Marina Jirotka

Marina Jirotka
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Computer Science

DPhil

About

101
Publications
26,394
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,225
Citations

Publications

Publications (101)
Research
Full-text available
https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:8e175e19-f879-4827-9cbd-c4849cb6bd60
Article
Full-text available
Science-policy organisations are expected to be reflexive of their political influence on research and society. In this long-standing discourse on institutional reflexivity, formal organisations have largely been considered as a whole, and from a structural, or systemic perspective, whereas much less is known about everyday organisational practices...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
UnBias is a collaboration between the Horizon Digital Economy Research Institute at the University of Nottingham, the Human Centred Computing group at the University of Oxford and the Centre for Intelligent Systems and their Applications (CISA) at the University of Edinburgh, with creative studio Proboscis. It is funded under the Trust, Identity, P...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing popularity of social media platforms creates new digital social networks in which individuals can interact and share information, news, and opinion. The use of these technologies appears to have the capacity to transform current social configurations and relations, not least within the public and civic spheres. Within the social scie...
Chapter
Privacy, a fundamental human right, is a key nonfunctional requirement to every electronic service and applications designed for smart societies. Informational privacy, the right of individuals to control information related to them, in smart societies is at the core of this chapter. A key aspect in the layout of smart societies and smart cities is...
Article
Full-text available
Over the years, healthcare has been an important domain for CSCW research. One significant theme carried through this body of work concerns how hospital workers coordinate their work both spatially and temporally. Much has been made of the coordinative roles played by the natural rhythms present in hospital life, and by webs of mundane artefacts su...
Article
Full-text available
During the course of this article, we examine the use of membership categorisation practices by a high-profile celebrity public social media account that has been understood to generate interest, attention and controversy across the UK (and wider European) media ecology. We utilise a data set of harvested tweets gathered from a high-profile public...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes that robots and autonomous systems should be equipped with the equivalent of a Flight Data Recorder to continuously record sensor and relevant internal status data. We call this an ethical black box. We argue that an ethical black box will be critical to the process of discovering why and how a robot caused an accident, and thus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Empirical research involving the analysis of Internet-based data raises a number of ethical challenges. One instance of this is the analysis of Twitter data, in particular when specific tweets are reproduced for the purposes of dissemination. Although Twitter is an open platform it is possible to question whether this provides a sufficient ethical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the challenges around fair information access when the limits of human attention require algorithmic assistance for 'finding the diamond in the coal mountain'. While often demanded by users, the seemingly intuitive concept of fairness has proven to be very difficult to operationalise for implementation in algorithms. Here we pre...
Article
Full-text available
During the course of this article, we explore ethnomethodological principles in relation to approaching social media as data. More specifically, we consider the extent to which the work of Harvey Sacks and his rich intellectual legacy might inform this nascent field of empirical inquiry. This exploration is realised in the context of interdisciplin...
Article
Full-text available
Social media platforms routinely apply personalization algorithms to ensure the content presented to the user is relevant and engaging. These algorithms are designed to prioritize and make some pieces of information more visible than others. However, there is typically no transparency in the criteria used for ranking the information, and more impor...
Article
Full-text available
AT A TIME when increasingly potent technologies are being developed with the potential to transform society, researchers in all technological fields, including information and communications technology (ICT), are under growing pressure to consider and reflect on the motivations, purposes, and possible consequences associated with their research. Th...
Article
Audiovisual technologies can enable informal communication akin to face- to-face interaction. However, they prove less successful when deployed to support work and organizational activities. This is, in part, due to the limited ways such technologies provide access to the materials, objects, documents, and the like that are critical for supporting...
Chapter
As the European Union (EU) funded SmartSociety project aims to create a toolset for rapidly and systematically engineering collective intelligence systems to support daily living, it simultaneously wants to ameliorate the risks to individuals of participating in these types of hyper-connected digital systems. This paper reports on a panel session a...
Article
Full-text available
Social media platforms provide an increasingly popular means for individuals to share content online. Whilst this produces undoubted societal benefits, the ability for content to be spontaneously posted and reposted creates an ideal environment for rumour and false/malicious information to spread rapidly. When this occurs it can cause significant h...
Article
Full-text available
The last 5-10 years have seen a massive rise in the popularity of social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr etc. These platforms enable users to post and share their own content instantly, meaning that material can be seen by multiple others in a short period of time. The growing use of social media has been accompanied by concerns t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The last 5-10 years have seen a massive rise in the popularity of social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr etc. These platforms enable users to post and share their own content instantly, meaning that material can be seen by multiple others in a short period of time. The growing use of social media has been accompanied by concerns t...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the ethical implications of HCI's turn to the 'cultural'. This is motivated by an awareness of how cultural applications, in our case interactive performances, raise ethical issues that may challenge established research ethics processes. We review research ethics, HCI's engagement with ethics and the ethics of theatrical performance. Fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing popularity of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Tumblr has been accompanied by concerns over the growing prevalence of 'harmful' online interactions. The term 'digital wildfire' has been coined to characterise the capacity for provocative content on social media to propagate rapidly and cause offline har...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we introduce a privacy-enhanced Peer Manager, which is a fundamental building block for the implementation of a privacy-preserving collective adaptive systems computing platform. The Peer Manager is a user-centered identity management platform that keeps information owned by a user private and is built upon an attributebased privacy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The majority of volunteers participating in citizen science projects perform only a few tasks each before leaving the system. We designed an intervention strategy to reduce disengagement in 16 different citizen science projects. Targeted users who had left the system received emails that directly addressed motivational factors that affect their eng...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of responsible research and innovation (RRI) with the aim of ensuring socially acceptable and desirable outcomes of research and innovation activities requires coordinated action by numerous actors. Rri may be conceptualised as a network of interlinking responsibilities, some of which have long been established, others that will...
Article
We report work in progress on the role of models in the formation and maintenance of collectives in Hybrid Diversity-Aware Collective Adaptive Systems (HDA-CASs). HDA-CASs utilize hybrid computations involving machines and humans operating in collectives in a way that manages and leverages the diversity of collectives and machine-based computation....
Article
Ubiquitous computing systems raise unprecedented challenges to how we currently elicit, secure and sustain user consent. Consent is the interactional process by which a user agrees to the terms of engagement with a system, and it represents the principle mechanism by which we protect our privacy online. However, whereas traditional online interacti...
Article
Full-text available
The discourse concerning computer ethics qualifies as a reference discourse for ethics-related IS research. Theories, topics and approaches of computer ethics are reflected in IS. The paper argues that there is currently a broader development in the area of research governance which is referred to as “responsible research and innovation” (RRI). RRI...
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with how social order is established within collectives and the ethical problems that arise when we attempt to create and direct collectives towards particular ends. It draws on our work to establish governance principles for Smart Society—an EU project aiming to engineer Collective Adaptive Systems comprised of people and...
Chapter
The massive open online course (MOOC) has gained significant popularity in the last few years, garnering enrolment rates usually in the order of tens of thousands of teenagers and adults [16].With so many people congregating online to learn, harnessing the enrolled learners’ social collective intelligence (SCI) becomes a very real possibility. More...
Article
Full-text available
When it comes to developing tools and products there are ethical things that you should consider say Bernd Carsten Stahl FBCS, Marina Jirotka, Grace Eden, Job Timmermans and Mark Hartswood.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Given the potent and pervasive nature of modern technologies, this paper lays out the complexities involved in achieving responsible design. In order to do this we will first compare an emerging policy-oriented programme of research known as RRI (Responsible Research and Innovation) with initiatives in HCI. A focus on the similarities and differenc...
Book
Full-text available
This deliverable discusses and reflects on the case study approach that was used in RESPONSIBILITY. The case study approach (that is our strategy for the production and collection of case studies) we use through REPSONSIBILITY is carefully tailored to meet the demands of the project, draw on the expertise of the consortium and also takes into accou...
Conference Paper
We introduce the concept of Hybrid Diversity - Aware Collective Adaptive Systems (HDA-CAS) and their proposed role in addressing social problems associated with urban living, health, and financial markets. Our concern is for their responsible development and deployment, and to this end, we suggest perspectives on the governance of social machines a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the interrelationship between e-Science and CSCW in terms of key substantive, methodological and conceptual innovations made in both fields. In so doing, we hope to draw out the existing relationship between CSCW and e-Science research, and to map out some key future challenges where the two areas of research may become more cl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The potential social consequences that may arise as a result of the development and widespread use of ICT are of increasing interest to the general public, policymakers and researchers. Prominent examples include transformations of our concept of privacy when using social networking and other websites, ownership and control of personal data, and th...
Conference Paper
Bank policies must meet their clients' requirements to provide effective security. However, bank policies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia seem to run contrary to their clients' requirements when they prevent them from sharing their authentications with their family. We investigated Saudi participants behaviour towards authentication and found that c...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter discusses some of the most pertinent of the interlinked questions with reference to information and communication technologies (ICT). The chapter starts with a brief discussion of concepts of responsibility and responsible innovation that allows the identification of important aspects that a responsible approach to ICT requires. It the...
Article
Full-text available
A concern with “embodied action” has informed both the analysis of everyday action through technologies and also suggested ways of designing innovative systems. In this article, we consider how these two programs, the analysis of everyday embodied interaction on the one hand, and the analysis of technically-mediated embodied interaction on the othe...
Article
This report seeks to capture discussions within the ‘social and ethical’ breakout group at the Internet of Things R&D Roadmapping Workshop, Loughborough University, 11-12 July 2012. It was written to inform the organizers and support the drafting of the summary of the workshop. The roadmapping workshop was aimed at informing the development of rese...
Article
Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newt...
Article
The Oxford e-Social Science (OeSS) project investigated the uses and impacts of digital research – what others have called e-Research or e-Science – from the perspective of the social sciences. The study examined the factors shaping new approaches to digital research across the sciences and humanities as well as its implications for the nature and...
Article
Full-text available
We argue that high-resolution naturalistic digital images of physical objects are oriented to in a very different manner than other visual representations such as 'inscriptions' which are manufactured by black-box devices in order to transform phenomena into diagrams, or 'rendering practices' where scientists visually transform the meaning of objec...
Article
This is the introduction to the Special Issue of Information, Communication and Society, on Law and Ethics in e-Social Science. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rics20/15/1#.UfekVVO1gy8 Table of Contents: ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LIFESTYLE MONITORING DATA IN AGEING RESEARCH Alison Bowes, Alison Dawson & David Bell, 5-22 RETHINKING RESEARCH ETHICS FOR...
Article
Musicologists who study medieval music manuscripts were up until recently required to travel to the libraries and museums where these documents or their fragments are physically held. Increasingly however, digital image archives provide resources that allow scholars to conduct much of their research through both the inspection and manipulation of d...
Article
As data becomes invisible, emerging technologies can help human analysts and decision makers understand, model, and visualize causal relationships.
Article
Full-text available
Researchers in the humanities adopt a wide variety of approaches to their research. Their work tends to focus on texts and images, but they use and also create a wide range of information resources, in print, manuscript and digital forms. Like other researchers, they face multiple demands on their time, and so they find the ease and speed of access...
Article
Full-text available
When transitioning local laboratory practices into distributed environments, the interdependent relationship between experimental procedure and the technologies used to execute experiments becomes highly visible and a focal point for system requirements. We present an analysis of ways in which this reciprocal relationship is reconfiguring laborator...
Article
e-Research and Cyberinfrastructure programmes actively promote the development of new forms of scientific practice and collaboration through the implementation of tools and technologies that support distributed collaborative work across geographically dispersed research institutes and laboratories. Whilst originating in scientific domains, we have...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines the use of a range of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to support e-Research collaboration across space, time, and disciplinary and institutional domains. It considers one example of this trend—the virtual research environment (VRE)—and looks at the relationship between VREs and research groups, communities, a...
Article
This chapter examines key technical artifacts of e-Research, including e-Infrastructure and application software tools, from the perspective of the researchers who are trying to achieve their research goals using these technologies. It explores how traditional approaches to improving the usability of information and communication technology (ICT)-b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are numerous settings where people examine, scrutinize and discuss the details of images in the course of their work. In most medical domains, scans and x-rays are used in the diagnosis of cases; in most areas of science, methods of visualization have been adopted to assist in the analysis of data; and images of different kinds are critical f...
Article
The acquisition by developers of e-science applications of a thorough understanding of the requirements of end-users has been recognized as playing a critical role in the usability of such applications. However, there is another dimension to such an understanding that also plays an important role, namely the extent to which these developers converg...
Article
Full-text available
For the past eight years, the UK's e-Science programme has operated as a coordinated initiative across all the Research Councils, providing large scale funding for innovative activities to develop e-Science techniques and demonstrate their use across a broad range of research and applications. However, despite funding more than 100 projects in the...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers in the social sciences are increasingly encouraged or obliged to deposit data in digital archives for greater transparency of research or for secondary use by other researchers. However, digital archives raise many ethical challenges at the institutional, disciplinary and personal level, and researchers can find themselves caught betwee...
Article
As scientific software is made available within grid infrastructures, EUD increasingly becomes an important activity to support because scientists need to retain a significant amount of control over the code they use to develop experimental workflows and computational models. We present preliminary findings from two case studies where project teams...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual Research Environments (VRE) have the potential to re-shape the research landscape at academic institutions. The Virtual Research Environment (VRE) programme is currently underway with the development of 15 VREs that are investigating the development of an infrastructure to support research activities over a wide variety of disciplines rangi...
Article
Full-text available
The development of large-scale, distributed computer systems for e-Research requires the engagement of multi-disciplinary teams in design activities as well as the management of multi-institutional partnerships. Both the design process and its associated management are demanding activities. The first requires skills in communication and negotiation...
Article
Full-text available
An integrated health record (IHR) that enables clinical data to be shared at a national level has profound implications for medical research. Data that have been useful primarily within a single clinic will instead be free to move rapidly around a national network infrastructure. This raises challenges for technologists, clinical practice, and for...
Article
Full-text available
Despite significant advances in secure data transmission, even over public networks, the common data sharing practices for many organisations remain dated, such as sharing data with remote locations by transporting data via physical storage media. Likewise, sensitive data often reside on laptops that are carried out of the confines of secure office...
Article
Full-text available
‘New Information Systems’ is an emerging field composed of social studies of science (STS), information sciences (IS), workplace studies and technological design, and new media forms such as cyberinfrastructure or eResearch. Within this area we are exploring the connections and inter-relationships between empirical studies of information at knowled...
Article
Full-text available
We outline the aims and progress to date of the National Centre for e-Social Science e-Infrastructure project. We examine the challenges faced by the project, namely in ensuring outputs are appropriate to social scientists, managing the transition from research projects to service and embedding software and data within a wider infrastructural frame...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents preliminary findings from two projects that aim to widen the uptake of e-Infrastructures for research. Through the development of a corpus of evidence and through community engagement, we aim to uncover barriers to adoption, enablers that may facilitate uptake and good practice that may be used by those wishing to engage with e-...
Article
Full-text available
The e-Science program has suggested a way to address new scientific challenges through the development of global, collaborative multi-disciplinary research communities. These research communities rely upon the construction of more powerful computational, data, and communication infrastructures. The e-Science vision is concerned with changing with d...
Article
Full-text available
We examine recent developments in cross-disciplinary science and contend that a 'Big Science' approach is increasingly evident in the life sciences-facilitated by a breakdown of the traditional barriers between academic disciplines and the application of technologies across these disciplines. The first fruits of 'Big Biology' are beginning to be se...
Article
Full-text available
The dealing-room study is one of many studies that have used video to support requirements elicitation and the general design process. A growing body of experience with video-based ethnographies supports technology development in various domains, including air traffic and other control rooms, healthcare, public settings such as museums, and more ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We summarize the motivation and aims for this workshop on usability research challenges for cyberinfrastructure and tools, and outline workshop preparations and program.
Article
Full-text available
The paper draws on a number of Grid projects, particularly on the experience of NeuroGrid, a UK project in the Neurosciences tasked with developing a Grid-based collaborative research environment to support the sharing of digital images and patient data across multiple distributed sites. It outlines recurrent socio-technical issues, highlighting th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from an investigation into requirements for collaboration in e-Science in the context of eDiaMoND, a Grid-enabled prototype system intended in part to support breast cancer screening. Detailed studies based on ethnographic fieldwork reveal the importance of accountability and visibility of work for trust and for the var...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on our experiences of being involved in requirements capture for a HealthGrid project. Large scale, collaborative projects with multiple partners tend to experience numerous problems in the requirements capture phase (and often beyond) and HealthGrid projects are no exception. Projects with highly innovative objectives often have...