Marika Tiggemann

Marika Tiggemann
Flinders University · School of Psychology

About

359
Publications
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25,127
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Publications

Publications (359)
Article
Full-text available
Background Limited screening practices, minimal eating disorder training in the healthcare professions, and barriers related to help-seeking contribute to persistent low rates of eating disorder detection, significant unmet treatment need, and appreciable associated disease burden. The current review sought to broadly summarise the literature and i...
Article
Social media have become a major part of contemporary life. They are also a potent source of idealized and unrealistic imagery. Contributing to the lack of realism is the ability to digitally modify photos by applying a filter or editing software. One strategy suggested to counteract the negative consequences of idealized imagery on body image is t...
Article
The prevalence of unhealthy food cues in our environment is a major contributor to poor dietary behaviours. Emerging research has shown that changing the food environment through the co-presentation of a healthy food cue may subtly ‘nudge’ individuals towards making healthier choices. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a healthy f...
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Full-text available
Background Eating disorders (EDs) are highly complex mental illnesses associated with significant medical complications. There are currently knowledge gaps in research relating to the epidemiology, aetiology, treatment, burden, and outcomes of eating disorders. To clearly identify and begin addressing the major deficits in the scientific, medical,...
Article
Soft drink consumption has become a major public health issue. The present study aimed to examine the role of rash impulsivity and reward sensitivity in soft drink consumption using the two-factor model of impulsivity. Participants were a community sample of 229 adults (19–77 years). They completed self-report measures of impulsivity (SUPPS–P), rew...
Article
This review presents recent trends in social media and body image research, with a particular focus on different social media platforms, features unique to social media and potentially positive content for body image. First, it was found that visual platforms (e.g., Instagram) were more dysfunctional for body image than more textual platforms (e.g....
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Full-text available
Although attentional bias modification has been shown effective in several appetitive domains, results have been mixed. A major contributor seems to be the choice of control condition. The aim of the present study was to compare attentional bias modification for chocolate against a new control condition, sham-n (neutral or no-contingency) training....
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Previous attempts to promote healthy eating using explicit techniques have not been consistently successful. We therefore investigated an implicit strategy (item placement techniques) to encourage healthy food choices in the context of snack menus. Two experimental studies compared presentation of healthy items in the top, middle, and bottom sectio...
Article
Global consumption of soft drinks has increased rapidly over the past 50 years, making this a major public health problem. Guided by dual-process models, the present study aimed to provide a comprehensive investigation of the roles of cognitive biases (evaluative, attentional, and approach biases) and self-regulatory control in soft drink consumpti...
Article
In the age of social media, “likes” are increasingly considered a numerical indicator of popularity and a measure of self-worth. Using an online questionnaire, Australian women (N = 291) aged 18–55 years self-reported their reaction to Instagram removing the visibility of the number of likes from other people’s posts, and completed measures of comp...
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Continual exposure to soft drink cues in the environment is thought to be a major contributor to the rising consumption of soft drinks. This study investigated the effect of one such cue, television advertising, on soft drink choice and intake. Within the context of dual-process models, we examined whether any such effects would be stronger for ind...
Article
Celebrities are well-known individuals who receive extensive public and media attention. There is an increasing body of research on the effect of celebrities on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Yet, there has been no synthesis of the research findings. A systematic search for research articles on celebrities and body image or eating diso...
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Despite men using social media in increasing numbers, as yet there has been little research addressing effects on men’s body image. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to idealized male Instagram images on men’s body satisfaction. Participants were 300 men aged 18–30 years who were randomly assigned to view clothe...
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Full-text available
A small body of research has investigated the relationship between an immoral disposition and schadenfreude. Less work has investigated the relationship between immoral behavior and schadenfreude. The aim of the present study was to separate out dispositional and behavioral attributions by both manipulation and measurement and thereby to investigat...
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One increasing trend on social media is the posting of body positive content that aims to challenge narrow beauty ideals and instead promote acceptance and appreciation of all bodies. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of body positive captions attached to Instagram images on young women’s body image. Particip...
Article
Social media have given rise to new forms of self-presentation, in particular, the posting of self-portrait photos, commonly known as “selfies.” The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the relationship between selfie editing and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 130 women aged 18–30 years who were asked to view Instagra...
Article
Research has shown that exposure to Instagram images is harmful for women’s body image. Although Instagram consists of photos of both peers and celebrities, the top followed Instagram accounts are held by thin and attractive female celebrities. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate whether two forms of Instagram caption could mitiga...
Article
One increasing trend on social media is the posting of challenging or “reality check” comments about idealized photos of thin and attractive women. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of viewing such reality check comments after a positive appearance comment on young women’s body image. Participants were 192 wo...
Article
The present study experimentally examined the effects of viewing Instagram images of fitspiration on body dissatisfaction, mood, and exercise behaviour among young women. Further, the study investigated if exercise engagement following exposure to fitspiration images could mitigate any negative effects from image exposure. Participants were 108 wom...
Article
Idealised imagery depicting the functionality of a model's body (e.g., in fitness contexts) can trigger negative effects in viewers similar to, or worse than, traditionally posed images of models. Thus far, most of this research has been conducted on images of thin models. Building upon previous research, we examined the effect of pose (active vers...
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Full-text available
Energy drink consumption is increasing worldwide, especially among young adults, and has been associated with physical and mental health problems. In two experiments, we tested the prediction that energy drink consumption is in part driven by biased cognitive processing (attentional and approach biases), with a view to modifying these to reduce con...
Article
One recent trend on Instagram consists of posting ‘Instagram vs reality’ images containing side-by-side photographs of the same woman, one an idealized depiction and the other a more natural depiction. This study aimed to experimentally investigate the effect of such images on body image. Participants were 305 women aged 18–30 years who were random...
Article
Instagram is a popular social networking site where users can post and share photos. One increasing trend on the site is the posting of natural and unaltered images. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the effect of enhancement-free (i.e., no makeup, no digital alteration) Instagram images and their accompanying hashtags on women'...
Article
The present study used eye tracking technology to experimentally investigate the effect of different label formats on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements, and its relationship with body dissatisfaction and appearance comparison. Participants were 260 female undergraduate students whose eye movements were recorded while viewi...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate whether the provision of prior information about digital alteration would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels attached to fashion images in protecting against body dissatisfaction. Participants were 363 female undergraduate students who viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no label or...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the spatial positioning of a healthy food cue in the context of unhealthy food cues on subsequent food choice. Undergraduate women (N = 143) were asked to choose a food from a pictorial-style menu that presented a salad and three unhealthier food options in a horizontal line. The position of the...
Article
The Compensatory Health Beliefs Model proposes that individuals may believe that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for by subsequent engagement in a healthy behaviour. The present study aimed to test this proposition, specifically by examining the influence of snack consumption (healthy, unhealthy) on type of activity selected (physical, se...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate maternal feeding strategies as prospective predictors of young children's food preferences. Participants were 106 mother – child dyads with data collected when children were aged 4 (Time 1) and then again at 6 years old (Time 2). Mothers completed an initial questionnaire at Time 1 which contained measures of...
Article
The contemporary food-rich environment has been consistently linked to unhealthy eating. Emerging research suggests that changing the presentation context of unhealthy foods by introducing a subtle nudge in the form of a healthy food cue may promote healthier dietary choices. This study investigated the effect of the timing of a healthy food cue (b...
Article
Positive body image is a multidimensional construct referring to love, respect, and acceptance of one’s body, including aspects inconsistent with sociocultural ideals. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential pathways leading from religion and spirituality to positive body image. Participants were 345 women who completed questionna...
Article
The Elaborated-Intrusion Theory of Desire (Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005) suggests that cravings are made up of two distinct stages whereby an initial, seemingly spontaneous craving-related thought is sufficiently intrusive and pleasant for it then to be elaborated with vivid mental imagery. Previous questionnaire studies have investigated the cra...
Article
"Selfies" (self-taken photos) are a common self-presentation strategy on social media. This study experimentally tested whether taking and posting selfies, with and without photo-retouching, elicits changes to mood and body image among young women. Female undergraduate students (N = 110) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental condition...
Article
Instagram is an increasingly popular social networking site where users post and share photos. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of viewing appearance-related comments accompanying Instagram images on women's body image. Participants were 128 female undergraduate students who viewed a set of attractive images...
Article
Photo-based activity on social networking sites has recently been identified as contributing to body image concerns. The present study aimed to investigate experimentally the effect of number of likes accompanying Instagram images on women's own body dissatisfaction. Participants were 220 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to...
Article
Restrictive feeding strategies have been associated with increased eating in the absence of hunger in a small number of studies of young girls. The aim of the present study was to examine a broader range of maternal feeding styles and eating in the absence of hunger in both girls and boys aged 3-5 years old. Participants were 184 mother-child dyads...
Article
Full-text available
The present study experimentally examined the impact of different forms of inspirational fitness images (“fitspiration”) on women’s body image. Australian female participants (n = 152, 17–30 years-old; Mage = 21.55, SD = 3.94) were randomly assigned to view fitspiration media which depicted the body in a functional (performing exercise) or non-func...
Article
The present study investigated the effect of two craving reduction techniques, namely, cognitive defusion and guided imagery, on naturalistic food cravings. These techniques targeted the intrusion and elaboration stages of the craving process, respectively (Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005). Participants underwent a seven-day baseline period followed...
Article
Thinspiration and fitspiration represent contemporary online trends designed to inspire viewers towards the thin ideal or towards health and fitness respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare thinspiration and fitspiration communities on Twitter. A total of 3289 English-language tweets with hashtags related to thinspiration (n = 1181...
Article
The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic...
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Full-text available
Although it is well-established that an objectively deserved misfortune promotes schadenfreude about the misfortune, there is a small body of research suggesting that an undeserved misfortune can also enhance schadenfreude. The aim of the present study was to investigate the processes that underlie schadenfreude about an undeserved misfortune. Part...
Article
We tested the effectiveness of a positive appearance or functionality reflective writing task on women's body satisfaction and whether these writing task reflections offered any protective advantage when exposed to idealised imagery. Young adult women (N=230; Mage=23years) wrote about positive elements of either their appearance or their body's fun...
Article
Recent studies have documented a shift in the cultural ideal of physical attractiveness, with women subscribing to a visibly toned ideal that emphasises health and fitness. The present study experimentally investigated the impact of athletic and muscular fitness-idealised images compared to traditional thin ideal images on women’s body dissatisfact...
Article
Two experiments investigated whether attentional bias modification can inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world appetitive food cues, namely television advertisements for chocolate products. Using a modified dot probe task, undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward (attend) or away from (avoid) chocolate pictures...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children’s healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design Cross sectional study Methods Mothers ( n = 611) of children aged 2–7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding strate...
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The present experiment aimed to investigate the impact of the addition of disclaimer labels to fashion magazine shoots on women’s body dissatisfaction. Participants were 320 female undergraduate students who viewed fashion shoots containing a thin and attractive model with no disclaimer label, or a small, large, or very large disclaimer label, or p...
Article
The study aimed to modify approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and to determine its effect on subsequent food consumption. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of impulsivity in the effect of approach bias re-training on food consumption. Participants were 200 undergraduate women (17–26 years) who were randomly allocat...
Article
Objective: The current study aimed to examine the effects of approach bias for unhealthy food and trait eating style on consumption of unhealthy food in overweight and normal weight individuals. Method: Participants were 245 undergraduate women aged 17 - 26 years. They completed an Approach-Avoidance Task, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnair...
Article
The current study aimed to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of 3 measures of body image disturbance (body image flexibility, body avoidance, and body checking) considered to be relevant to eating disorder psychopathology, with the aim of determining the optimal structure of each for use in treatment planning and outcome monit...
Article
The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration...
Article
Author note: Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps and Marika Tiggemann, School of Psychology, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
Article
Barbie doll ownership is high among girls in early primary school. It has been suggested that exposure to Barbie impacts negatively on body image. The present study sought to investigate the effect of exposure to Barbie on young girls’ thin-ideal internalisation, body esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 160 girls (aged 5–8 years) fr...
Article
Food cue exposure has been shown to trigger overeating in restrained eaters. To explore the difficulties experienced by these individuals in regulating their food intake, recent investigations have sought to determine the impact of exposure to a low calorie food cue, but with mixed success. This study tested the possibility that contextual differen...
Article
Background: Although the demand for labiaplasty has increased rapidly over the past decade, little is known about the psychological outcomes of this procedure. In particular, there is a lack of prospective controlled studies to assess the effects of labiaplasty on women's psychological well-being and intimate relationship quality. Nor has research...
Article
Background Labiaplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. However, the psychological outcomes of this procedure, such as the effects on women’s sex lives and psychological well-being, have received little attention from researchers to date. In addition, the investigation of factors which predict satisfaction with surgical outcomes is als...
Article
This study sought to identify parent-feeding behaviours in real-life difficult feeding situations through the use of a set of scenarios. These were then used to examine links between parent feeding and child snack intake. Mothers of children aged 2–7 years (n = 611) completed an online survey containing five snack food request scenarios, two common...
Article
Objective: The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship across time between Facebook use and body image concern in adolescent girls. Method: A sample of 438 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) at Time 1 completed questionnaire measures of Facebook consumption and body image concerns, and...
Article
A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view eit...
Article
Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6–9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via prefere...
Article
This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanis...
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The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in the...
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The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment...
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We examined whether shifting young women’s (N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about t...
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A large body of literature has demonstrated mass media effects on body image and disordered eating. More recently, research in this area has turned to 'new' forms of media, such as the Internet, and particularly Social Networking Sites (SNSs). A systematic search for peer-reviewed articles on SNS use and body image and eating disorders resulted in...
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The current study aimed to investigate the effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels appended to fashion magazine advertisements, as well as instructional condition, on women's social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 378 female undergraduate students who viewed 11 thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a gen...
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Objective: Fitspiration is a recent Internet trend designed to motivate people to eat healthily and to exercise. The aim of the study was to investigate disordered eating and exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram. Method: Participants were 101 women who post fitspiration images on Instagram and a comparison group of 102 women who...
Article
There is widespread concern about young girls displaying ‘grown up’ or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexuali...
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Pre-exposure to food cues has often been shown to increase food intake, especially in restrained eaters. This study investigated the role of expectations in the effect of such pre-exposure on food intake. A sample of 88 undergraduate women was exposed to visual food cues (photos of grapes and chocolate-chip cookies). In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, particip...
Article
Background: An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. Objectives: To investigate the factors that influence women’s decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Methods: Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were com...
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‘Fitspiration’ is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. This study provides a content analysis of fitspiration imagery on the social networking site Instagram. A set of 600 images were coded for body type, activity, objectification and textual elements. Results showed that...
Article
The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's...
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We thank Dr Hunter1 for his thoughtful comments on our work.2 We agree that our study was low in statistical power owing to the relatively small participant cohorts and so there may have been further statistically significant differences between the labiaplasty and comparison groups which could not be detected. Nevertheless, we think our research r...
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This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predic...
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Full-text available
The study aimed to investigate the construct of enjoyment of sexualisation and how it relates to positive body image. In addition to undergraduate university students, a sample of recreational pole dancers was included to demonstrate how results might generalise to an activity identified as representing both the potentially negative and positive as...
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Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N = 68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assesse...
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Globally there is increasing advocacy for the implementation of laws requiring disclaimer labels to be attached to media images that have been digitally altered, with the goal of reducing the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal imagery for women. The current study used eye tracking technology to establish how digital altera...
Article
Introduction There has been a rapid increase in the demand for labial reduction surgery or labiaplasty in recent years. Labiaplasty is commonly performed for aesthetic reasons, more specifically; patients desire a smooth vulvar surface with ‘tucked in’ labia minora. In general, women are not aware of the great diversity in normal female genital app...
Article
This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N=68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assessed...
Article
Accumulating evidence shows that overweight individuals exhibit an attentional bias for food, and that this bias can be modified. This study investigated the longevity of such modification effects. Using a dot probe paradigm, a community sample of overweight and obese women (N=104) was trained to direct attention toward ('attend') or away from ('av...
Book
Children, from infancy through adolescence, now spend more time consuming media content than they do in school, with parents or engaging in any activity other than sleep. Parents, educators, and policy-makers are concerned, confused and overwhelmed, since the media we use and how we use them influence virtually every aspect of our lives. The Harva...
Article
Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instag...
Article
Although the study of body image has been dominated by a focus on negative aspects, recent research interest has turned towards positive body image. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an integrative review of empirical research on the positive body image of individuals across a range of social identities beyond the typical college stude...
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Objectives: The overall aim of the study was to investigate the applicability of Objectification Theory to the mental health of early adolescent girls, in particular, their dieting behaviors and depressive symptoms. Both predictors and consequences of self-objectification were examined. Methods: A sample of 204 girls with a mean age of 11.6 year...
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To examine proposed predictors of intuitive eating, including social appearance comparison, and to test a modified acceptance model of intuitive eating in adolescent girls. Participants were 400 adolescent girls aged 12-16 years who completed measures of body acceptance by others, self-objectification, social appearance comparison, body appreciatio...
Article
Breast reconstruction has established psychosocial benefit compared to mastectomy alone. Evaluation of determinants of breast reconstruction outcome has previously been limited by lack of high quality, condition-specific, patient-reported outcomes measures. The BREAST-Q is such a measure and is well suited to comparison against objective measuremen...
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Accumulating evidence shows that cognitive bias modification produces immediate changes in attentional bias for, and consumption of, rewarding substances including food. This study examined the longevity of these attentional bias modification effects. A modified dot probe paradigm was used to determine whether alterations in bia