge certain data presented for some early sites. In the process, they misrepresent information presented by original investigators, including us for the Monte Verde and Chinchihuapi sites in Chile. We respond to their critique and correct several errors made by these au...
Article
Full-text available
The sedimentary intertidal surfaces (tidal flats from here on) in coastal wetlands are globally recognized by their biological diversity and available ecosystem services. In Chile, these environments are mainly distributed between 30 and 41°S and associated with micro-tidal estuaries. The estuarine Cruces River Wetland (CRW) was formed by tectonic...
Article
In 1960 CE, Lake Cucao on Chiloé Island in south central Chile was inundated by the tsunami of the Great Chilean Earthquake (Mw 9.5). The area of what is now the lake basin has been submerged since the end of the rapid postglacial sea-level rise and has recorded tsunami inundations in its sediment record since then. This study reconstructs the tsun...
Preprint
In CE 1960, Lake Cucao on Chiloé Island in south central Chile, was inundated by the tsunami of the Great Chilean Earthquake (Mw 9.5). The area of what is now the lake basin is submerged since the end of the rapid postglacial sea level rise and may have recorded tsunami inundations in its sedimentary record since then. Sub-bottom profiles and side...
Chapter
The Pilauco site is located in north-western Chilean Patagonia, Region de Los Lagos (40°34′12″S, 73°06′12″W). The stratigraphy of the site comprises of two distinct Pleistocene units. The lower unit corresponds to the sequence San Pablo of MIS5e age and consists of clastic and volcanoclastic sediments (PB-1 to PB-5). The upper unit includes the str...
Chapter
The study of coprophilous fungal spores associated with herbivorous faeces has been used to determine, among others, the presence, abundance and decrease of the megafauna populations on land at the end of the Pleistocene. Sporormiella sp. is the most abundant spore species in pollen samples, and it is exclusively restricted to faeces from domestic...
Chapter
Investigations of the first South American settlements have revealed great environmental diversity, to which the first humans adapted as they colonized the continent. In this chapter we focus mainly on the description and interpretation of a set of expeditive lithics, from the sites Pilauco and Los Notros, knapped in local and exotic rocks ascribed...
Chapter
The findings published on this book span eleven years of active field research investigations at the Pilauco site and the first results of the neighboring site Los Notros. However, most of the archaeological and paleontological findings presented in this volume have been obtained from Pilauco, because the site Los Notros is yet at an early stage of...
Chapter
The Pilauco Site, located at 159 Río Cachapoal Street, Villa Los Notros, Osorno, was discovered by chance in 1986. We began the research of Pilauco in November 2007. This chapter describes the main human and scientific events that have allowed the development of the geological, paleontological, archeological, and astrophysical research.
Chapter
The site Los Notros, located just 60 m west of the site Pilauco in Osorno (Chile), was discovered in 2008, with excavations beginning in April 2016. The geology of Los Notros is similar to that of the Pilauco site where strata LN-1 and LN-2 are equivalent to layers PB-7 and PB-8 from Pilauco. However, Los Notros includes an additional stratum (LN-3...
Chapter
The artifacts and features recovered during survey and excavations at parlamento site are described. It was discovered that few Spanish artifacts are present at parlamento sites south of the formal frontier at the Bio Bio River, and more are present in sites north of the river, which is to be expected since the Spanish controlled areas to the north...
Article
We present the first record of the family Histeridae in late Pleistocene deposits in Chilean Northwestern Patagonia, based on fossil of a single elytron, registered at the Pilauco archaeo-paleontological site in Los Lagos Chilean region. We describe the fossil remain and discuss the paleoecology of the fossil related to the climate, fauna, and earl...
Article
Full-text available
The extant elephants are only a small fraction of the diverse order of proboscideans that once roamed the planet, whereas the extinct gomphotheres represent the largest and most diverse of these enigmatic groups that survived into the Quaternary. However, their relationship to the living elephantids and the other extinct elephantiformes, such as th...
Book
This volume combines 10 years of accomplished research at the Pilauco site. The studies are focused on a variety of scientific areas including geological, sedimentological, geomorphological and paleobotanical topics, as well as paleontology of vertebrata and invertebrata, micropaleontology, archaeology, biochemistry, taxonomy, taphonomy, astrophysi...
Article
Full-text available
The present study describes the discovery of a singular sedimentary structure corresponding to an ichnite that was excavated at the paleo-archaeological site Pilauco (Osorno, Chile). The trace fossil is associated with megafauna bones, plant material and unifacial lithic tools. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Pilauco ichnite and associat...
Data
Supporting information on the associated materia (lithics and fossils), taxonomic comparisons and additional experimental data. (DOCX)
Data
Artifact. 14AA-P33-180213 made on aphanitic basalt. Flake with active distal and lateral links. (TIF)
Data
Unconformity between coarse gravel (PB6) and sandy peat (base of PB7), grid AC10, the red arrow indicates the north. The stratigraphic context is the same in the grid AD14. (TIFF)
Data
Artifact 14AD-P173B-220111 made on aphanitic basalt. Primary flake with a distal point. (TIF)
Data
Artifact 15AD-P126-2501 made on aphanitic basalt by tertiary reduction, with distal and lateral retouching. Probably a scraper. (TIF)
Data
Artifact 17AA-P056-050213, made on dacitic glass. Primary flake with active distal and right lateral. Scraper. (TIF)
Data
Artifact 17AA-P81-120115, made on aphanitic basalt by tertiary reduction, with retouching. Scraper. (TIF)
Data
Image analysis of the anterior haft of the fossil ichnite. Keys were placed to facilitate the identification of features and their respective locations. A) X-Ray image showing the absence of clast (C) imbedded into the sediment lump (SL). Clasts are observed elsewhere under the ichnite (depth is not known), as well as 4 screws (s) used to build the...
Data
Flake 15AC-P185-27111 made on dacitic glass, bifacial knapping. (TIF)
Data
Spatial distribution of the human footprint (ichnite), lithic material and gomphotere bones in grids 14AD, 14AC, 15AD and 15AC, in the northwestern side of Pilauco site. Numbers refers to the lithics presented in S1 Table. (TIF)
Data
Schematic view of the experimental setting. Trackmakers walked on the rehidrated fossilbed sediment. (TIF)
Data
Schematic representation of the sediment textural composition. Notice that trackbed samples have a slightly higher mud and gravel content than the rest. Infilling sediment has a lower gravel content. (TIF)
Data
Petrographic and spatial position of artifacts, flakes and debitage in grids 14AC, 14AD, 15AD and 15AC in the northwestern side of Pilauco site. Numbers referred at S2 Fig. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents new excavation data on the Chinchihuapi I (CH-I) locality within the Monte Verde site complex, located along Chinchihuapi Creek in the cool, temperate Valdivian rain forest of south-central Chile. The 2017 and 2018 archaeological excavations carried out in this open-air locality reveal further that CH-I is an intermittently occu...
Article
Full-text available
The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis posits that fragments of a large, disintegrating asteroid/comet struck North America, South America, Europe, and western Asia ~12,800 years ago. Multiple airbursts/impacts produced the YD boundary layer (YDB), depositing peak concentrations of platinum, high-temperature spherules, meltglass, and nanodiamonds...
Article
Subaqueous landslides are common features at active and passive ocean margins, in fjords and lakes. They can develop on very gentle slope gradients (<2°) and the presence of sandy tephra layers seems to facilitate the development of translational failure. Despite numerous investigations, it remains elusive how different slope preconditioning factor...
Article
In this study we used a multidisciplinary approach, coupling morphological, geological, geochemical, and statistical analyses to investigate the provenance of rhyodacitic and dacitic glass knapped at the Pilauco site (40°34′11” S, 73°06′17” W; 13,570 ± 70–12,540 ± 90 14C year BP) in northwestern Chilean Patagonia. A morphotechnological analysis was...
Article
The Ñadi soils (ÑS) is a local name for soils occurring at southern Chile (38° to 43° S) covering around 4250 km2 hectares. Derived from volcanic materials, have discontinuous iron-cemented layers (the placic horizon) which favour waterlogging during the winter. The studies of iron-cemented layers are predominant in USA and Taiwan, but we provide a...
Article
Full-text available
Proboscideans are so-called ecosystem engineers and are considered key players in hypotheses about Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. However, knowledge about the autoecology and chronology of the proboscideans in South America is still open to debate and raises controversial views. Here, we used a range of multiproxy approaches and new radio...
Article
Full-text available
The forestry industry is known for negatively affecting stream quality when proper management is not applied. Nutrient retention by soils and streamside vegetation buffer strips could attenuate these impacts. We tested the response of different streams to the nutrients and sediments released by a) fertilization and b) clear-cutting of Eucalyptus gl...
Article
Full-text available
Late Pleistocene deposits around Valdivia, locally known as Cancagua, have been subject of contrasting interpretations, from glacial to interglacial sediments. Opposing views emerge from focusing on upstream or coastal sedimentary controls, within a zone were these potentially overlap through a full glacial cycle. Here we present the first detailed...
Article
Historical and paleoseismic records in south-central Chile indicate that giant earthquakes on the subduction megathrust – such as in AD1960 (Mw9.5) – reoccur on average every ∼300yr. Based on geodetic calculations of the interseismic moment accumulation since AD1960, it was postulated that the area already has the potential for a Mw8earthquake. How...
Article
Stable isotope analyses have been performed on the bioapatite (δ¹³C; δ¹⁸O) and collagen (δ¹³C; δ¹⁵N) of four late Pleistocene South American megafaunal taxa (Notiomastodon platensis, Equus andium, cf. Hemiauchenia paradoxa and Xenarthra indet.) to evaluate paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions as well as paleoecological features of this t...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the reconstructing the Holocene paleoenvironmental history of the Chicama valley and coastal system, which has provided diverse natural resources for the Preceramic cultures at Huaca Prieta and Paredones (fig. 5.1). Here we present the results of a geological investigation of sediment cores, outcrops, and surface morphology...
Article
A new assemblage of fossil beetles of Upper Pleistocene age, dated between 15,754 and 14,697 cal yr BP, is described and interpreted based on cluster analysis. In this study, we present an analysis on the taxonomic composition, and the paleoenvironmental implication of the fossil beetle assemblage in the archaeo- paleontological site of Pilauco in...
Article
Full-text available
Simple pebble tools, ephemeral cultural features, and the remains of maritime and terrestrial foods are present in undisturbed Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits underneath a large human-made mound at Huaca Prieta and nearby sites on the Pacific coast of northern Peru. Radiocarbon ages indicate an intermittent human presence dated between...
Article
We present an exceptionally long and continuous coastal lacustrine record of ∼5500 years from Lake Huelde on the west coast of Chiloé Island in south central Chile. The study area is located within the rupture zone of the giant 1960 CE Great Chilean Earthquake (MW 9.5). The subsequent earthquake-induced tsunami inundated Lake Huelde and deposited m...
Article
Full-text available
Sítio do Meio, discovered in the 1990s, showed a sedimentary sequence clearly composed of two sets of deposits separated by a zone of large rockfall from the massive collapse of the shelter’s overhang. The bottom set, slightly more than 60 cm thick, was trapped between the bedrock (upon which it rested) and the lower part of the roof fall (reaching...
Article
Even though Patagonia is ideally located to study climate of the southern mid-latitudes, many questions on the late Quaternary climate evolution remain unresolved. The timing of maximum glacier extent is still uncertain in vast areas, and the postglacial evolution of the Southern Westerly Wind Belt (SWWB) remains highly debated. Here, we study the...
Article
Full-text available
The images for Figs Figs77 and and88 have been incorrectly swapped. Please view the correct Figs Figs77 and and88 here. Fig 7 Serpentine pebble tool from Unit 17, MV-I, showing bifacially knapped and retouched edge. Serpentine is a raw material available in the coastal cordillera west of Monte Verde. Fig 8 Basalt wedge showing seven facets on o...
Article
Full-text available
Questions surrounding the chronology, place, and character of the initial human colonization of the Americas are a long-standing focus of debate. Interdisciplinary debate continues over the timing of entry, the rapidity and direction of dispersion, the variety of human responses to diverse habitats, the criteria for evaluating the validity of early...
Conference Paper
The region of the Siete Lagos and Lago Villarrica differs from the other lakes in the Region de Los Lagos, since it is squeezed in between the Cordillera de Los Andes and the horst and graben structures of the locally easterly expanded Cordillera de La Costa. The absence of the large plains of the central valley prevented the glacier lobes from fre...
Article
Full-text available
Lands in south-central Chile, long thought to have been marginal until the Spanish conquest, are here shown to have been developing complex societies between at least AD 1000 and 1500. Part of the motor was provided by coastland cultivation on raised platforms, here identified and surveyed for the first time. The authors date the field systems and...
Article
Turbidite records along ocean margins and in lake basins are increasingly used as paleoseismic proxies. However, the slope remobilization processes that formed the earthquake-related turbidity currents are poorly understood and, therefore, it is difficult to assess the consistency of turbidite paleoseismic records. We analyzed the sedimentary impri...
Article
Full-text available
The southern pudu (Pudu puda) is one of the smallest living deer of the world. It inhabits the temperate rainforest of Chile and Argentina, where it is considered vulnerable due to decreasing populations. To improve the existing information concerning its feeding ecology, we performed morphometric measurements on skulls and jaws (n = 22), and obser...
Data
Full-text available