Marina Padrão Temudo

Marina Padrão Temudo
University of Lisbon | UL · School of Agriculture, Department of Natural Resources, Environment and Land

PhD and Habilitation

About

59
Publications
13,145
Reads
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503
Citations
Citations since 2016
30 Research Items
356 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
Introduction
I work on the interface between Agriculture, Environment and Society in the Tropics, within a Political Agronomy, and Human and Political Ecology theoretical framework. I'm now leading a 5 years project - “Mangroves, mangrove rice and mangrove people - sustainably improving rice production, ecosystems and livelihoods” [FOOD/2019/412-700, DeSIRA_GB] funded by the EU.
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
University of Lisbon
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
Guinea-Bissau remains among the African countries most vulnerable to climate change due to its flat topography and large meandering coastal area invaded by the tides.We present a case study of the island-village of Djobel, showing the dramatic consequences of socio-environmental change. The inhabitants' attempts to mitigate the impact of extreme we...
Presentation
O cultivo de arroz é umas das atividades económicas mais importantes, alimentando diariamente quase metade da população mundial. A população da Guiné-Bissau não é exceção, sendo o arroz a base de subsistência de todo o país. Como tal, o sucesso do seu cultivo é de máxima relevância. A característica presença de mangal ao longo da costa ocidental d...
Poster
Full-text available
Rice cultivation is one of the most important economic activities, feeding almost half of the world's population daily. The population of Guinea-Bissau is no exception, being rice the staple crop. As such, the success of rice cultivation is of utmost importance to ensure food security. The presence of mangroves in Guinea-Bissau provides a complex...
Article
Climate-related conflicts, although expected to also cause cross-border tensions/fights and intra-state civil strife among Southern countries, have been mostly framed as a problem for the rich Global North citizens produced by the poor, more environmentally vulnerable Global South potential migrants. However, violence under a climate change scenari...
Article
The Togo Hills borderland between Ghana and Togo is known for its cultural and ecological diversity and dynamic socio-political history. In this setting, African rice (Oryza glaberrima) is cultivated together with other local cultivars of Asian rice (O. sativa), and smallholders are keen innovators. This article presents the results of participator...
Article
Angola has been labelled a “petro-state”, since independence, due to its oil-wealth and the country's economic dependence on its revenues. Considering that oil availability and price could be a factor reducing deforestation and forest degradation through accelerating energy-transition, our objective was to study the energy consumption patterns and...
Article
en This article focuses on the Kyangyang (‘the shadows’ or ‘the shades’), a prophetic movement that emerged in Guinea‐Bissau in 1984, in which ‘animistic’ Balanta farmers‐and‐herders learned to pray as Muslims and Christians do. We want to propose that (a) more attention needs to be paid to religious movements that bridge the polarisation between I...
Article
Ever since colonial times, the rural inhabitants of Guinea-Bissau have been blamed for lighting uncontrolled fires all over the country. Based on in-depth ethnographic research in two regions, a country-level rapid rural appraisal, and analysis of satellite active fire data, this essay shows how burning practices are, however, diversified according...
Article
Full-text available
Angola is a resource-rich country, which experienced a major urban concentration of the population owing to a long civil war followed by an oil-related economic boom. The majority of the population, however, remains without access to basic services such as potable water, sanitation or electricity. Despite the economic and social exclusion of the ma...
Article
African women are frequently portrayed as a subaltern group in need of external support, used as property in forging social relations, producing wealth in people and doing most of the agricultural work to feed household members in societies where ‘modernization’ does not always seem to change their unfortunate predicament. This article destabilizes...
Article
Full-text available
The inhabitants of the Zaire Province of northern Angola, belonging to different subgroups of the Bakongo, offer an interesting case to study social and agricultural change in what Boserup would call a traditional ‘female farming system’. Since the 1930s, several factors have produced multiple dynamics of change – sometimes abrupt and other times g...
Article
This paper is centred on the fast-track changes occurring among the Balanta of Guinea-Bissau—at present, the only ethnic group in West Africa still able to produce a mangrove swamp rice surplus with a manual plough—in their traditionally intensive farming system and their social organization, and on the consequences that these changes have had for...
Article
Full-text available
Using social and GIS/remote sensing techniques, we analysed the historical, social, political, and economic processes underlying mangrove deforestation and afforestation patterns in Guinea-Bissau to explain the increase in the mangrove forest area between 1990 and 2015. By comparing several regions during the same timeframe, we highlight different...
Article
In the understanding of the relationship between forests, agriculture and landscape change, the impact of shifting cultivation has been a major topic, but also a major point of debate. The very definition of the concept is under discussion, starting with the importance given to the length of the fallow period and ending with the question of definin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Epidemic HIV-2 (groups A and B) emerged in humans circa 1930-40. Its closest ancestors are SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys from southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. The earliest large-scale serological surveys of HIV-2 in West Africa (1985-91) show a patchy spread. Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau had the highest prevalence rates by then, and p...
Data
Progression of MC frequency for 3 ethnic groups over time under 3 models of interpolation (COLRST-LIN, COLRST-LOGIS, and COLRSTURB, see Materials and Methods). (TIF)
Presentation
Full-text available
Oral presentation given at HDE 2015. Correlation between historical levels of male circumcision and prevalence of HIV-2 in West Africa and implications for the origin of HIV-2.
Article
Full-text available
Up until the late 1990s, the Balanta of Guinea-Bissau constituted what could be described as a ‘deep rural society’, whose central identity was linked with rice production and cattle accumulation. At the same time, it could be argued that even in the early days after Independence in 1974, the social aspirations of Balanta young men matched those of...
Article
Through a detailed case study of the workings of a local NGO in Guinea-Bissau and of how different actors play with shifting roles, the article elucidates the inadequacy of conventional binary oppositions between domination and resistance, northern powerful donors and powerless local development organizations, and between the state and African civi...
Article
Full-text available
Guinea-Bissau farmers are replacing shifting cultivation with cashew (Anacardium occidentale) orchards in response to international and national economic and conservation policies, local social changes and perceived increasing climate instability. However, changes from relative food self-provisioning to full dependence on one cash crop and from a c...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a study of shifting cultivation in Guinea-Bissau, illustrating the diversity, flexibility and resilience of these multifold agricultural practices and of its non-linear relation with deforestation and biodiversity conservation. The comparative analysis of the country’s three social and agroecological regions shows that the sho...
Article
How do African agricultural livelihoods change under stressful conditions? How do market and agricultural policies and development interventions impact on both agricultural and social change, and consequently on food self‐sufficiency? Which long‐term factors can contribute to ‘depeasantization’? Is the ‘New Green Revolution’ the best and only solut...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the rice sector in Africa and the ongoing rice research and development activities in the region. Specific topics are classified under the following headings: overview of rice in Africa (chapters 1-4), rice genetic diversity and improvement (chapters 5-14), sustainable productivity enhancement (chapter...
Article
Full-text available
Rice breeding and crop research predominantly emphasize adaptation to ecological conditions. Based on qual-itative and quantitative research conducted between 2000 and 2012 we show how ecological factors, combined with socio-economic variables, cultural norms and values, shape the use and development of local technologies related to the cultiva-tio...
Article
Full-text available
Both fortress and community-based approaches to conservation have shown poor (sometimes negative) results in terms of environmental protection and poverty reduction. Either approach can also trigger grassroots resistance. This article is centered on an allegedly 'community-based' conservation and development project (and its successive follow-ups)...
Article
Full-text available
In marginal and complex agricultural environments, modern varieties of rice have been scantily adopted by resource-poor farmers. This is due, on the one hand, to farmers’ nonexistent or reduced access to agro-chemicals, irrigation facilities, and seeds, and on the other hand, to the fact that they did not fulfil the farmers’ socioeconomic and cultu...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of war and of post-war reconstruction efforts on agriculture and forest cover change has been understudied. What happens when shifting cultivation ? generally seen as one of the main causes of deforestation in the tropics ? is the dominant agricultural practice? Based on the analysis of remote sensing imagery and interviews with farmers,...
Article
Full-text available
Neste artigo, através de um estudo de caso, é analisada a complexidade da relação entre crescimento populacional, agricultura e gestão sustentável dos recursos naturais e o reducionismo das designadas “narrativas da degradação ambiental”. Do ponto de vista epistemológico e metodológico pretende-se também demonstrar as vantagens da investigação empí...
Article
Full-text available
Balanta farmers of Guinea-Bissau are often regarded by neighboring communities as “backward” and as a people who have refused modern life-worlds. Despite the fact that these farmers played a very important role in the making of Guinea-Bissau, they were progressively removed from power after independence. However, they also developed original forms...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mangroves are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and they form forests of salt-tolerant species, with complex food webs and ecosystem dynamics. In the last decades, all over the world, the area of mangrove has decreased. Africa has lost about 14% of its mangroves over the last 25 years (FAO, 2007). The objective of this work is to a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Shifting cultivation is generally seen as one of the main causes of deforestation in the tropics. Based on the analysis of remote sensing imagery and interviews, we examine the relationship between agricultural practices and forest cover change in two districts of the Niassa province, Mozambique. The area of forest increased in Marrupa district wit...
Article
In this study, it is argued that the last three decades of political change in the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe did not bring about social inclusion, but on the contrary the reproduction of colonial patterns of inequality. The enduring stigmatization of former plantation workers - now transformed into farmers after the land privatization proce...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims at contributing to our understanding of violence and warfare in contemporary West Africa by adopting a bi-focal analysis that looks both at power struggles within the urban elite and at the grassroots multi-ethnic setting in southern Guinea-Bissau. I pay close attention to the social dynamics of rural peoples' perspectives, coping...
Article
: Focusing on one case study in the Cubucare Peninsula, and analysing local stake-holders' perceptions on the roots of the war and the political developments to which it gave rise, this study intends to show why the 1998-99 armed conflict remained mostly an urban one and why the rural areas could function as a hinterland where internally displaced...
Article
Full-text available
Durante muitos anos, a ideia de que a guerra civil que assolou Moçambique era con-duzida por um exército mercenário ao serviço de interesses externos foi considerada inquestionável, desconhecendo-se que a Renamo possuía uma base social de apoio rural e que a produção agrícola constituía uma das fontes de financiamento da guerra. Após a independênci...
Article
Full-text available
The disintegration of African agrarian societies is partly caused by the dissipative economy of development aid and becomes more visible in wartime. The resilience of agrarian societies constitutes thus an important resource for the whole country. Their capacity to maintain stability and a productive agricultural potential can ensure the survival o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resource-poor regions are characterised by a wide ecological vulnerability in which agriculture is risk prone. Climatic variability is, in this context, a major risk factor for agricultural production. Cape Verde islands have been subjected, all over the centuries, to successive periods of drought. Since the end of the sixties a long period of sign...
Article
Full-text available
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are major actors in rural development interventions in Africa. However evaluations of their activities seldom follow the same procedures as government-to-government projects. Self-evaluations using participatory methods, complemented by financial evaluations of the projects budgets by donors tend to be the rule...
Article
Full-text available
Rice breeding and crop research predominantly emphasize adaptation to ecological conditions, giving little attention to the ways local social organization and structure shape rice varieties and their dissemination. In this paper, we present how, next to ecological factors, socioeconomic factors, cultural norms, values, and narratives shape the use...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The project aims at increasing the productivity and stabilising the inter-annual mangrove swamp rice production, as well as better understanding and improving the drivers and complex dynamics of mangroves’ ecosystem change. This unique West African agri-aquaculture-livestock farming system relies on the capacity to mobilise specialized knowledge (for dike and dam construction and maintenance, water management, the control of soil fertility and toxicity, and rice variety selection) and massive labour at certain periods of the cycle. At present, these rich farmers’ knowledge and skills have been showing numerous gaps in face of new agroecological and socioeconomic conditions. By including young farmers in the process of co-production of knowledge, the goal also involves helping local actors improve their understanding and knowledge of ongoing changes and the development of innovative solutions to these changes. These innovations will respond to threats emanating from climate change and socioeconomic transformations, political instability and institutional weakness, and will maximise the immediate and long-term impact of national and international investments through the creation of synergies with past and ongoing projects/programmes. The project will adopt an action-research and participatory-learning approach and will contribute to creating an Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System (AKIS) able to sustainably merge local and scientific knowledges and formal and informal technology diffusion systems through the co-production of knowledge for the development of technologies (e.g., varieties, cultivation and water management techniques), farmers organization into a cross-country network, the design of early warning systems for the behaviour of the rains and the tides and the creation of seeds’ sharing regional networks. The project core team will be constituted by 2 Universities (University of Lisbon and Wageningen University), 4 institutions (Instituto Superior de Agronomia-ISA, WUR, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement-IRD, and the Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território-IGOT), 30 young farmers-researchers and 10 elder farmers specialized in dike and dam construction, 25 graduate students, 3 master students, 10 PhD students, 3 post-docs, 19 senior researchers/professors.
Project
The project aims at increasing the productivity and stabilising the inter-annual mangrove swamp rice production, as well as better understanding and improving the drivers and complex dynamics of mangroves’ ecosystem change. This unique West African agri-aquaculture-livestock farming system relies on the capacity to mobilise specialized knowledge (for dike and dam construction and maintenance, water management, the control of soil fertility and toxicity, and rice variety selection) and massive labour at certain periods of the cycle. At present, these rich farmers’ knowledge and skills have been showing numerous gaps in face of new agroecological and socioeconomic conditions. By including young farmers in the process of co-production of knowledge, the goal also involves helping local actors improve their understanding and knowledge of ongoing changes and the development of innovative solutions to these changes. These innovations will respond to threats emanating from climate change and socioeconomic transformations, political instability and institutional weakness, and will maximise the immediate and long-term impact of national and international investments through the creation of synergies with past and ongoing projects/programmes. The project will adopt an action-research and participatory-learning approach and will contribute to creating an Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System (AKIS) able to sustainably merge local and scientific knowledges and formal and informal technology diffusion systems through the co-production of knowledge for the development of technologies (e.g., varieties, cultivation and water management techniques), farmers organization into a cross-country network, the design of early warning systems for the behaviour of the rains and the tides and the creation of seeds’ sharing regional networks. The project core team will be constituted by 2 Universities (University of Lisbon and Wageningen University), 4 institutions (Instituto Superior de Agronomia-ISA, WUR, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement-IRD, and the Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território-IGOT), 30 young farmers-researchers and 10 elder farmers specialized in dike and dam construction, 25 graduate students, 3 master students, 10 PhD students, 3 post-docs, 19 senior researchers/professors.
Project
Achieving a sustainable development trajectory in Amazonia is one of the key challenges facing Brazil, and is also an important international concern. ODYSSEA assembles an internationally renowned European and Brazilian multidisciplinary and intersectoral team. We aim to produce fundamental science and tools in order to build an innovative multi-and interdisciplinary observatory to monitor and assess dynamic interactions between Amazon societies and their environments. This observatory will serve as a basis for policy development that integrates social, environmental, political economic and human health dimensions. Our methodology puts the society at the heart of the observatory’s building process, engaging stakeholders and decision makers in the research to favour advancement of their objectives and commitment to sustainable development issues. Building on knowledge framed around ongoing bilateral projects, ODYSSEA brings together several independent networks of international and Brazilian researchers which all have long-term experiences in the Amazon of environmental and social research, each with their own expert skill-sets. We expect significant advances in our understanding of the different feedbacks and linkages between the panoply of pressures exerted on the environment, the factors determining the vulnerability of local populations to environmental shocks and in the evaluation of governance and institutional arrangements aiming at promoting adaptation. We aim to enhance the capacity of Brazilian institutions to assess and reduce the vulnerability of populations in Amazonia. ODYSSEA will help unify an increasing number of bilateral arrangements for research and innovation between individual European countries and Brazil. Whilst these connections are proving fruitful in their own right there is a largely untapped opportunity to upscale the intensity and diversity of connections between Europe and Brazil on all levels of education, research and development.