Marie Jackson

Marie Jackson
University of Utah | UOU · Department of Geology and Geophysics

Ph.D.

About

63
Publications
30,992
Reads
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1,547
Citations
Introduction
For our new research on the concrete of the 1C BCE Tomb of Caecilia Metella in Rome, "Roman noblewoman’s tomb reveals secrets of ancient concrete resilience" please see: https://attheu.utah.edu/facultystaff/caecilia-metella/
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - December 2015
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Project Scientist
Education
January 1981 - November 1987
Johns Hopkins University
Field of study
  • Earth Science
September 1977 - December 1979
University of Nantes
Field of study
  • Structural Geology
September 1971 - June 1976
University of California, Santa Cruz
Field of study
  • Earth Science

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
The pyroclastic aggregate concrete of Trajan's Markets (110 CE), now Museo Fori Imperiali in Rome, has absorbed energy from seismic ground shaking and long-term foundation settlement for nearly two millenia while remaining largely intact at the structural scale. The scientific basis of this exceptional service record is explored through computed to...
Article
Full-text available
A new International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project will drill through the 50-year-old edifice of Surtsey Volcano, the youngest of the Vestmannaeyjar Islands along the south coast of Iceland, to perform interdisciplinary time-lapse investigations of hydrothermal and microbial interactions with basaltic tephra. The volcano, created in 19...
Article
Full-text available
Ancient Roman syntheses of Al-tobermorite in a 2000-year-old concrete block submerged in the Bay of Pozzuoli (Baianus Sinus), near Naples, have unique aluminum-rich and silica-poor compositions relative to hydrothermal geological occurrences. In relict lime clasts, the crystals have calcium contents that are similar to ideal tobermorite, 33 to 35 w...
Article
Full-text available
The material characteristics and elastic properties of aluminum-substituted 11 Å tobermorite in the relict lime clasts of 2000-year-old Roman seawater harbor concrete are described with TG-DSC and 29Si MAS NMR studies, along with nanoscale tomography, X-ray microdiffraction, and high pressure X-ray diffraction synchroton radiation applications. The...
Article
The extraordinarily durable concretes of Imperial Age (27 B.C. through 3rd century A.D.) monument construction in Rome contain scoriaceous, highly potassic, altered volcanic ash from the Pozzolane Rosse ignimbrite, erupted at 456±3ka from the Alban Hills volcano as pozzolanic mortar aggregate. Stratigraphic, micromorphological, and chemical investi...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated spectroscopic analyses and synchrotron X‐ray microdiffraction investigations provide insights into the long‐term reactivity of volcanic aggregate components and calcium‐aluminum‐silicate‐hydrate (C‐A‐S‐H) binder in mortar samples from the robust concrete of the sepulchral corridor of the Tomb of Caecilia Metella, 1st C BCE, Rome. The res...
Article
Full-text available
The island of Surtsey was formed in 1963–1967 on the offshore Icelandic volcanic rift zone. It offers a unique opportunity to study the subsurface biosphere in newly formed oceanic crust and an associated hydrothermal-seawater system, whose maximum temperature is currently above 120°C at about 100m below surface. Here, we present new insights into...
Conference Paper
The beneficial corrosion of reactive volcanic glass in the pumiceous pozzolanof ancient Roman marine concretes produces cementitious systems that have maintained cohesion and resilience for two millennia. Long after hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2 was fully consumed through pozzolanic reaction, fluids percolating through the concrete structures dissolved re...
Article
Full-text available
Petrographic studies of thin sections from the 1979 and 2017 Surtsey drill cores provide new insights into microstructural features in basaltic lapilli tuff sampled from the principal structural and hydrothermal zones of the volcano. These describe narrow rims of fine ash on altered glass pyroclasts in thin sections of the 2017 cores, characteristi...
Article
Surtsey was drilled in 2017 in the context of the Surtsey Underwater volcanic System for Thermophiles, Alteration processes and INnovative Concretes (SUSTAIN) project. Vertical drill holes, SE-02a and SE02b (drilled to 191.64 m), and angled drill SE-03 (drilled to 354.05 m), intersected armoured lapilli tuff and lapilli tuff generated mainly by exp...
Article
Comparison of investigations of the 1979 and 2017 cored boreholes coupled with continued observations of the dynamic surface of Surtsey has modified our concepts of the subsurface structure of the volcano. A geometrical analysis of the 2017 vertical and inclined cores indicates that near-surface layering dips westerly, indicating that the boreholes...
Article
Surtsey is a young volcanic island in the offshore extension of Iceland's southeast rift zone that grew from the seafloor during explosive and effusive eruptions in 1963–1967. In 1979, a cored borehole (SE-1) was drilled to 181 m depth and in 2017 three cored boreholes (SE-2a, SE-2b and SE-3) were drilled to successively greater depths. The basalti...
Article
The evolution of hydrothermal alteration in glassy and variably palagonitized tuff, erupted as tephra in 1963-1964 on Surtsey, an island built in the offshore extension of Iceland's southeast rift zone, is documented through a comparative petrographic study of samples from drill cores recovered in 1979 and 2017. Time-lapse alteration within the low...
Article
Full-text available
Micrometer‐scale maps of authigenic microstructures in submarine basaltic tuff from a 1979 Surtsey volcano, Iceland, drill core acquired 15 years after eruptions terminated describe the initial alteration of oceanic basalt in a low‐temperature hydrothermal system. An integrative investigative approach uses synchrotron source X‐ray microdiffraction,...
Article
Full-text available
The 2017 Surtsey Underwater volcanic System for Thermophiles, Alteration processes and INnovative concretes (SUSTAIN) drilling project at Surtsey volcano, sponsored in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), provides precise observations of the hydrothermal, geochemical, geomagnetic, and microbiological changes tha...
Article
Full-text available
Surtsey, the youngest of the islands of Vestmannaeyjar, is an oceanic volcano created by explosive basaltic eruptions during 1963–1967 off the southern coast of Iceland. The subsurface deposits of the volcano were first sampled by a cored borehole in 1979. In summer 2017, three cored boreholes were drilled through the active hydrothermal system of...
Technical Report
In summer 2017, the ICDP SUSTAIN project (Surtsey Underwater volcanic System for Thermophiles, Alteration processes and INnovative concretes), drilled three cored boreholes (Table 1) through Surtsey at sites 10 m from a cored hole obtained in 1979. Drilling through the still hot volcano was carried out with an Atlas Copco CS1000 drill rig, whose c...
Article
Full-text available
By revealing the secrets hidden within ancient Roman structures, cementitious materials science is opening new opportunities to develop concrete formulations with improved durability and service life to aid ailing infrastructures and address materials encapsulation needs.
Presentation
Full-text available
Studies about Tobermorite presence in ancient roman mortars and concretes
Article
Full-text available
Pozzolanic reaction of volcanic ash with hydrated lime is thought to dominate the cementing fabric and durability of 2000-year-old Roman harbor concrete. Pliny the Elder, however, in first century CE emphasized rock-like cementitious processes involving volcanic ash (pulvis) “that as soon as it comes into contact with the waves of the sea and is su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Concrete wall structures of the Markets of Trajan, constructed ~110 CE in Rome, have remained resistant to fracture and chemical decay for nearly 2000 years. New investigations with X-ray microtomography (XMT) indicate, however, that the volcanic ash-hydrated lime mortar that binds the conglomeratic concrete is a highly porous material. This contra...
Article
Hydraulic mortars sampled from fountains and a cistern in the Stadium and the Domus Severiana have been analyzed using a range of scientific methods, including polarized light micros-copy, XRD, DTA and sieve analysis. The results reveal that until at least the third century AD, it was common to employ low-fired, crushed ceramics, possible waste mat...
Article
Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface p...
Chapter
Roman maritime concrete structures have remained cohesive and intact for 2000 years. The secrets to their extraordinary endurance in the aggressive sea-water environment, which attacks modern concretes through diverse physical and chemical processes, have long remained a mystery. The fundamental binding substance of all the concretes drilled by ROM...
Article
The vaulted concrete monuments of ancient Rome have an unreinforced concrete core of pozzolanic mortar and decimeter-sized coarse aggregate. An assessment of the mechanical and fracture properties of a reproduced Trajanic-era (c. 100AD) mortar is the subject of the present work. Description of a newly developed arc-shaped three-point bending test,...
Chapter
Monumental buildings constructed in Rome during the nearly 500 years of the Republican era record a progressive evolution in builders’ refinements of diverse construction methods with local volcanic building materials, and their innovations in developing the complex stone and concrete masonry of the first century. Descriptions of extant examples of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Roman hydraulic maritime concretes of the central Italian coast have pumiceous volcanic ash, or pulvis Puteolanus , from the Bay of Naples as mortar pozzolan. Petrographic and mineralogical analyses of cement microstructures in relict lime, tuff, and pumice clasts suggest that pozzolanic reaction at high pH produced gel-like calcium-aluminum-silica...
Article
The building materials of the Theatre of Marcellus, 44–11 bce, reflect Roman builders' careful selections of tuff and travertine for dimension stone and volcanic aggregates for pozzolanic concretes. The vitric–lithic–crystal Tufo Lionato tuff dimension stone contains a high proportion of lava lithic fragments, which increase its compressive strengt...
Article
Full-text available
Examples of volcanic tuff in pioneer buildings have been identified in western Victoria, Australia, in the vicinity of the Tower Hill volcanic crater. A field study has highlighted the use of tuff (notably in small domestic buildings dating to the early years of the colony) and has prompted investigation of these fragmentary and often neglected rem...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The hydraulic concretes of ancient Roman harbor constructions along the central Italian coast remain compact and coherent despite immersion in seawater for 2000 years, yet the processes of pozzolanic cement development in the volcanic ash-hydrated lime-seawater systems remain unclear. Analysis of drill core specimens indicate that the concrete is f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The highly developed concrete composites used to realize the monumental structures of Imperial Rome are remarkable engineering materials. Their mechanical properties are attested to by the numerous constructions still intact after millennia of usage. The assessment of these mechanical properties – particularly in tension and fracture – is the objec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The concrete composites used to realize the monumental structures of Imperial Rome are remarkable engineering materials. While the endurance of intact constructions such as the Pantheon evinces the concretes’ durability, such durability mostly serves to preserve the mechanical properties, which are responsible both for the monuments’ original creat...
Article
Full-text available
The Grande Aula, or Great Hall, of the Markets of Trajan (AD 96 to 115) is an intact example of the domed, concrete architecture of imperial Rome. Petrographic, x-ray diffraction, chemical, and SEM analyses demonstrate that wall mortars contain Pozzolane Rosse volcanic ash aggregate (harenae fossiciae) and strätlingite, a complex calcium aluminate...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a geological framework for the study of the cut-stone and concrete masonry of ancient Rome that yields important new insights into the many uses of native volcanic rock—tuffs, pozzolane, and lavas— in the development of Roman architecture. Geological maps and field observations of building stones in exist-ing monuments, along...
Article
The Republican and early Imperial monuments of Rome are, for the most part, built of tuffs quarried from at least seven pyroclastic deposits erupted from nearby Monti Sabatini and Alban Hills volcanoes. Remarks by Vitruvius (2.7.1–5), field observations of the monuments, and petrographic and rock testing studies of samples from Roman quarries demon...
Chapter
Full-text available
A sequence of sedimentary rocks about 4 km thick was bent, stretched, and uplifted during the growth of three igneous domes in the southern Henry Mountains. Mount Holmes, Mount Ellsworth, and Mount Hillers are all about 12 km in diameter, but the amplitudes (total uplifts) of the domes are about 1.2, 1.85, and 3.0 km, respectively. These mountains...
Article
Full-text available
The November 30, 1974, Mt = 5.5 and November 16, 1983, Mt = 6.6 earthquakes generated left-stepping, en echelon ground cracks within the Kaoiki seismic zone, on the southeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii. The general trend of the ruptures, N48-55E, parallels a nodal plane of the main shocks' focal mechanisms. The ruptures themselves consist o...
Article
A sequence of sedimentary rocks about 4 km thick was bent, stretched and uplifted during the growth of three igneous domes in the southern Henry Mountains. Mount Holmes, Mount Ellsworth and Mount Hillers are all about 12 km in diameter, but the amplitudes of their domes are about 1.2, 1.85 and 3.0 km, respectively. These mountains record successive...
Article
Full-text available
Domes of sedimentary strata at Mount Holmes, Mount Ellsworth, and Mount Hillers in the southern Henry Mountains record successive stages in the growth of shallow (3 to 4 km deep) magma chambers. Whether the intrusions under these domes are laccoliths or stocks has been the subject of controversy. According to G. K. Gilbert, the central intrusions a...
Article
We present graphical and analytical methods to determine the extensional or contractional separation of a faulted planar marker using commonly measured field data: fault attitude, slip direction, and bedding or other marker-plane attitude. This determination is easily accomplished for horizontal markers. Faults with normal components of slip extend...
Article
Penetratively deformed peridotites from the Monte Maggiore spinel/plagioclase lherzolite massif in Alpine Corsica are intruded by gabbroic dikes ranging in mineralogy from troctolites to Fe and Ti gabbros. The dikes cross-cut diffuse plagioclase segregations and veinlets which may represent trapped mafic melt within the residual peridotite. Ellipti...
Article
New archaeological excavations begun in 1998 have exposed the complexity of construction design and planning of the Basilica Ulpia and Forum of Trajan, raising new research questions and providing a unique opportunity to reexamine sectors of these structures that were the object of older excavations dating to 1812 and 1924-1933. In this article, we...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
The project (2020-2022) will excavate a well preserved 1st c. BCE Roman wreck – the Ses Llumetes – and it studies two basic elements of any ancient or modern society: trade and technology. The project has four scientific objectives: 1) Excavating this exciting new discovery; 2) Studying the cargo to determine the exact chronology of the vessel, the route it followed and the type of products that it carried; 3) Studying shipbuilding techniques: the set of technical and architectural solutions employed by the shipyard will be determined thanks to the exceptional preservation of the hull and other wooden components of the wreck; 4) Studying Roman concrete: the Ses Llumetes is the first wreck ever documented carrying volcanic tephra (perhaps pozzolana). Our team will conduct experimental work with this type of pumice, revealing the secrets of (volcanic) glass performance in Roman marine concrete and the keys that ensured its long-term durability.
Project
A collaborative, interdisciplinary research project with Silica Dynamics LLC, Savannah River National Laboratories and the University of Utah applies Roman geotechnical principles to the fabrication of reactive glass concretes for environmentally-friendly architectural and marine concretes infrastructure. The project is funded through the Department of Energy ARPA-E EXTREMELY DURABLE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS program.