Marilyn cochran-smith

Marilyn cochran-smith
Boston College, USA | BC · education department

About

143
Publications
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Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Background Equity is invoked as a watchword in teacher education—a catch-all connected to an array of issues related to diversity, justice, or gaps in outcomes and opportunities for minoritized groups. This conceptual article argues that equity is often undefined and undertheorized in teacher education, and the complexities involved in addressing t...
Article
This article is a commentary on the seven articles in this special issue of EJTE on teacher quality from international perspectives. In the article, Marilyn Cochran-Smith points to differences as well as common themes and details across the articles in the issue. The article discusses the emergence of teacher quality as a global concern, including...
Article
Full-text available
In many developed countries over the past two decades, there have been new standards, new monitoring systems, new course and fieldwork requirements for teacher candidates, new accreditation criteria, and/or new auditing procedures for colleges and universities that offer initial teacher preparation programmes. However there has also been enormous v...
Article
This article takes a multi-case perspective on teacher preparation at new graduate schools of education (nGSEs) across four sites. The article argues that teacher preparation at nGSEs is a study in contrasts. On one hand, nGSE leaders frame teacher preparation at their institutions in terms of the marked contrasts they perceive between their progra...
Article
The relocation of teacher preparation to new graduate schools of education (nGSEs) is a highly controversial “innovation” within the rapidly expanding field of teacher education. This introductory article to a guest-edited issue of The New Educator focused on nGSEs defines teacher preparation at nGSEs and analyzes their characteristics. The article...
Technical Report
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This is NOT a technical report but there is no option for policy report. The authors are the Advisory Panel, APT. SSN: 1892-1604
Article
A controversial innovation within the rapidly expanding field of teacher education is the relocation of teacher preparation to new graduate schools of education (nGSEs), which are not university-based, but are state-authorized and approved as institutions of higher education to prepare teachers, endorse them for initial teacher certification, and g...
Article
Consistent with the anniversary theme of this special issue of ATE, this article offers an overview of 40 years of advocacy for social justice- and equity-centered teacher preparation through three extended examples from the author’s own work. Arranged chronologically and shaped by differing policy and political landscapes, the examples represent c...
Article
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This study presents the development and implementation of a novel approach to measure enactment of equity-centered teaching practice. The construct of practice for equity is drawn from international syntheses and the details of the scenario-format scale development are emphasized. The result is a 15-item Teaching Equity Enactment Scenario (TEES) Sc...
Article
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Most of today’s reforms of initial teacher education programs, policies, and practices have positioned teachers and teacher educators as the objects, rather than the agents of reform. In contrast, this article focuses on teacher educators as reformers by analyzing three approaches to reform that are initiated, developed, and promoted by teacher edu...
Book
Teacher accountability has been a major strategy for “fixing” education for the last 2 decades. In this book, Cochran-Smith and her research team argue that it is time for teacher educators to reclaim accountability by adopting a new approach that features intelligent professional responsibility, challenges the structures and processes that reprodu...
Article
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A new report from NCTQ begins with nine goals purportedly based on the "best available research evidence" about teacher quality. Yet neither this report nor its companion, which describes the original development of the goals, cites any research evidence. The report also uses the terms "teacher quality" and "teacher effectiveness" (on raising test...
Article
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NCTQ recently released its 2018 review of U.S. teacher preparation programs. Employing open-records requests and online searches, the report ranks 567 graduate teacher preparation programs, 129 alternative route programs, and 18 residencies on practice, knowledge and admissions. The report seeks to determine if the teacher preparation programs are...
Article
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In keeping with the theme of the 40th anniversary issue of EJTE, this article looks back and forward at US teacher education accountability. It argues that “holding teacher education accountable” has been the major approach to reforming teacher education in the US for the last two decades, assuming that enhanced teacher education quality depends on...
Article
Full-text available
Our purpose is to provide an exploratory statistical representation of initial teacher education as a complex system comprised of dynamic influential elements. More precisely, we reveal what the system looks like for differently-positioned teacher education stakeholders based on our framework for gathering, statistically analyzing, and graphically...
Article
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Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in many countries are grappling with ways to address the persistent problem of inequitable educational outcomes between advantaged and disadvantaged students. This paper reports the results of a unique cross-country, cross-cultural analysis undertaken to provide insights into teaching practices that pro...
Article
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Despite a growing body of knowledge about what content, processes and arrangements for learning may result in more effective initial teacher education, there remains a problem with the variability of outcomes from teacher education programmes. This paper reports on a multi-perspective exploration of what influences learning to teach in valued ways...
Article
This article examines evidence regarding the assessment learning of preservice teachers (PTs) in a new Master of Teaching designed to prepare teachers to address the less than equitable outcomes of certain groups of students in New Zealand. The assessment curriculum was integrated across all of the courses and the in-school experiences as one of si...
Article
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Differential student achievement has particular significance in New Zealand as it has one of the largest gaps between high and low achievers among all OECD countries. Students from low socio-economic status (SES) communities, who are often Māori and Pasifika, are heavily over-represented in the low achieving group, while students from wealthier com...
Article
This essay considers the absence, presence, and shifting treatment of the topic of research on teaching and teacher education in AERA presidential addresses. To capture the arc of this topic, the essay is structured chronologically according to three time periods beginning with AERA’s birth in 1916 and continuing to the current years. At a general...
Article
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Career decisions of four teachers are explored through the concept of figured worlds in this qualitative, longitudinal case study. Participants were purposefully chosen for similarity at entry, with a range of career trajectories over time. Teacher career paths included remaining in one school, repeated changes in schools, attrition after relocatio...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on three bodies of research on teacher preparation for diversity and high-poverty schools in the U.S. Although the inference is that these contexts include relatively high numbers of students living in poverty or in very low-income families, few of these studies attended closely to preparing teachers to understand the particula...
Article
This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of “research as historically situated social practice,” which emphasizes that researchers’ interests, commitments, and social experiences guide the rese...
Article
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This is the second of a two-part article intended to offer teacher educators a cohesive overview of the sprawling and uneven field of research on teacher preparation by identifying, analyzing, and critiquing its major programs. The article discusses research on teacher preparation for the knowledge society and research on teacher preparation for di...
Article
This is the first of a two-part article that aims to chart the contemporary landscape of research on teacher preparation and certification. It is based on a review of more than 1,500 studies published between 2000 and 2012. Part 1 provides information about how the review was conducted and describes the theoretical/analytic framework the authors de...
Article
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Background/Context In many countries, there are multiple studies intended to improve initial teacher education. These have generally focused on pieces of teacher education rather than wholes, and have used an underlying linear logic. It may be, however, that what is needed are new research questions and theoretical frameworks that account for whole...
Article
Background/Context: Questions about teacher quality, including how teachers ought to be educated and licensed, rank near the top of the educational agenda in the United States. These controversies persist because of lack of consensus about what "teacher quality" means, conflicting claims about the empirical evidence, and public skepticism about the...
Article
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Although the turnover rate among beginning teachers has been a major concern for some time, most studies do not link teacher retention with teaching practice. In contrast, this study looks specifically at career decisions coupled with practice. Guided by a view of teaching as social and cultural practice, the study used multiple qualitative data so...
Article
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This article explores the enduring fissure between general and special teacher education by focusing directly on the issues that divide these two fields. In the first part of the article, the authors describe their individual and shared positionalities as scholars and practitioners. Then the article examines differences in the disciplinary traditio...
Article
By contrasting the experiences of two new teachers, the author identifies key factors that make the difference between failure and success in the profession.
Article
In this article about her early career development and the experiences that shaped her life as a scholar and researcher, the author describes the work lives of university-based teacher educators and what it means to compose a research life in this field. This article draws on the author's 30 years as a university-based teacher educator. In it, she...
Article
Full-text available
All over the world, countries are paying close attention to how teachers are recruited, selected, and prepared for the nation’s schools. Increasingly, teachers are expected to teach all students to high standards at the same time that they play a major role in meeting rising expectations regarding social equity. Preparing teachers for these challen...
Article
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Currently there are multiple teacher education reform policies being proposed, piloted, and debated at a variety of levels and by various interest groups, stakeholders, and policy-makers. Along with an unprecedented sense of urgency about these important goals, what most U.S. reforms have in common is increased accountability. Using a discourse app...
Article
The authors of this article have been writing together about practitioner research and inquiry for more than 25 years. In this article, they trace the roots of this interest to their work with K-12 teachers and school leaders over many years and their dissatisfaction with the idea that external researchers produce all the knowledge necessary to cha...
Article
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In the United States, there is enormous controversy about how teachers ought to be prepared and licensed. Many of the sharpest controversies stem from acute public skepticism about whether formal teacher preparation is really necessary at all given the lack of j conclusive evidence that teacher preparation has a direct impact ori students' achievem...
Article
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This study used the Teaching for Social Justice Observation Scale (TSJOS) of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol-Plus (RTOP+) to examine the extent to which twenty-two novice elementary teachers implemented practices related to teaching for social justice in their mathematics instruction. In addition, this study sought to examine the extent...
Article
This study examined the classroom practices of beginning elementary school teachers' instruction of mathematics and how it connected to their pupils' learning. The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) was used to measure the extent to which beginning teachers used reformed teaching practices. As a measure of pupil learning, we utilized ass...
Chapter
In the United States, teacher education and teacher learning have been highly debated topics since the time that teacher preparation first emerged as an identifiable activity in the late 1800s. The relationship of research to teacher education and the role of research in teacher learning have been central issues in the debates almost from the begin...
Article
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p>There are many controversies related to the increasingly widespread theme of "social justice" in teacher education, including debates about whether and/or how promoting pupils' learning is part of this theme. This article briefly discusses the concept of teacher education for social justice in terms of pupils' learning and then considers this not...
Article
Currently the press to make policy and practice decisions on the basis of evidence is being coupled with recognition that real change requires shifts in organizational culture. Consequently, there are now many efforts to "re-culture" organizations by making evidence central to decision making. In this article, the authors problematize the notion of...
Article
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In many teacher education programs, some form of inquiry or practitioner research is now included in the preservice teacher education curriculum. The intention is to help teacher candidates become professionals who are lifelong learners who raise questions and research their practice across the professional career. At the same time, teacher educati...
Article
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A particularly controversial aspect of teacher preparation is the increasing number of teacher preparation programs that emphasize "social justice" as part of the curriculum. This article examines how students in a program with a social justice agenda understood the concept and how their understandings played out in practice. Using interviews and o...
Chapter
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During the last decade, dramatic changes have occurred in education policy and practice and in the larger economic and political contexts in the USA and elsewhere. Based on the widely shared view that education and the economy are inextricably linked, it is now assumed that teachers can – and should – teach all students as per world-class standards...
Article
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This article speaks to two current trends in teacher education—the press to assess teacher education in terms of measurable outcomes, on one hand, and the growing emphasis on social justice as a theme of teacher education, on the other. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of teacher education for social justice. Then, using Rasch It...
Article
There is now unprecedented emphasis on teacher quality in the USA and in many nations around the world with extremely high expectations for teacher performance. Based on the assumption that education and the economy are inextricably linked, it is now assumed that teachers can - and should - teach all students to world-class standards, serve as the...
Article
Full-text available
The authors illustrate how a Rasch model can guide the development of a new affective measurement instrument - the Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs scale. The results provide strong evidence of a meaningful continuum of attitudes about teaching for social justice ranging from those easier to endorse to those more difficult to endorse.
Article
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In this article Marilyn Cochran-Smith and Susan Lytle offer a critique of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) related to the implications for teachers in educational improvement. Through an analysis of the NCLB legislation and accompanying policy tools that support it, the authors explore three images or central common conceptions symbolic of basic attitud...
Article
In this article, Cochran-Smith argues that now more than ever, teacher education needs public intellectuals to challenge prevailing views and expose its governing myths. The author makes this argument by describing two issues that are in great need of public critique: (1) the myth that teacher education is a public policy problem that can be resolv...
Article
Teacher shortages, like the one schools face today, are not new. Periodically over the last 50 years there were fewer teachers available than were needed, and the response was primarily to step up recruitment efforts and issue temporary teaching credentials to those without qualifications. Three things are new however: (1) The requirement that teac...
Article
For almost as long as teacher education programs have existed, there has been controversy about the appropriate balance between liberal arts and pedagogy, theory and practice, and university experiences and school-based experiences. The author of this article, a member of the American Educational Research Association's Panel on Teacher Education, i...
Article
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En 1999 la Asociación Americana de Investigación Educativa (AERA) creó un Panel de Investigación en Formación del Profesorado para el que se nombraron a 17 personas y se asignaron las siguientes tareas: llevar a cabo una revisión crítica y equilibrada de la evidencia empírica sobre las políticas y prácticas relativas a la formación inicial del prof...
Article
This article suggests that part of the task of the teacher educator is functioning simultaneously as both researcher and practitioner. However, there are sharply diverging viewpoints about the worth of this kind of research. On the one hand, there is now more research about teacher education being conducted by teacher educators themselves than at a...
Article
This article offers a reading of the current state of the field of teacher education, identifying current reforms, emerging trends, and new underlying premises. The author argues that a "new teacher education" has been emerging with three closely coupled pieces: It is constructed as a public policy problem, based on research and evidence, and drive...
Chapter
This chapter is based on the claim that we need a theory of teacher education for social change, one that is grounded in the relevant educational scholarship as well as grounded in the practice of school-based teachers. The components of the grounded theory include: knowledge and interpretation frameworks, ideology and political frameworks, K-12 pe...
Article
In the context of escalating criticism of university-based teacher education across the world, a clear need exists for informed defence of the field and the profession as well as critical evaluation of both teacher education and schooling. This paper takes up the issue of the 'outcomes question' in this regard, arguing the case for a strong focus o...
Article
Despite the many expectations that US and other teacher educators around the world are striving to meet, there has been little attention to development of a curriculum for educating teacher educators, or to local and larger policies that might support the development of what teacher educators need to know and do in order to meet the complex demands...
Article
Discusses the current controversy in teacher education about whether or not there is a research base that justifies particular practices related to the preparation, certification, recruitment, retention, and entry routes of teachers, focusing on guiding metaphors for research underlying these discussions, which include: research as weapon, research...
Article
In response to Fenstermacher’s and Furlong’s commentaries, Cochran-Smith and Fries suggest three additional points to extend the dialogue about the reform of teacher education. They discuss the potential value of debates that marshal evidence for a particular policy position, the importance of open discussion about the ideologies that underlie diff...