Marie-Helene Laurent

Marie-Helene Laurent
Électricité de France (EDF) | EDF · R&D

About

39
Publications
3,606
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188
Citations

Publications

Publications (39)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The energy-saving obligation scheme in France launched in 2006 was revised each three-year period. The majority of EEOs issued are based on standardised action valued according to deemed energy savings. These revisions have made it possible to correct errors, to value new actions and to update eligible actions according to changes in the context an...
Conference Paper
The energy performance of a building can be assessed using various indicators that will not give the same score. This study evaluates the performance of the French housing stock using several indicators based either on the energy level at which energy consumption is assessed (primary, final or useful), or on greenhouse gas emissions, or on the ener...
Presentation
Full-text available
Workshop ADEME-ECEEE-AFD. Sobriété énergétique Réalité future acceptée ou subie: Le points de vue des acteurs.
Article
Full-text available
Health is an important but inadequately assessed aspect of programs to renovate home energy efficiency. This study sought to determine if savings in healthcare costs might balance investments in the thermal renovation of energy-inefficient homes. This work is based on the "Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS)", a methodology developed in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper tackles the crucial issue of price structure in the energy retrofit market of the private residential sector. It is based on a quantitative study of retrofit prices in France (1,000+ invoices) and a qualitative sociological survey of installers (25 open-ended interviews). We show a strong dispersion of prices within single retrofit-work...
Article
Cet article qui aborde de nouveau la performance thermique des logements chauffés à l’électricité construits entre les années 1975 et 1999, complète l’article « une analyse du parc existant à partir de la base de données des DPE » publié précédemment dans CVC de juin 2017. Si la majorité des logements de cette période classés en étiquette DPE en F...
Article
Over five million households in France are estimated to be in fuel poverty and so possibly exposed to low indoor temperatures. Such exposure is a threat to health. Besides the individual’s suffering, negative health outcomes, ranging from mild respiratory conditions to death, create demands on the health sector and costs to society. The health cost...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent European energy proposals for the revision of the Energy Efficiency and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directives emphasize the importance to drive investments into the renovation of building stocks and to stimulate the refurbishment demand. Moreover, the challenge of acquiring data about retrofitting is reasserted because the lack...
Article
Full-text available
What do we know about the thermal performance of dwellings? How does actual energy consumption compare with that measured by energy assessments? Which households are threatened by energy poverty? Are they mostly found in periurban areas? These are some of the questions that analyses based on the “Phébus” housing, equipment, needs and uses survey, a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent European energy policies like the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and the EcoDesign Directive (EDD) set new targets to increase energy efficiency. Article 7 of EED implies that EU Member States set up energy savings amounting to 1.5 % of the annual energy sales to final customers from 2014 to 2020. To comply with this requirement the level...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Before the first oil crisis, the majority of new buildings in European countries were constructed without any energy efficiency obligation. In those times, Space Heating (SH) consumptions accounted for more than 80 % of the total energy consumption of residential sector. In France, SH in dwellings was rated at 300 kWhfe/(year.m²), final energy. 40...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The initial idea of the French White Certificate (WC) scheme, which entered into force in 2006, was to rely on a tradable WC on the basis of market development leading to save energy at the lowest cost. However, the WC market lacks of liquidity and the majority of the trading is done over-the-counter1. Thus the question of the energy savings cost a...
Conference Paper
It is now well established that there is a serious gap between normative Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) calculations and measured energy consumption in the domestic sector. The fact that there are similarities in this gap between different European countries with varied housing stocks, different normative (EPC) dwelling consumption calculatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Residential buildings sector encompasses increasing energy demand projections and large technical potentials for energy savings [Levine et al., 2007] that are mainly more cost-effective than in sectors like transportation or industry. However, the decline of main residential energy uses in France (space and water heating) is limited by market and b...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, energy policies in the residential sector have been dedicated to energy efficiency. However, these policies have not been sufficient to reduce overall energy consumption enough to meet European targets. Therefore, new types of energy policies, more oriented to sufficiency, have to be designed and implemented. We have developed an innov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In France, bottom-up models of national space heating energy consumption aiming at orienting energy policies are mostly based on the same basic framework modelling, derived from the 1988 French thermal regulation, like this used for the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). However, empirical evidence suggests significant differences between observ...
Article
L'étude, publiée dans les Cahiers du CLIP n°20, présente des scénarios de réduction par 4 des émissions de CO2 liées au confort thermique dans l'habitat en France à l'horizon 2050. Elle évalue de manière approfondie les gains d'efficacité énergétique pouvant être obtenus par la rénovation du parc bâti en fonction de ses caractéristiques, des gestes...
Article
In his article on oil and gas prospects published last April (no. 373), Jean Laherrère showed (p. 25) how natural gas forecasts in the USA since 1985 have turned out to be far removed from the actual development subsequently recorded. Such retrospective comparisons are quite rare, if only because the forecasters and other drafters of long-term plan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cost effectiveness of the energy efficiency measures for the building stock is clearly a keypoint to reach the Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation and energy consumption decrease targets in France. In this frame, for the old and inefficient houses without heritage value (e.g. 3 millions in France built from 1949 to 1974), the question of demolition vs...
Article
Full-text available
Energy consumption in residential buildings is a complex phenomenon that stems from the combination of technical features and practices of occupants. Despite the central role occupants play, long-term modeling exercises at large scale often lack behavioral realism and explicitness. This study shall focus on the integration of conservation behaviors...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La modélisation thermique d’un logement est aujourd’hui usuelle avec un ensemble d’outils de complexité variable. En revanche l’utilisation de ces outils pour simuler les consommations de chauffage réelles d’un logement particulier et de ses habitants, en dehors d’un calcul normatif, reste difficile. Par ailleurs cette étude montre que même avec de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Financial efficiency of retrofitting actions of dwelling stock is always difficult to evaluate. Even if retrofitting market is not driven by financial profitability, evaluation of any efficiency programme is necessary and relies primarily on energy saving calculations and costs assumptions. The main question is the accuracy of chosen assessments th...
Article
The era of cheap oil seems to be coming to an end and the exhaustion of fossil resources forms part of possible - if not, indeed, probable - scenarios over the next half century, as was shown by the special issue of Futuribles on "Energy Prospects and the Greenhouse Effect" of January 2006. If we add to this the need to reduce CO 2 emissions in a c...
Article
The energy policies of the European Union and of its individual members all include a commitment to three main aims: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases, improving the economic efficiency of markets for energy, and ensuring greater independence with regard to energy supplies. Action on both supply and demand is required in order to achieve these...
Article
The energy policies of the European Union and of its individual members all include a commitment to three main aims: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases, improving the economic efficiency of markets for energy, and ensuring greater independence with regard to energy supplies. Action on both supply and demand is required in order to achieve these...
Article
The use of membranes has been growing rapidly in industry since 1960. Characterized by their properties of permeability and selectivity, membranes are used as separators' in a wide range of processes. Since membrane technologies are almost exclusively based on electricity, they make up a main element in the development program of electricity applic...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Le projet PROFIL « Prix de la Rénovation et Organisation de la Filière » propose de s’intéresser aux dynamiques socio-organisationnelles (organisation de la filière, jeux d’acteurs, instruments…) qui, combinées aux mécanismes économiques, permettent d’expliquer la formation des prix sur le marché de la rénovation énergétique pour le secteur résidentiel en France. L’approche retenue est une approche interdisciplinaire (technico-économique et sociologique) qui combine diagnostic quantifié du niveau, de la composition et de la distribution des prix du marché de la rénovation, observation des pratiques sur le terrain et mise en perspective européenne de la situation française. Co-financement de l’ADEME dans le cadre de l’appel à projet « Bâtiments responsables à l’horizon 2020 » (axe 4 «Socio-économie appliquée à la rénovation ») Date de lancement : novembre 2015 Durée : 24 mois, convention ADEME n°1510C0040.
Project
Le projet PROFIL « Prix de la Rénovation et Organisation de la Filière » propose de s’intéresser aux dynamiques socio-organisationnelles (organisation de la filière, jeux d’acteurs, instruments…) qui, combinées aux mécanismes économiques, permettent d’expliquer la formation des prix sur le marché de la rénovation énergétique pour le secteur résidentiel en France. L’approche retenue est une approche interdisciplinaire (technico-économique et sociologique) qui combine diagnostic quantifié du niveau, de la composition et de la distribution des prix du marché de la rénovation, observation des pratiques sur le terrain et mise en perspective européenne de la situation française. Co-financement de l’ADEME dans le cadre de l’appel à projet « Bâtiments responsables à l’horizon 2020 » (axe 4 «Socio-économie appliquée à la rénovation ») Date de lancement : novembre 2015 Durée : 24 mois, convention ADEME n°1510C0040.