Marie Gaarder

Marie Gaarder
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation 3ie

PhD

About

27
Publications
15,843
Reads
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647
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2017 - August 2019
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation 3ie
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
Full-text available
Evidence and Gap Maps (EGMs) are a systematic evidence synthesis product which display the available evidence relevant to a specific research question. EGMs are produced following the same principles as a systematic reviews, that is: specify a PICOS, a comprehensive search, screening against explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, and systematic...
Article
Spurred on by the ‘reproducibility crisis’, social scientists are starting to adopt research transparency practices. Research funders are largely unaware that replication work could strengthen the reliability, rigour, and relevance of their investments. The Gates Foundation commissioned the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) to aw...
Article
Full-text available
How do governance interventions that engage citizens in public service delivery planning, management and oversight impact the quality of and access to services and citizens’ quality of life? This systematic review examined high quality evidence from 35 citizen engagement programmes in low‐ and middle‐income countries that promote the engagement of...
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Does engaging citizens in the planning, management and oversight of public services – such as health care, social protection or physical infrastructure – that are critical to enabling large-scale development of populations impact the quality of and access to services and citizens’ quality of life? This systematic review examined high quality eviden...
Article
A range of organisations are engaged in the production of evidence on the effects of health, social and economic development programs on human welfare outcomes. However, evidence is often scattered around different databases, websites and the grey literature, and is often presented in inaccessible formats. Lack of overview of the evidence in a spec...
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This article suggests that interactions between development agencies and recipient governments are mostly about inputs deemed (but not known) to contribute to improvements in living standards in recipient countries, rather than outcomes. We argue that the development marketplace is beset by market imperfections because of externalities, principal–a...
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In the 21st century, many developing countries will become emerging markets and will no longer be in need of the carrot-and-stick approach to development assistance most prevalent today: development financing made available conditional on certain policies and interventions. This paper suggests that interactions between development agencies and reci...
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Development agencies expend large amounts of money and manpower ostensibly to achieve development outcomes that improve living conditions in developing countries. If development agencies cared only about development outcomes and these were easily observable in a timely manner, development agencies would ‘buy’ the best outcomes they could get for th...
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Evidence-gap maps present a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policy making. Evidence-gap maps are thematic evidence collections covering a range of issues such as maternal health, HIV/ AIDS, and agriculture. They present a visual overview of existing systematic reviews or impact evaluations in a sector or subsector,...
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The international community is paying increased attention to the 25 percent of the world’s population that lives in fragile and conflict affected settings, acknowledging that these settings represent daunting development challenges. To deliver better results on the ground, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the impacts and effectivenes...
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Despite the popularity of policy briefs as a tool for disseminating research, there is no evidence of their effectiveness in changing people's beliefs. We conducted an experiment whereby readers of a policy brief were randomly assigned to different versions of the brief and to a control group. We collected data on opinions and knowledge regarding t...
Article
Abstract Research has potential to improve the lives of the world's vulnerable people –if it is appropriately referred to in decision-making processes. While there is a significant industry of activity each year to communicate research findings, little systematic research has tested or compared the effectiveness of such efforts. One popular researc...
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The conditional cash transfer revolution in Latin America and the Caribbean, beginning in the mid-1990s and continuing to this day, heralded a new prominence and acceptance of applying rigorous impact evaluations to social programmes. Over the last decade, sub-Saharan Africa has begun its own cash transfer revolution, and has followed a similar pat...
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To condition or not to condition; that is a question that preoccupies social protection experts and policy-makers alike, and one that divides rights-based camps from the incentives-based ones. This commentary argues that this debate may be a red herring. The line between conditional and unconditional (or social) cash transfer programmes is blurred...
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The conditional cash transfer (CCT) revolution in Latin America and the Caribbean, beginning in the mid-1990s and continuing to this day, heralded a new prominence and acceptance of applying rigorous impact evaluations to social programmes. Beginning with the landmark impact evaluation of the Mexican PROGRESA programme in 1998, almost all programme...
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Carefully designed and implemented evaluations can improve people's welfare and enhance development effectiveness. This paper investigates institutions in Mexico, Chile, and Colombia, and shows that for the successful inception of an institutionalised system for evaluation, three common factors stand out: the existence of a democratic system with a...
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This paper investigates whether conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes that include health and nutrition components improve health and nutritional outcomes, and if so, which components of the programmes, or combination thereof, are important in achieving these improvements. Using evidence from Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East, th...
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The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) is a new organisation devoted to enhancing development effectiveness through supporting the production and use of evidence from rigorous impact studies. This paper outlines the theory of change that underlies 3ie's mission and the activities designed to address it.
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P oor families in the developing world face significant constraints in accessing essential health care. Distance to health facilities, lost wages associated with illness, care taking and care seeking, facility fees, and other out-of-pocket costs all contribute to limiting the access of poor families to health care, particularly 6 89 The authors tha...
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Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs are spreading rapidly throughout the developing world. These are the subjects of this paper and include Colombia's Familias en Acción, Honduras' PRAF, Jamaica's PATH, Mexico's Progresa/Oportunidades, and Nicaragua's Red de Protección Social. While evaluation results are encouraging, features of program desig...
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This paper explores the possible interactions of income and illness through labour supply choices, and the implications for health and health-cost measurements. Standard utility maximisation theory is used to analyse labour supply behaviour under constraints imposed by sickness and minimum consumption requirements. For a rather general utility func...

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