Marieke Karlijn Van Vugt

Marieke Karlijn Van Vugt
University of Groningen | RUG · Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering (Alice)

PhD

About

54
Publications
26,716
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1,201
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2010 - present
University of Groningen
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • assistant professor in the cognitive modeling group, leading a group that investigates decision making, memory, brain oscillations, and meditation, all with the help of cognitive models

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
Performing a cognitive task requires going through a sequence of functionally diverse stages. Although it is typically assumed that these stages are characterized by distinct states of cortical synchrony that are triggered by sub-cortical events, little reported evidence supports this hypothesis. To test this hypothesis, we first identified cogniti...
Article
Full-text available
Preparing for the future during ongoing activities is an essential skill. Yet it is currently unclear to what extent we can prepare for the future in parallel with another task. In two experiments, we investigated how characteristics of a present task influenced whether and when participants prepared for the future, as well as its usefulness. We fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
In Tibetan monasteries, the education system relies heavily on a very specific style of debating that is at once exhilarating and intellectually rigorous. Relatively little research has been done on the psychological and neural mechanisms of this debate, which may be an interesting method for education around the world. Hence the formation of a the...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster was to present ongoing research, which got published as a conference paper at the MathPsych/ICCM 2020 conference. The (slightly different) title then was "A Computational Cognitive Model of Reasoning in Tibetan Buddhist Monastic Debate".
Preprint
Throughout the day, we may sometimes catch ourselves in patterns of thought that we experience as rigid and difficult to disengage from. Such “sticky” thinking can be highly disruptive to ongoing tasks, and when it turns into rumination constitutes a vulnerability for mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. The main goal of the present stu...
Preprint
Preparing for the future during ongoing activities is an essential skill. Yet, it is currently unclear to what extent we can prepare for the future in parallel with another task. In two experiments, we investigated how characteristics of a present task influenced whether and when participants prepared for the future, as well as its usefulness. We f...
Chapter
If we want to be productive, it would be great if we could track productivity in some way, such that it is possible to determine what factors help and hinder productivity. Biometric sensors may be helpful for such productivity tracking. But what does being productive mean?
Chapter
Full-text available
No day passes without seeing mindfulness mentioned in popular blogs as the solution for productivity. Many large companies offer mindfulness classes. Why would mindfulness be useful for productivity? Before discussing that question, it is important to first define mindfulness. Traditionally it has been defined by the originator of the mindfulness m...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have suggested that the centro-parietal positivity (CPP), an EEG potential occurring approximately 500 ms post-stimulus, reflects the accumulation of evidence for making a decision. Yet, most previous studies of the CPP focused exclusively on perceptual decisions with very simple stimuli. In this study, we examined how the dynamics...
Article
Full-text available
Computational modeling and meditation are not frequently mentioned in the same breath. However, in this article we argue that computational modeling can provide insights into the mechanisms by which meditation produces its effects on cognition. Moreover, computational modeling allows the researcher to make predictions about how effects of meditatio...
Data
Fig. S1. Example of one trial EEG phase (dotted, light blue), the probability distributions for the location of cognitive stages' onsets (solid lines), and the analysis windows of relevant cognitive events (brackets). Fig. S2. Beta band phase locking (ITPC: inter‐trial phase clustering), and phase connectivity (dwPLI: de‐biased weighted phase‐lag i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Analytical meditation and monastic debate are contemplative practices engaged in by Tibetan Buddhist monastics that have up to now been largely unexplored in Western contemplative science. The highly physical form of contemplative debating plays an important role in the monastic curriculum. Based on intensive discussions and recorded interviews wit...
Preprint
Computational modeling and meditation are not frequently mentioned in the same breath. However, in this article we argue that computational modeling can provide insights into the mechanisms by which meditation produces its effects on cognition. Moreover, computational modeling allows the researcher to make predictions about how effects of meditatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Monastic debate is an interactive and dyadic analytical meditation practice by which Tibetan monastics seek to jointly deepen their understanding of complicated philosophical issues. We examined the neural correlates of this analytical meditation practice by means of hyperscanning EEG. Consistent with the idea that analytical meditation helps to tr...
Article
Full-text available
Rumination is a process of uncontrolled, narrowly focused negative thinking that is often self-referential, and that is a hallmark of depression. Despite its importance, little is known about its cognitive mechanisms. Rumination can be thought of as a specific, constrained form of mind-wandering. Here, we introduce a cognitive model of rumination t...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive modeling is the effort to understand the mind by implementing theories of the mind in computer code, producing measures comparable to human behavior and mental activity. The community of cognitive modelers has traditionally met twice every 3 years at the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM). In this special issue of topiC...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigated the time course and neural correlates of the retrieval process underlying visual working memory. We made use of a rare dataset in which the same task was recorded using both scalp electroen-cephalography (EEG) and Electrocorticography (ECoG), respectively. This allowed us to examine with great spatial and temporal det...
Chapter
Decision making is thought to involve a process of evidence accumulation, modelled as a drifting diffusion process. This modeling framework suggests that all single-stage decisions involve a similar evidence accumulation process. In this paper we use decoding by machine learning classifiers on intracranially recorded EEG (iEEG) to examine whether d...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies seek to understand the role of oscillatory synchronization in cognition. This problem is particularly challenging in the context of complex cognitive behavior, which consists of a sequence of processing steps with uncertain duration. In this study, we analyzed oscillatory connectivity measures in time windows that previous computat...
Article
We investigated how self-referential processing (SRP) affected self-generated thought in a complex working memory task (CWM) to test the predictions of a computational cognitive model. This model described self-generated thought as resulting from competition between task- and distracting processes, and predicted that self-generated thought interfer...
Article
Full-text available
During the past two decades, mindfulness meditation has gone from being a fringe topic of scientific investigation to being an occasional replacement for psychotherapy, tool of corporate well-being, widely implemented educational practice, and “key to building more resilient soldiers.” Yet the mindfulness movement and empirical evidence supporting...
Article
Full-text available
In response to our article, Davidson and Dahl offer commentary and advice regarding additional topics crucial to a comprehensive prescriptive agenda for future research on mindfulness and meditation. Their commentary raises further challenges and provides an important complement to our article. More consideration of these issues is especially welco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although meditation and mindfulness practices are widely discussed in the scientific literature, there is little formal theory about the cognitive mechanisms that comprise it. Here we begin to develop such a theory by creating a computational cognitive model of a particular type of meditation: focused attention meditation. This model was created wi...
Article
Full-text available
Training in meditation has been shown to affect functioning of several attentional subsystems, most prominently conflict monitoring, and to some extent orienting. These previous findings described the effects of cueing and manipulating stimulus congruency on response times and accuracies. However, changes in accuracy and response times can arise fr...
Article
Background: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. New method: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift diffusion model, we slowed down decisions by pena...
Chapter
Recent research has started to map out the cognitive and neural processes underlying spontaneous thinking. However, this basic neuroscience has mostly overlooked one crucial aspect: the dimension of being stuck in self-related thought—a phenomenon sometimes referred to as ‘perseverative cognition’. Decades of clinical research and thousands of year...
Article
Full-text available
Interruptions are prevalent in everyday life and can be very disruptive. An important factor that affects the level of disruptiveness is the timing of the interruption: Interruptions at low-workload moments are known to be less disruptive than interruptions at high-workload moments. In this study, we developed a task-independent interruption manage...
Article
Interruptions are part of everyday life and are known to be disruptive. With the current study we investigated which kind of interruption is more disruptive: external interruptions or self-interruptions. We conducted two experiments, one behavioral experiment (28 participants) and one in which pupil dilation was measured (21 participants). In both...
Article
Full-text available
When asked to perform a certain task, we typically spend a decent amount of time thinking thoughts unrelated to that task--a phenomenon referred to as 'mind-wandering.' It is thought that this mind-wandering is driven at least in part by our unfinished goals and concerns. Previous studies have shown that just after presenting a participant with the...
Article
Full-text available
Models of evidence accumulation have been very successful at describing human decision making behavior. Recent years have also seen the first reports of neural correlates of this accumulation process. However, these studies have mostly focused on perceptual decision making tasks, ignoring the role of additional cognitive processes like memory retri...
Article
The goal of cognitive modeling is to build faithful simulations of human cognition. One of the challenges is that multiple models can often explain the same phenomena. Another challenge is that models are often very hard to understand, explore, and reuse by others. We discuss some of the solutions that were discussed during the 2015 International C...
Conference Paper
Cognitive models assume a one-to-one correspondence between task and goals. We argue that modeling a task by combining multiple goals has several advantages: a task can be constructed from components that are reused from other tasks, and it enables modeling thought processes that compete with or support regular task performance. To achieve this, we...
Article
Full-text available
The phase reset hypothesis states that the phase of an ongoing neural oscillation, reflecting periodic fluctuations in neural activity between states of high and low excitability, can be shifted by the occurrence of a sensory stimulus so that the phase value become highly constant across trials (Schroeder et al., 2008). From EEG/MEG studies it has...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory (WM) is central to human cognition as it allows information to be kept online over brief periods of time and facilitates its usage in cognitive operations (Luck and Vogel, 2013). How this information maintenance actually is implemented is still a matter of debate. Several independent theories of WM, derived, respectively, from behavi...
Article
Full-text available
There is a rising scientific interest in the neuroscience behind contemplative practices (see e.g., Vago and Silbersweig, 2012 for a review), including movement-based practices such as yoga and tai chi. Given that, it becomes important to ask how such contemplative practices differ from Western movement practices such as dance. In both dance traini...
Article
Full-text available
Many perceptual decision making models posit that participants accumulate noisy evidence over time to improve the accuracy of their decisions, and that in free response tasks, participants respond when the accumulated evidence reaches a decision threshold. Research on the neural correlates of these models' components focuses primarily on evidence a...
Article
In contrast to our increasing knowledge of the role that oscillations in single brain regions play in cognition, very little is known about how coherence between oscillations in distant brain regions is related to information transmission. Here I present a cognitive modeling approach that can address that question. Specifically, I show how a model...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cognitive neuroscience could benefit from more detailed the-ories about how different cognitive resources interact and how those interactions unfold over time. Cognitive architectures such as ACT-R make predictions about such interactions. Pre-vious work has shown that the activation of ACT-R modules (i.e., cognitive resources) is correlated with o...
Data
Full-text available
While a clear relation has been established between ACT-R and activity in fMRI, little is known about whether ACT-R has also correlates in EEG activity. Because of its superior temporal resolution compared to fMRI, EEG could potentially be used to adjudicate between model versions that differ in time courses of module activation, even while generat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Theoretical Background Whenever we engage in a task, it is crucial we monitor our performance to make sure that it does not decline. When it does decline, the performance monitoring system takes action to remedy that, e.g., by slowing down responding (Laming, 1979; Rabbitt, 1966). Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, and Cohen (2001) proposed that thi...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether mindfulness training (MT) influences information processing in a working memory task with complex visual stimuli. Participants were tested before (T1) and after (T2) participation in an intensive one-month MT retreat, and their performance was compared with that of an age- and education-matched control group. Accuracy did no...
Article
Full-text available
Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in encoding and retrieval of contextually mediated episodic memories, considerable controversy surrounds the role of the hippocampus in short-term or working memory. To examine both hippocampal and neocortical contributions to working memory function, we recorded electrocorticographic activity from wide...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent studies have begun to elucidate the neural correlates of evidence accumulation in perceptual decision making. Few of them have used a combined modeling-electrophysiological approach to studying evidence accumulation. We introduce a novel multivariate approach to EEG analysis with which we can perform a comprehensive search for neural correla...
Article
Behavioral studies of visual recognition memory indicate that old/new decisions reflect both the similarity of the probe to the studied items (probe–item similarity) and the similarities among the studied items themselves (list homogeneity). Recording intracranial electroencephalography from 1,155 electrodes across 15 patients, we examined the osci...
Thesis
Full-text available
Similarity is known to affect memory. Visual item recognition refers to tasks where participants study a set of visual stimuli, and have to determine whether a probe item matches one of the items in the study set. This task is naturally sensitive to similarity effects and can well be described using" summed similarity models." These models posit...
Article
Spectral analysis methods are now routinely used in electrophysiological studies of human and animal cognition. Although a wide variety of spectral methods has been used, the ways in which these methods differ are not generally understood. Here we use simulation methods to characterize the similarities and differences between three spectral analysi...

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