Marine Fuhrmann

Marine Fuhrmann
The University of Sydney · Sydney School of Veterinary Science

PhD

About

19
Publications
2,729
Reads
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175
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2018 - present
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Research Associate
July 2017 - January 2018
Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer
Position
  • Researcher
October 2013 - December 2016
Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (19)
Chapter
Herpesvirus-like infections have been observed in marine bivalves since 1970, and mortality of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) has been associated with Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) since 1990. The virulent OsHV-1 microvariant (μVar) and related genotypes have caused massive mortality events, predominantly of spat and juvenile Pacific oysters,...
Article
Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) has caused mass mortalities in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. While aquaculture-associated movements of infected Pacific oysters are a well-known cause of OsHV-1 spread once established in a region, translocation via biofouling of aquaculture equipment or vessels needs furth...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of the microvariant genotype of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 μVar) has caused mass mortalities of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, resulting in significant economic losses in Europe, New Zealand and Australia. There is variability in the occurrence and severity of disease caused by OsHV-1, with the disease incompletely described by...
Article
Mollusc farming is the third most productive aquaculture activity in the world, and the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is one of the most important farmed species. Since 2008, mass mortalities in C. gigas due to ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariants have challenged the viability of this industry in Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Ten years aft...
Article
Full-text available
Food provisioning influences disease risk and outcome in animal populations in two ways. On one hand, unrestricted food supply improves the physiological condition of the host and lowers its susceptibility to infectious disease, reflecting a tradeoff between immunity and other fitness related functions. On the other hand, food scarcity limits the r...
Article
Full-text available
The oyster microbiome is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of mass mortality disease in Pacific oysters, associated with OsHV-1. As filter-feeders, oysters host a microbiota that can be influenced by the estuarine environment. This may alter susceptibility to OsHV-1 infections, causing variable mortality. This study aimed at: (1) difference...
Article
Environmental change in the marine realm has been accompanied by emerging diseases as new pathogens evolve to take advantage of hosts weakened by environmental stress. Here we investigated how an exposure to reduced seawater pH influenced the response of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to an infection by the Ostreid herpesvirus type I (OsHV-1). Oyster...
Conference Paper
Mass mortality disease outbreaks have caused severe economic loss in the global Pacific oyster industry. Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) has emerged as an important cause of disease outbreaks, yet the outcome of this infection is impacted by many factors. A polymicrobial pathogenesis may be associated with mass mortality outbreaks associated with Os...
Article
Full-text available
Marine diseases have major impacts on ecosystems and economic consequences for aquaculture and fisheries. Understanding origin, spread and risk factors of disease is crucial for management, but data in the ocean are limited compared to the terrestrial environment. Here we investigated how the marine environment drives the spread of viral disease ou...
Article
Full-text available
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is an osmoconforming bivalve exposed to wide salinity fluctuations. The physiological mechanisms used by oysters to cope with salinity stress are energy demanding and may impair other processes, such as defense against pathogens. This oyster species has been experiencing recurrent mortality events caused by th...
Article
Full-text available
Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key mitochondrial protein. VDAC drives cellular energy metabolism by controlling the influx and efflux of metabolites and ions through the mitochondrial membrane, playing a role in its permeabilization. This protein exerts a pivotal role during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp, thr...
Thesis
Crassostrea gigas est l’espèce d’huître la plus cultivée au monde. Depuis 2008, des évènements de mortalité massive touchent les huîtres âgées de moins d’un an en Europe et en Océanie et ont été associés à l’émergence d’un nouveau variant de l’Ostréid herpèsvirus type 1, OsHV-1 μvar. Les huîtres sont naturellement présentes dans les écosystèmes est...
Article
Full-text available
Mortality of young Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas associated with the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is occurring worldwide. Here, we examined for the first time the effect of salinity on OsHV-1 transmission and disease-related mortality of C. gigas, as well as salinity-related effects on the pathogen itself. To obtain donors for OsHV-1 transmis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since 2008, mass mortalities of 1-yr-old oysters, Crassostrea gigas, associated with ostreid herpes virus OsHV-1 μVar, have occurred along all coasts of France and later in several other countries. The effect of four salinities, namely 10, 15, 25, 35 ppt, were tested on disease transmission and related mortalities in acclimated and non-acclimated o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many of Florida's rivers and estuaries are managed to meet water supply and flood protection needs of agricultural and urban land uses. For many systems seasonal differences in runoff have been exacerbated by overdrainage of the landscape to avoid flooding in the wet season and withdrawals of freshwater during the dry season for human uses. Wide sa...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Archived project
In France, since 2008, spats have been dying massively. Since then, this mortality events have been reported in other European countries and in Oceania. The origin of this mortality is attributed to the emergence of a new variant of Osteid herpesvirus OsHV-1, the variant μvar. To prevent and manage emerging diseases, there is a need to improve the surveillance of epizootics and to identify risk factors, in particular environmental factors. Since the occurrence of massive oyster mortality events in 2008, studies have examined the effect of temperature on the transmission and on the disease-induced mortality of C. gigas during OsHV-1 infection. Oysters live in estuarine and coastal areas characterized by fluctuations in salinity and pH that could be exacerbated in the context of climate change. Thus, we studied the effects of salinity and pH on the transmission of the virus and the associated mortality of the Pacific oyster. The objective of the project was to provide answers to the following questions: Q1: Do salinity and pH affect survival of OsHV-1 infection? Q2: Do salinity and pH affect the infectivity of OsHV-1? (Infectivity is the ability of a microorganism to colonize or replicate in host tissues) Q3: Do salinity and pH modulate the metabolic response of C. gigas to OsHV-1 infection? To answer these questions, we studied the effect of these two environmental parameters on (i) the survival of the oyster to an OsHV-1 infection, (ii) the infectivity of the virus, quantifying the DNA content Of OsHV-1 and the expression of certain viral genes in oyster tissues, (iii) the metabolic response of the oyster, characterizing its energy state, its antioxidant response capacity and finally its membrane fatty acid composition.
Project
The project is organized in five parts: (1) observing overall changes in the oyster-farming ecosystem over the past 10-20 years in relation with the recent mass mortality events, and proposing trajectory to plan the sustainable development of oyster-farming ecosystems, (2) analysing the effect of environmental parameters on disease transmission and related mortality of oysters by means of lab and field experiments, (3) forcasting disease transmission and related oyster mortality by means of models, to further test the effect of disease control measures to improve eco-efficiency of the oyster industry in the context of global change, and (4) communicating the results to growers, associations and stakeholders.