Mario E Giardini

Mario E Giardini
University of Strathclyde · Department of Biomedical Engineering

PhD

About

56
Publications
13,726
Reads
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602
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
387 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Introduction
I design biomedical instruments on the frontier between optics, electronics, and medicine. I work on portable and field clinical equipment, medical equipment for challenging environments, sensing for robotic surgery and digital healthcare. I pursue my activity on a global scale, to empower citizens to manage and improve health, live better lives, and to provide a pathway to healthcare equality and sustainability.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
University of Strathclyde
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 1991 - August 1994
University of Pavia
Field of study
  • Electronic engineering and computer science
September 1985 - August 1991
University of Pavia
Field of study
  • Electronic engineering

Publications

Publications (56)
Conference Paper
This paper presents preliminary work on a method to increase the number of detection channels of a commercial 6-channel spectrometric sensor, by employing a set of multiplexed spectrally colored illumination sources. A demonstrator has been built and tested on a set of independent dyes. The results suggest successful enhancement of the number of de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Screening programs for sight-threatening diseases rely on the grading of a large number of digital retinal images. As automatic image grading technology evolves, there emerges a need to provide a rigorous definition of image quality with reference to the grading task. In this work, on two subsets of the CORD database of clinically grad able and mat...
Article
Clinical relevance Following the COVID-19 lockdown, uptake of slitlamp-enabled live teleophthalmology increased. Its use contributed to a reduction of referrals escalated to secondary care during-lockdown (avoided: 64% pre-lockdown vs 86% during-lockdown). Background Live teleophthalmology using video conferencing allows real-time, three-way consu...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Acuity tests for infants and young children use preferential looking methods that require a perceptual match of brightness and color between grey background and target spatial average. As a first step in exploring this matching, this article measures photometric and colorimetric matches in these acuity tests. Methods: The luminance, uni...
Chapter
Driven by the global increase in the size and median age of the world population, sight loss is becoming a major public health challenge. Furthermore, the increased survival of premature neonates in low- and middle-income countries is causing an increase in developmental paediatric ophthalmic disease. Finally, there is an ongoing change in health-s...
Conference Paper
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness globally. Stereophotogrammetry-based optic nerve head topographical imaging systems could potentially allow for objective glaucoma assessment in settings where technologies such as optical coherence tomography and the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph are prohibitively expensive. In the development of su...
Conference Paper
Contrast sensitivity is a key visual ability for everyday tasks, as well as a potential indicator of important optical and neurological diseases. Current clinical standards, based on visual discrimination performance on printed charts, present problems that could be bypassed using electronic devices. This work describes the development of new tests...
Conference Paper
Early detection and treatment are key in limiting vision loss from glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Morphological alteration of the optic nerve head (ONH), detectable early in the condition, is a key clinical indicator. The mainstay for evaluation in clinics is the subjective assessment of stereoscopic ONH images. If quant...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Retinal imaging is a fundamental tool in ophthalmic diagnostics. The potential use of retinal imaging within screening programs, with consequent need to analyze large numbers of images with high throughput, is pushing the digital image analysis field to find new solutions for the extraction of specific information from the retinal ima...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the continuous improvement in medical imaging technology, visualizing the spinal cord poses severe problems due to structural or incidental causes, such as small access space and motion artifacts. In addition, positional guidance on the spinal cord is not commonly available during surgery, with the exception of neuronavigation techniques ba...
Data
The zip file contains six extracellular activities recorded in conjunction, or not, of the OCT probing. In the first case they contain “OCT” in the file name otherwise “noOCT”. In addition, files represent recordings in spontaneous activity condition (files have “spontaneous” prefix) or evoked condition (files have “evoked” prefix). Eventually, we...
Data
3D spatial representation of the cord and the recording electrode under different angular rotations. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Mobile technology is increasingly used to measure visual acuity. Standards for chart-based acuity tests specify photometric requirements for luminance, optotype contrast and luminance uniformity. Manufacturers provide some photometric data but little is known about tablet performance for visual acuity testing. This study photometrically characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Visualization and interpretation of the optic nerve and retina are essential parts of most physical examinations.Objective To design and validate a smartphone-based retinal adapter enabling image capture and remote grading of the retina.Design, Setting, and Participants This validation study compared the grading of optic nerves from s...
Article
Complications of diabetes mellitus, namely diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, are the leading cause of blindness in working aged people. Sufferers can avoid blindness if identified early via retinal imaging. Systematic screening of the diabetic population has been shown to greatly reduce the prevalence and incidence of blindness within...
Article
The Portable Eye Examination Kit (Peek) is being tested in field trials in Kenya, Mali, Malawi, Tanzania, Botswana, Madagascar, India, and the United Kingdom, and testing in more countries is planned in the future. Peek is a comprehensive and integrated smartphone-based tool kit that comprises the full set of core tests needed for eye screening, de...
Conference Paper
Only a small minority of mobile healthcare technologies that have been successful in pilot studies have subsequently been integrated into healthcare systems. Understanding the reasons behind this discrepancy is crucial if such technologies are to be adopted. We believe that the mismatch is due to a breakdown in the relation between technical soundn...
Article
The digitization of ophthalmic images has opened up a number of exciting possibilities within eye care such as automated pathology detection, as well as electronic storage and transmission. However, technology capable of capturing digital ophthalmic images remains expensive. We review the latest progress in creating ophthalmic imaging devices based...
Article
Full-text available
A low-cost alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope, a simple optical adapter for a smartphone, is described. It can overcome many of the technical challenges of fundoscopy, providing a high-resolution view of the retina through an un-dilated pupil. This can be used in locations with limited diagnostic resources to detect conditions such as glaucom...
Article
We report the development of a fiber-based Raman sensor to be used in tumour margin identification during endoluminal robotic surgery. Although this is a generic platform, the sensor we describe was adapted for the ARAKNES (Array of Robots Augmenting the KiNematics of Endoluminal Surgery) robotic platform. On such a platform, the Raman sensor is in...
Article
We present a simple method applicable to common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in which the tissue surface is used as the reference arm. We propose using aluminium hydroxide powder as a potential tissue surface diffuser to allow wider application of this method. This technique allows one to avoid placing a reference arm refl...
Conference Paper
A fiber Raman probe based sensor is designed to be integrated into a surgical robot. The chemical information obtained from this sensor would assist tissue margin detection and surgical guidance during laparoscopic surgical procedures.
Article
Full-text available
An electrooptical sensor for the detection of muscle contraction is described. Infrared light is injected into the muscle, the backscattering is observed, and the contraction is detected by measuring the change, that occurs during muscle contraction, between the light scattered in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the muscle cells. With r...
Article
Continuous-wave diffuse reflectance or Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) offers the possibility to perform a preliminary screening of tissue for ischemia or other tissue anomalies. A tool for intracavity NIRS measurements during laparoscopic surgery, developed within the framework of the FP7-IP ARAKNES (Array of Robots Augmenting the KiNematics of...
Article
Full-text available
A method employing conjugated polymer thin film blends is shown to provide a simple and convenient way of greatly enhancing the ultraviolet response of silicon photodetectors. Hybrid organic semiconductor/silicon photodetectors are demonstrated using fluorene copolymers and give a quantum efficiency of 60% at 200 nm. The quantum efficiency is great...
Article
The possibility to measure the metabolic activity of the brain cortex, with submillimeter spatial and subsecond temporal resolution, would open up enticing scenarios in addressing basic issues on the relation between different structural components of brain signal processing, and in providing an operational pathway to interaction with (dis)function...
Article
Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to monitor noninvasively and continuously local changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. A portable NIRS research-grade acquisition system, dedicated to measurements during muscular exercise, is presented. The instrument is able to control up to eight LED sources and two detectors....
Article
The benefits of inspiratory muscle strength training in decreasing symptoms, disability or handicap of patients affected by COPD are not well established. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the constant use of a new flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser, named Respivol, in improving respiratory functional parameters in COPD p...
Conference Paper
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to monitor noninvasively and continuously local changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. In particular, the technique can be particularly useful for muscular functional monitoring during unattended physical activity. A portable NIRS research-grade acquisition system, dedicated to lo...
Article
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to monitor local changes in haemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. A preliminary study has been performed in order to evaluate the NIRS transmittance response to induced forearm ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The population consists in 40 patients with cardiovascu...
Article
We have reported on coupled capacitance-conductance measurements on Ga nanoparticles embedded in vitreous matrices. The melting of nanoparticles was clearly detected as an abrupt increase in the capacitance vs. temperature scans. The influence of the embedding matrix and of the frequency of the applied field on the dielectric response was checked....
Article
Near IR Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to noninvasively and continuously measure in-vivo local changes in haemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. In particular, the technique can be particularly useful for muscular functional monitoring. We present a portable NIRS research-grade acquisition system prototype, strictly dedicate to low-no...
Article
Near IR Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to noninvasively and continuously measure in-vivo local changes in haemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. Monitoring of these parameters is particularly useful both for basic research and during surgery, when a continuous and real-time measurement can help to avoid permanent damage to the tissues...
Article
An apparatus for the measurement of the radial dependence of the continuous-wave diffuse reflectance of a tissue is described. It consists in a probe, which is applied on the tissue, and a detection unit. By employing an array of incoherent semiconductor light sources (LED's) and continuous- wave detection, probe structure is considerably simpler t...
Article
Static and dynamic electric birefringence measurements are performed on dispersions of electrically charged fluorinated latex spheres. It is shown that the Kerr constant is made up of three contributions: the first depends on the intrinsic and form anisotropy of the particle; the second arises from the presence of a slowly fluctuating electric dipo...
Article
We have performed an experimental investigation on the electrokinetic properties of charged rod-like fluorinated latex colloids. Systematic measurements of electrophoretic mobility, dielectric constant and electric birefringence have been performed as a function of the concentration of added nonionic surfactant and salt. In the investigated range o...
Article
Spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range from 300 to 800 nm is applied for the determination of the optical properties of potassium acid phtalate crystals, of particular interest for their use as substrates for the epitaxial deposition of highly oriented polymers. The study is based on the analysis of measurements performed on differently oriented s...
Article
Transient electric birefringence (TEB) studies have been carried out on water-in-oil w/o microemulsions stabilized by Ni(AOT)(2), the nickel salt of bis(ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate. The system forms rod-shaped droplets at low water contents which convert to more spherical aggregates as the water content is increased. TEB data have been obtained as a...
Article
NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR...
Article
With the aim of determining the importance of the molecular and supramolecular organization on the excited states of polydiacetylenes, we have studied the photoinduced absorption spectra of the red form of poly[1,6-bis(3,6-didodecyl-N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne] (polyDCHD-S) and the results compared with those of the blue form of the same polymer. A...
Article
The ellipsometric study of polycrystalline silicon films deposited using a single wafer rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor under varying conditions of temperature and doping is presented. In particular, using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible spectral range, we determined the thickness of the films and the structural changes as...
Article
The optical functions of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited on single oxidized silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition in a wide range of deposition temperatures have been determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The data analysis is performed by direct inversion of the experimental spectra, therefore, obtaining...
Article
The photoinduced absorption spectra of a novel polycarbazolyldiacetylene with long aliphatic chains on the carbazolyl side groups are measured and compared with those of the unsubstituted polyDCHD. The two polymers in the blue form exhibit very similar electronic absorption spectra and Raman frequencies. This fact indicates that the conjugation len...
Article
An apparatus for time‐resolved measurements of the birefringence induced in a particle suspension by an acoustic wave pulse is described. Efficient acoustic coupling is obtained by operating near the transducer resonant frequency and by matching the acoustic impedances of the cell constituents. An almost‐overdamped acoustic configuration can altern...
Article
The kinetics of slow irreversible aggregation of monodisperse polystyrene latex spheres is investigated by means of the transient electric birefringence (TEB) technique. The amplitude of the TEB signal is connected with the anisotropy of fractal clusters; the decay of the signal after the electric field is switched off contains information about av...
Article
Summary We study the slow aggregation of aqueous suspensions of optically isotropic microspheres by means of transient electric birefringence. Aggregating clusters exhibit large Kerr constants, and consequently we provide direct experimental evidence that the clusters do posses form anisotropy. From the birefringence relaxation time we derive infor...
Article
We present experimental results on the critical exponent psiEKE describing the divergence of the Kerr constant of binary liquid mixtures near the critical consolute point. We show that the measured value of psiEKE agrees with the theoretical prediction only if the measurement is performed with a mixture of two liquids presenting a small mismatch in...
Article
Full-text available
Static and dynamic electric birefringence measurements are performed on aqueous dispersions of electrically charged fluorinated latex particles having an almost spherical shape. The Kerr constant is nonzero because of the intrinsic and form anisotropy of the particles, and is considerably enhanced at low frequencies by a contribution due to the clo...
Article
Full-text available
Static and dynamic electric birefringence measurements are performed on aqueous dispersions of electrically charged fluorinated latex particles having an almost spherical shape. The Kerr constant is nonzero because of the intrinsic and form anisotropy of the particles, and is considerably enhanced at low frequencies by a contribution due to the clo...
Chapter
Electric birefringence measurements in model solutions of fluorinated polymer colloids provide a sensitive way to understand the mechanisms of electric polarization in colloidal systems, thanks to the high intrinsic optical anisotropy of these materials. We present here static and dynamic measurements in suspensions of charged PTFE (polytetrafluoro...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE/AIM The purpose is to introduce the basic physical and technical principles of modern bio-photonic techniques and outline efficient potential clinical applications in the field of radiological imaging. We aim to find suitable Interventional imaging systems for early and safe in situ diagnosis of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. CONTENT...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Applications of visible and infrared light scattering for tissue sensing and for the characterisation of liquid dispersions.
Project
Active capsule sensing technologies for the gastrointestinal tract.
Project
Technologies for the diagnostics of vision and eye health.