Marie-Josee Fortin

Marie-Josee Fortin
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

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416
Publications
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Publications

Publications (416)
Article
Full-text available
Theory and empirical work suggest that coral reefs may exhibit alternative stable states of coral versus macroalgal dominance. However, it is unclear how dispersal of coral and macroalgae among reefs might impact this bistability and the resilience of the coral-dominated state. We develop a mathematical model to investigate how reef cover dynamics...
Article
Aim: Given the influence of seasonality on most ecological systems, an emerging research area attempts to understand how community network structure is shaped by seasonal climatic variations. To do so, most researchers conduct their analyses using open networks due to the high cost associated with constructing their own community networks. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Luna et al. (2022) concluded that the environment contributes to explaining specialisation in open plant–pollinator networks. When reproducing their study, we instead found that network size alone largely explained the variation in their specialisation metrics. Thus, we question whether empirical network specialisation is driven by the environment....
Preprint
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Amphibians are among the most threatened taxa as they are highly sensitive to habitat degradation and fragmentation. They are considered as model species to evaluate habitats quality in agricultural landscapes. In France, all amphibian species have a protected status requiring recovery plans for their conservation. Conservation networks combining p...
Preprint
Effective conservation of ecological communities requires accurate and up-to-date information about whether species are persisting or declining to extinction. The persistence of ecological communities is largely supported by its structured architecture of species interactions, known as an ecological network. While the persistence of the network sup...
Article
The aim was to determine reef connectivity and future coral cover levels under global scenarios of coral bleaching loss and potential recovery. Global coral reefs. Present‐day to 2100. Scleractinian coral. We used a global coral larval dispersal model that describes population connectivity among reefs at a resolution of ⅙° × ⅙° (c. 18 km × 18 km) c...
Preprint
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Hosts respond to infection using two general strategies: resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent or reduce an infection) and tolerance (i.e., the ability to minimize the cost of an infection), both known to vary across environmental conditions and within and between species. As resistance and tolerance strategies are the result of different mechan...
Article
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Natural disturbances exacerbated by novel climate regimes are increasing worldwide, threatening the ability of forest ecosystems to mitigate global warming through carbon sequestration and to provide other key ecosystem services. One way to cope with unknown disturbance events is to promote the ecological resilience of the forest by increasing both...
Article
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Larger geographical areas contain more species—an observation raised to a law in ecology. Less explored is whether biodiversity changes are accompanied by a modification of interaction networks. We use data from 32 spatial interaction networks from different ecosystems to analyse how network structure changes with area. We find that basic community...
Article
Despite their importance in many ecological processes, collecting data and information on ecological interactions is an exceedingly challenging task. For this reason, large parts of the world have a data deficit when it comes to species interactions, and how the resulting networks are structured. As data collection alone is unlikely to be sufficien...
Preprint
Metawebs, i.e. networks of potential interactions within a species pool, are a powerful abstraction to understand how large-scales species interaction networks are structured.Because metawebs are typically expressed at large spatial and taxonomic scales, assembling them is a tedious and costly process; predictive methods can help circumvent the lim...
Article
Canada has more lakes than any other country, making comprehensive monitoring a huge challenge. As more and more satellite data become readily available, and as faster data processing systems make massive satellite data operations possible, new opportunities exist to use remote sensing to develop comprehensive assessments of water quality at very l...
Article
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Ontogenetic development can strongly shape species interactions. Yet, rarely is stage-structure considered when analyzing species interaction networks, particularly networks that can account for more than feeding relationships. Here, we assess 1) if body size or trophic level regulate the importance of species' ontogeny on their interactions and 2)...
Article
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ContextSpecies distribution modelling is a common tool in conservation biology but two main criticisms remain: (1) the use of simplistic variables that do not account for species movements and/or connectivity and (2) poor consideration of multi-scale processes driving species distributions.Objectives We aimed to determine if including multi-scale a...
Article
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The rate of human-induced environmental change continues to accelerate, stimulating the need for rapid and science-based decision making. The recent availability of cyberinfrastructure, open-source data and novel techniques has increased opportunities to use ecological forecasts to predict environmental change. But to effectively inform environment...
Article
Social–ecological networks (SENs) represent the complex relationships between ecological and social systems and are a useful tool for analyzing and managing ecosystem services. However, mainstreaming the application of SENs in ecosystem service research has been hindered by a lack of clarity about how to match research questions to ecosystem servic...
Article
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In colonially breeding marine predators, individual movements and colonial segregation are influenced by seascape characteristics. Tidewater glacier fronts are important features of the Arctic seascape and are often described as foraging hotspots. Albeit their documented importance for wildlife, little is known about their structuring effect on Arc...
Article
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Collecting well-resolved empirical trophic networks requires significant time, money and expertise, yet we are still lacking knowledge on how sampling effort and bias impact the estimation of network structure. Filling this gap is a critical first step towards creating accurate representations of ecological networks and for teasing apart the impact...
Article
Environmental fluctuations influence patterns of synchrony and stability in species abundances. Most of our understanding of synchrony and stability stems from competitive community and metacommunity ecology, when in reality species interact in more complex ways. Hence, there is mounting need for the integration of multi‐trophic interactions into m...
Article
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Disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic, affect the configuration, composition, and function of forested ecosystems. Complex system behaviors emerge from the interactions between disturbance regimes, the vegetation response to those disturbances, and their interplay with multiple drivers (climate, topography, land use, etc.) across spatial and...
Article
The demand the human population is placing on the environment has triggered accelerated rates of biodiversity change and created trade-offs among the ecosystem services we depend upon. Decisions designed to reverse these trends require the best possible information obtained by monitoring ecological and social dimensions of change. Here, we conceptu...
Preprint
Despite their importance in many ecological processes, collecting data and information on ecological interactions, and therefore species interaction networks, is an exceedingly challenging task. For this reason, large parts of the world have a deficit of data of which species interact, and what we can expect the network structure of these interacti...
Preprint
Full-text available
The integration of meta-ecosystem processes over large spatial extent is critical to predicting whether and how global changes might impact biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Yet, there remains an important gap in meta-ecosystem models to predict multiple ecosystem functions (e.g., carbon sequestration, elemental cycling, trophic efficiency) acr...
Article
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Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are areas of marine ecosystems that have some level of protection to support one or more conservation objectives. One characteristic of MPA networks is that MPAs are spatially configured such that they provide the greatest protection possible for multiple species. Yet, it can be difficult to determine optimal MPA netwo...
Article
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The physical and chemical properties of microplastics and their environmental distributions may provide clues about their sources and inform their fate. We demonstrate the value of extensive monitoring of microplastics in an urban bay, San Francisco Bay. Surface water, fish, sediment, stormwater runoff, and treated wastewater were sampled across th...
Article
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Network ecology is an emerging field that allows researchers to conceptualize and analyse ecological networks and their dynamics. Here, we focus on the dynamics of ecological networks in response to environmental changes. Specifically, we formalize how network topologies constrain the dynamics of ecological systems into a unifying framework in netw...
Book
Network thinking and network analysis are rapidly expanding features of ecological research. Network analysis of ecological systems include representations and modelling of the interactions in an ecosystem, in which species or factors are joined by pairwise connections. This book provides an overview of ecological network analysis including generat...
Article
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Dendritic habitats, such as river ecosystems, promote the persistence of species by favouring spatial asynchronous dynamics among branches. Yet, our understanding of how network topology influences metapopulation synchrony in these ecosystems remains limited. Here, we introduce the concept of fluvial synchrogram to formulate and test expectations r...
Article
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Climate change is having multiple impacts on marine species characterized by sedentary adult and pelagic larval phases, from increasing adult mortality to changes in larval duration and ocean currents. Recent studies have shown impacts of climate change on species persistence through direct effects on individual survival and development, but few ha...
Article
Full-text available
Water clarity has been extensively assessed in Landsat-based remote sensing studies of inland waters, regularly relying on locally calibrated empirical algorithms, and close temporal matching between field data and satellite overpass. As more satellite data and faster data processing systems become readily accessible, new opportunities are emerging...
Chapter
Global social and economic changes, alongside climate change, are affecting the operating environment for agriculture, leading to efforts to increase production and yields, typically through the use of agrochemicals like pesticides and fertilizers, expanded irrigation, and changes in seed varieties. Intensification, alongside the expansion of agric...
Preprint
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**** Published version available in Landscape Ecology: DOI: 10.1007/s10980-021-01327-2 **** Context – Species distribution modelling is a common tool in conservation biology but two main criticisms remain: (1) the use of simplistic variables that do not account for species movements and/or connectivity and (2) poor consideration of multi-scale pro...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: We compiled a global database of long-term riverine fish surveys from 46 regional and national monitoring programmes and from individual academic research efforts, with which numerous basic and applied questions in ecology and global change research can be explored. Such spatially and temporally extensive datasets have been lacking for...
Article
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Forests are projected to undergo dramatic compositional and structural shifts prompted by global changes, such as climatic changes and intensifying natural disturbance regimes. Future uncertainty makes planning for forest management exceptionally difficult, demanding novel approaches to maintain or improve the ability of forest ecosystems to respon...
Preprint
Full-text available
The design of marine protected areas (MPAs) has been optimized under assumptions of spatially and temporally homogeneous larval dispersal, despite complex spatiotemporal patterns displayed by ocean currents. Here we studied the effect of dispersal variability on the effectiveness of MPA networks across scales. We adopted a nested approach integrati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change is having multiple impacts on marine species characterized by sedentary adult and pelagic larval phases, from increasing adult mortality to changes in larval duration and ocean currents. Recent studies have shown impacts of climate change on species persistence through direct effects on individual survival and development, but few ha...
Poster
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With the rapid trend in the climate shift, the spruce budworm (SBW) (Choristoneura fumiferana), is increasing its damage and distribution area making forests more vulnerable. Despite its major ecological implications, challenges remain in understanding the historical impact of climate on defoliation caused by the SBW, the severity of its impact on...
Article
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Fire's growing impacts on ecosystems Fire has played a prominent role in the evolution of biodiversity and is a natural factor shaping many ecological communities. However, the incidence of fire has been exacerbated by human activity, and this is now affecting ecosystems and habitats that have never been fire prone or fire adapted. Kelly et al. rev...
Article
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Perceived predation risk can elicit strong behavioral responses in potential prey. During nest building, songbirds exhibit anti-predator behaviors under experimental conditions. Here, we hypothesized that females of two ground-nesting songbird species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) and the Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), would use naturally...
Article
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The fulfilment of the benefits resulting from services provided by nature requires an integrated framework that combines appropriate ecosystem service governance with spatially explicit models of service provision. Here, we propose using a social‐ecological network approach to develop a ‘landscape governance framework’ that identifies how different...
Article
Full-text available
Despite evidence that seasonal variation may lead to the persistence of competing species , studies on the effect of seasonality on community network structures are sparse. Identifying whether seasonal network changes are the result of turnover or rewiring (i.e. rearrangement of interactions among species), also remains understudied in multi-trophi...
Article
Aim Non‐climatic constraints on species northern range boundaries are often overlooked in attempts to predict climate‐induced range shifts. Here, we examined the effects of habitat availability and fire disturbance on the distribution of a species that transitions from being common to being found only in marginal populations at the northern boundar...
Presentation
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Natural disturbances bear significant importance in modifying the structure of forests, associated ecosystems, and initiating the natural succession process. Global change predictions indicate that effects on the boreal ecosystem will be profound and natural disturbance cycles (fire insect outbreaks and windthrow) will generally increase in number...
Article
Mobile pelagic species habitat is structured around dynamic oceanographic and ecological processes that operate and interact horizontally and vertically throughout the water column and change over time. Due to their extensive movements, pelagic species distributions are often poorly understood. We use the Maxent species distribution model to assess...
Article
Understanding ecological processes and predicting long-term dynamics are ongoing challenges in ecology. To address these challenges, we suggest an approach combining mathematical analyses and Bayesian hierarchical statistical modeling with diverse data sources. Novel mathematical analysis of ecological dynamics permits a process-based understanding...
Article
The availability of genomic data for an increasing number of species makes it possible to incorporate evolutionary processes into conservation plans. Recent studies have demonstrated how genetic data can inform spatial conservation prioritization (SCP), but focused on metrics of diversity and distinctness derived primarily from neutral genetic data...
Article
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Studies that test community assembly hypotheses in observational communities frequently evaluate patterns for plots or entire communities, yet studies that examine assembly patterns across spatial scales show that they are greatly influenced by scale. Here, we test the spatial dependency of patterns of relatedness and plant height for all individua...
Article
Climate change projections over the Mediterranean basin point towards an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme events that will directly impact ecosystems resilience. In this study we evaluated future trends of soil loss in forestland in Catalonia (NE Spain) due to fires and vegetation dynamics, considering the potential future impacts of...
Article
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Models are increasingly being used for prediction in ecological research. The ability to generate accurate and robust predictions is necessary to help respond to ecosystem change and to further scientific research. Successful predictive models are typically accurate, reliable, and transparent regarding their assumptions and expectations, indicating...
Article
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Demographic compensation arises when vital rates change in opposite directions across populations, buffering the variation in population growth rates, and is a mechanism often invoked to explain the stability of species geographic ranges. However, studies on demographic compensation have disregarded the effects of temporal variation in vital rates...
Article
Several temperate tree species are expected to migrate northward and colonise boreal forests in response to climate change. Tree migrations could lead to transitions in forest types, but these could be influenced by several non‐climatic factors, such as disturbances and soil conditions. We analysed over 10,000 forest inventory plots, sampled from 1...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the increasing ubiquity of biological invasions worldwide, little is known about the scale‐dependent effects of nonnative species on real‐world ecological dynamics. Here, using an extensive time series dataset of riverine fish communities across different biogeographic regions of the world, we assessed the effects of nonnative species on th...
Article
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The majority of species exist in metapopulations, where populations are linked to one another through dispersal. Disturbances (natural or anthropogenic) are known to affect population vital rates which can reverberate to the metapopulations through dispersal, which is determined by the topology of the habitat network (i.e., the number of patches an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mobile pelagic species habitat is structured around dynamic oceanographic and ecological processes which operate and interact horizontally and vertically throughout the water column and change over time. However, pelagic species movements and distributions are often poorly understood. We use the Maxent species distribution model to assess how chang...
Code
A new release of the package ShapePattern (Version 2.0.3) that provides tools for simulating landscape grids, performing ShrinkShape, comparing class-based patterns, and computing pattern elements.
Article
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Current targets for protected area network coverage call for increased protection but lack specificity in terms of criteria for parcel type, placement, and landscape connectivity. We assessed land conservation achieved by protected area networks in the contiguous United States, and assessed whether private lands contributed substantially to network...
Article
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Ecosystem functions provided by forests are threatened by direct and indirect effects of global change drivers such as climate warming land use change, biological invasions, and shifting natural disturbance regimes. To develop resilience-based forest management, new tools and methods are needed to quantitatively estimate forest resilience to manage...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change can affect the habitat resources available to species by changing habitat quantity, suitability and spatial configuration, which largely determine population persistence in the landscape. In this context, dispersal is a central process for species to track their niche. Assessments of the amount of reachable habitat (ARH) using static...
Article
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In densely populated fire-prone regions, interactions between global change drivers, such as land-cover changes and climate change, may increase the frequency and severity of wildfires impacting forest ecosystems, thus diminishing their capability of provisioning key ecosystem goods and services for these societies. Yet, landscape mosaics play a cr...
Article
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Abstract Human impacts on Earth’s ecosystems have greatly intensified in the last decades. This is reflected in unexpected disturbance events, as well as new and increasing socio-economic demands, all of which are affecting the resilience of forest ecosystems worldwide and the provision of important ecosystem services. This Anthropocene era is forc...