Marie Helweg-Larsen

Marie Helweg-Larsen
Dickinson College · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

45
Publications
16,229
Reads
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2,112
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2002 - present
Dickinson College

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Objective: Cognitive risk figures prominently in models predicting health behaviors, but affective risk is also important. We examined the interplay between cognitive risk (personal likelihood of COVID-19 infection or death) and affective risk (worry about COVID-19) in predicting COVID-19 precautionary behaviors. We also examined how outbreak seve...
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Background Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, prevention behavior adoption occurred in a rapidly changing context. In contrast to expectancy-value theories, the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) is well-suited for investigating novel and socially informed behaviors. Purpose We explored whether PWM social cognitions predicted coronavirus prevention be...
Article
Research on the effects of stigmatizing on smokers shows that it is stressful to be reminded of one’s devalued status and stigmatization might help or hinder quitting intentions. In this study, we asked smokers (N=277) to play an online ball-tossing Cyberball game, ostensibly with non-smoking strangers. Participants were randomly assigned to an ost...
Article
As members of a devalued group, it is not surprising that smokers experience stigmatization and discrimination. But it is not clear if smokers react to these experiences by moving toward or away from their group membership and identity as smokers. Guided by the identity threat model of stigma (Major and O'Brien, 2005) we examined the process of sti...
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Research shows that smokers feel stigmatized, but does stigmatizing smokers do more harm than good? The model of stigma-induced identity threat was used to experimentally examine how U.S. and Danish smokers respond to stigma-relevant cues. Heavy smokers (112 Americans, 112 Danes) smoked a cigarette while giving a speech that was either video (stigm...
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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
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According to the hubris hypothesis, observers respond more unfavorably to individuals who express their positive self-views comparatively than to those who express their positive self-views non-comparatively, because observers infer that the former hold a more disparaging view of others and particularly of observers. Two experiments extended the hu...
Article
Manhood and masculinity have been studied extensively in different academic disciplines and in a variety of contexts. Research shows that becoming (and being) a man in the United States is not an easy task, as manhood is a precarious status that must be actively and publicly achieved and maintained. Previous research has not, to our knowledge, aske...
Article
Objectives: Value-based insurance designs are being widely used. We undertook this study to examine whether a financial incentive that lowered co-payments for blood pressure medications below $0 improved blood pressure control among patients with poorly controlled hypertension. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Participants f...
Article
Objectives: Efforts to improve adherence by reducing co-payments through value-based insurance design are become more prevalent despite limited evidence of improved health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether eliminating patient co-payments for blood pressure medications improves blood pressure control. Study design: Ra...
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Full-text available
Objectives: Value-based insurance designs are being widely used. We undertook this study to examine whether a financial incentive that lowered co-payments for blood pressure medications below $0 improved blood pressure control among patients with poorly controlled hypertension. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Participants f...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Efforts to improve adherence by reducing co-payments through value-based insurance design are become more prevalent despite limited evidence of improved health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether eliminating patient co-payments for blood pressure medications improves blood pressure control. Study design: Ra...
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Introduction: Moralization refers to the gradual cultural and personal process by which objects or activities move from being morally neutral to morally contemptuous. Research suggests important cross-cultural differences in how smokers react to being targets of moralization. However, research has not examined whether smokers who agree with morali...
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Risk biases such as comparative optimism (thinking one is better off than similar others) and risk inaccuracy (misestimating one's risk compared to one's calculated risk) for health outcomes are common. Little research has investigated racial or socioeconomic differences in these risk biases. Results from a survey of individuals with poorly control...
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Previous research shows inconsistent evidence in regard to gender differences in optimism for experiencing a happy marriage or avoiding divorce depending on whether optimism is measured as comparative optimism (thinking you are better off than your peers) or as personal optimism (estimating your own chances). Results from four samples of unmarried...
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Previous research shows inconsistent evidence in regard to gender differences in optimism for experiencing a happy marriage or avoiding divorce depending on whether optimism is measured as comparative optimism (thinking you are better off than your peers) or as personal optimism (estimating your own chances). Results from four samples of unmarried...
Article
The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers' description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the USA (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Smokers said they were well aware of the risks...
Conference Paper
https://www.ajmc.com/journals/issue/2015/2015-vol21-n8/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-co-payment-elimination-the-chord-trial
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Research examining smokers' understanding of their smoking risk reveals that smokers acknowledge some risk but often deny or minimize personal risk. We examined risk perceptions of lung cancer among smokers and non-smokers in a smoking-lenient (Denmark) and a smoking-prohibitive (the United States) culture. Participants were 275 Danish students att...
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Pay for performance (P4P) programs have shown only modest improvements in outcomes and do not target patient behaviors. Many large employers and payers are turning to pay for performance for patients (P4P4P) to reduce health costs and improve the health of their covered populations. How these programs may be perceived by patients is unknown. To ass...
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The relationship between acculturation and health behavior change is complex. Little research has focused on acculturation and perceptions of health-related risks. This study investigated acculturation and risk perceptions of heart attack and lung cancer among a group of refugees. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of Bosnian refugees livi...
Article
Two experiments examined reactions to line-intrusion scenarios among fans of the rock group U2 waiting in overnight lines to obtain desirable concert floor spots. Commitment to the goal, time investment, and ambiguity of the line-intrusion scenario were examined. Results showed that the queue is a social system influenced by norms of procedural jus...
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A great deal of research on risk perceptions has examined predictors of personal and comparative risk judgments, but little work has examined predictors such as personal experience and depression with respect to dating violence (DV) risk perceptions. Results from a survey of college women (N = 192) indicated that women showed optimistic comparative...
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Research investigating women’s risk assessments for intimate partner violence (IPV) shows that women can predict future violence with relative accuracy. Limited research has investigated factors that are associated with perceived risk and the potential behavioral consequences of victim risk perception. Results from a survey of women in a domestic v...
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A new risk perception rating scale ("magnifier scale") was recently developed to reduce elevated perceptions of low-probability health events, but little is known about its performance. The authors tested whether the magnifier scale lowers risk perceptions for low-probability (in 0%-1% magnifying glass section of scale) but not high-probability (>1...
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Gender studies show that women and men communicate using different styles, but may use either gender style if there are situational status differences. Considering the universal gesture of head nodding as a submissive form of expression, this study investigated head nodding by observing female and male college students in positions of subordinate a...
Article
It is well established that self-rated health (SRH) predicts mortality even after controlling for a wide range of factors. We explored the extent to which age and social relations (structural and functional) influenced the relationship between SRH and mortality (after 13 years follow-up) in a representative sample of adult Danes (N=6693). After con...
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Research reveals pervasive optimism in people's comparative risk judgements such that people believe they are less likely than others to experience negative events. Two studies explored the extent to which people are consistent in their comparative risk judgements across time and events. Both studies found strong evidence for consistency across tim...
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People consistently believe that negative events are less likely to happen to them than to others. Research suggests a relationship between this optimistic bias and perceived control such that the greater control people perceive over future events, the greater their optimistic bias. We conducted a meta-analysis of 27 independent samples to quantify...
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People are stigmatized and socially rejected for a range of deviant appearances and behaviors. This includes the social rejection of people who are depressed or have a pessimistic outlook on life. We examined whether being pessimistically biased (i.e., thinking one's risk for negative events is greater than that of one's peers) also leads to social...
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The optimistic bias is defined as judging one's own risk as less than the risk of others. Researchers have identified numerous personal and situational factors that moderate the extent to which people display the bias. It is unclear, however, whether these moderators affect the bias by influencing people's personal risk estimates or their risk esti...
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Individual differences in erotophobia affect the way people process sexually related information, such as information concerning safer sex. This study tests the hypothesis that people who are erotophobic are less likely to take the central route in information processing about sexual material as described by the elaboration likelihood model. Female...
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This study describes the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in a representative survey among adults in Denmark and gives the proportion of people reporting a suicide attempt that results in contact with the health care system. The data for the 1994 Danish national health interview survey were collected by personal interview and a...
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This study describes the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in a representative survey among adults in Denmark and gives the proportion of people reporting a suicide attempt that results in contact with the health care system. The data for the 1994 Danish national health interview survey were collected by personal interview and a...
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The tendency to believe that one's risk is less than that of one's peers is a well-documented and pervasive tendency. This optimistic bias is reduced in certain circumstances, such as when people have personal experience with an event, although it may reappear with time. University students who experienced the 1994 Northridge, CA earthquake were as...
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Snyder (1997) offered a demonstration of unique invulnerability (i.e., optimistic bias) in which students overestimated their projected life expectancy. However, comparison of Snyder's data with actuarial data for his participants reveals no evidence of an optimistic bias. In this study, students are asked to estimate their life expectancy after be...
Article
People's level of erotophobia influences their acceptance of sexually related situations, including the likelihood of engaging in sexually related health care such as breast self-examinations (BSE). Female college students (n= 61) completed a measure of erotophobia and read a BSE brochure that either did or did not contain instructional photographs...
Article
There are a number of philo- sophical and practical reasons for using information-based ap- proaches to changing health- related behavior. The idea that people will change their behavior when they are informed about the logic of doing so is consistent with the Western worldview, which places individualism, enlighten- ment, and reason at the center...
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Prevalence estimates and prototype perceptions related to health risk behaviors were assessed in comparable samples of Danish and American adolescents (ages 13-15 years). Partly on the basis of observation and previous research, the assumption was made that the American sample would report more self-enhancement tendencies than would the Danish samp...
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This article describes the development and validation of the UCLA Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale (MCAS). The relationships between the MCAS and gender, sexual experience, intentions to use a condom, and past condom use were assessed. The MCAS has five distinct factors: (a) Reliability and Effectiveness of condoms, (b) the sexual Pleasure a...
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Aircraft flyovers heard in high ambient noise urban environments are composed in large part of high absolute level, broadband noise. In contrast, noise exposure created en route by aircraft powered by unducted fan engines is expected to be relatively low in level, but to contain prominent low frequency tonal energy. These tones may be readily audib...
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Predictions of the prevalence of annoyance associated with aircraft noise exposure are heavily influenced by field studies conducted in urban airport neighborhoods. Flyovers heard in such relatively high ambient noise environments are composed in large part of high absolute level, broadband noise. In contrast, noise exposure created en route by air...

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