Marianne Mödlinger

Marianne Mödlinger
Università degli Studi di Genova | UNIGE · Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry

degree: about 36.8°C

About

59
Publications
28,087
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388
Citations
Introduction
I focus on Bronze Age metal finds from the Baltic States to Central & Eastern Europe, studying manufacture, usage and the transfer of technology. All studies include chemical and metallurgical characterisation of metals with e.g. XRF, SEM-EDXS-EBSD, metallography, Raman microspectroscopy, PGAA, PIXE, ToF-ND and NRCA. Over the last years, I shifted my focus also towards material properties of Cu-As and its corrosion behaviour.
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - July 2017
University of Bordeaux
Position
  • Researcher
July 2013 - June 2014
University of Vienna
Position
  • Researcher
July 2011 - June 2013
Università degli Studi di Genova
Position
  • Researcher
Education
October 1998 - June 2007
University of Vienna
Field of study

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
After more than a century of research into Bronze Age helmets throughout Europe, both the development and chronology of conical helmets with spool-shaped sockets still remain unclear. The comprehensive studies and analysis of the helmet from Biecz have not completely resolved the discussions. Other helmets, when not solitary finds, have been usuall...
Article
Full-text available
European Bronze Age swords are rare finds; they cannot normally be sampled in the destructive manner that would be necessary to assess their manufacturing technique, or to obtain evidence regarding their use primarily as ‘stabbing’ or ‘slashing’ weapons. Therefore, non-invasive neutron-based methods are potentially ideal. In this paper, neutron dif...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the effects of impurities, segregation, undercooling, and solidification velocity is necessary to reconstruct prehistoric As-Cu alloy manufacturing processes and practices. Moreover, these alloys often contain a wide variety of minor and trace elements such that the binary As-Cu equilibrium phase diagram does not adequately represent...
Book
Full-text available
This monograph provides for the first time a combined overview of all classes of metal body armour from the European Bronze Age in a holistic perspective, combining discussion of both traditional typo-chronologies and aspects of manufacture and use. The earliest metal body armour recovered comes from Dendra, Greece, and dates to the first half of t...
Article
The colors of copper alloys are of particular interest in archaeology and can be characterized quantitatively and systematically. The CIELAB color system can determine different color parameters such as a*, b*, and L* by means of a spectrophotometer that describes the surface color. Additional information such as C* and h values can be calculated f...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a study on copper production and distribution in Lower Austria's southeastern region during the Late Bronze Age (c. 1350-800 BC), with the focal point being the chemistry and isotopic character of artifacts from a small copper mining site at Prigglitz-Gas-teil on the Eastern Alps' easternmost fringe. Ores, casting cakes, and sel...
Article
The application of a multiple-scan strategy to nanosamples taken from 18 cross-sections of Bronze Age arms and armour, as well as two Roman coins using two solid-state electrochemical techniques, the voltammetry of immobilized microparticles (VIMP) and open circuit potential measurements (OCP) is described. The voltammetric responses in contact wit...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses 20 Late Bronze Age (ca 1080–800 BC) copper alloy objects to discern their manufacture and the skills of local craftsmen. Several tools and jewellery were studied that originated from a bronze workshop located immediately next to the Prigglitz-Gasteil copper ore mining site and several contemporaneous sites in the surrounding are...
Article
Giulio Monteverde (1837–1917) was one of the major and most important sculptors of the early 1900s, both in Italy and at a worldwide level. Monteverde is mainly known for the artworks he realized in stone and metal, but he still remains almost unacknowledged for his plaster statues. Until today, neither the manufacture, nor the chemical composition...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical and lead isotope analyses show that the 13 objects from the Mahrersdorf hoard (Ha B1; 11th century BCE) were primarily made from two distinct copper alloys that derived from fahlore. A third group, represented by one object, a median-winged axe, was made from recycled Ösenring copper and deposited ca. 150–200 years after its manufacture. A...
Article
Full-text available
During the later Bronze Age in Europe (c. 1500–800 BC), the archaeological visibility of the production and consumption of bronze increases substantially. Yet there remains a significant imbalance between the vast number of finished artefacts that survive and the evidence for where, how, and by whom they were produced. At the centre of these questi...
Article
To improve our understanding of prehistoric casting methods and materials, simulations for copper arsenic (As-Cu) alloys with up to 15 wt.% As were calculated. Cooling curves and the secondary dendritic arm spacings (SDAS) for the alloy were plotted and calculated, respectively, under non-steady-state conditions with a time-stepping procedure for p...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a description and an attempt to contextualise representations of head and pectoral protection depicted on the statue menhirs of Corsica. These monuments are among the most representative of Corsica’s Bronze Age and hold a decisive importance in historiography. Unfortunately, no actual armour – may it be organic or made from me...
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of ancient copper-based metal changes over time due to repetitive recycling and mixing of old metal. Prehistoric copper usually contains impurities from the copper ores themselves, and some have been used as evidence of anthropomorphically induced chemical change. Research into these changes has historically relied upon the...
Article
Full-text available
Die frühesten metallenen Körperschutzwaffen datieren in die erste Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts v. Chr., wobei der Großteil der bronzezeitlichen Schutzwaffen jedoch aus der Spätbronzezeit (ca. 1200−950 v. Chr.) stammt. Heute sind rund 30 Panzer, 75 Beinschienen und 120 Helme bekannt. Diese stammen aus ganz Europa: von Spanien im Westen bis Zypern im...
Article
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This paper covers aspect of the gender, education, and current profession of individuals engaged in archaeometallurgy from an anonymous questionnaire submitted by the authors to the ARCH­METALS LISTSERV. While the questionnaire itself was answered by only a fraction of the total list members, and likely excludes a portion that do not subscribe, we...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of all classes of metal body armour from the European Bronze Age based on an interdisciplinary approach combining traditional typo-chronologies with aspects of manufacture and use revealed by scientific analysis. The earliest known specimen of metal body armour from Dendra, Greece, dates to the first half of the fi...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Im Zuge einer von der Fritz Thyssen Stiftung unterstützten Feldbegehung wurden im August 2016 in Ostgeorgien (Provinz Kachetien) die Täler der vom Großen Kaukasus in den Alazani entwässernden Nebenflüsse auf Kupfererzvorkommen, deren Abbau und etwaiger Weiterverarbeitung untersucht und soweit möglich chronologisch eingeordnet. Dabei...
Article
The chemical composition and microstructure of eleven Bronze Age Caucasian daggers from North Ossetia-Alana, Russia were studied in order to establish a baseline for metallurgy and alloy production in the region. They have been housed in the Natural History Museum, Vienna since the 1880′s. The assemblage comprises arsenical bronzes characterized by...
Article
Full-text available
Bronze Age swords with a metal hilt can be considered the peak of Bronze Age casting technologies. To reconstruct the casting techniques used more than 3000 years ago, a metal hilted sword of the Schalenknauf type from Lower Austria was studied with the aid of macroscopic analyses and simulation of mold filling and casting solidification. A three-d...
Article
Full-text available
Non-invasive, archaeometric analyses on selected Hungarian Bronze Age defensive armour is presented here: three greaves, three helmets two shields as well as one vessel fragment were analysed with PIXE, PGAA and TOF-ND. The detected alloy elemental and phase composition as well as its intergranular or spatial concentration distribution reveals impo...
Article
Full-text available
Over more than 150 years of research, Late Bronze Age bell helmets have usually been included in discussions about Bronze Age helmets in general, and are rarely the main topic of discussion. This article discusses in detail and for the first time all known bell helmets and one associated fragment, and aims to shed new light on the development and c...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to provide new data on the metallurgical activity in Lebanon during the Early Bronze Age IV and the Middle Bronze Age by studying metal items discovered at the sites of Tell Arqa, Mougharet el-Hourryieh, Yanouh and Khariji. Even though some particularities were observed at each site, the results broadly show a common metall...
Article
Full-text available
European Bronze Age cuirasses. Aspects of chronology, typology, manufacture and usage Bronze Age metal cuirasses are the rarest type of defensive armour in Europe. The total number of 30 cuirasses is, according to their chronology, distribution and decoration, divided into three groups: a Western European, an Eastern Carpathian and a Greek group....
Article
Full-text available
During the European Bronze Age, flat discs with a variety of decorative elements were produced to be used most likely as either decoration attached to clothing or as parts of horse harnesses. The size and decoration differ according to region and period. The discs discussed here were all found in hoards deposited in a rather short period around 120...
Article
Full-text available
The paper contributes to the identification of different corrosion products detected on the cross-section specimens sampled from Bronze Age swords and one helmet found between 60–160 years ago. The objects are kept in 1889 built oak showcases at the Natural History Museum Vienna, having suffered unknown restoration treatments. The identified corrosio...
Article
Full-text available
Studying themicro-structure of Austrian, Bosnian and Croatian Bronze Age objects made of tin bronze, a rare kind of corrosion feature, called in the following “tentacle-like” according to its specific way of penetrating the metallic matrix, was noted and investigated. Differing from the more classical intergranular, pitting, or crevice corrosion fea...
Article
Full-text available
The paper focuses on the manufacture and usage of selected sheet metal objects from helmets, a vessel and two shields from the European Bronze Age and Early Iron Age which date from the 14th-7th centuries BC. Manufacturing traces on the surface, as well as metallographic investigations and the analyses of the alloy composition with SEM-EDXS provide...
Article
Full-text available
Archaeometric analyses on conical and decorated cap helmets from the Bronze Age are presented. The helmets are dated to the 14-12th century BC according to associated finds in hoards. Alloy composition, material structure and manufacturing processes are determined and shed light on the earliest development of weaponry production in Central and East...
Article
Full-text available
During the analysis and recording of Bronze Age defensive armour from Eastern and Central Europe it became apparent that a considerable number of fragments of helmets, as discussed in previous studies, were in fact parts of similarly decorated discs. This decoration consists of single or multiple embossed lines, arranged in co-joined arcs. These ar...
Article
Full-text available
Mödlinger, M. 2013. Bronze Age metal defensive armour in Eastern Europe: status symbols and symbolic weapons only? Indications for the usage as weapons. Bronze Age Crafts and Craftsmen in the Carpathian Basin’, Târgu Mureş, Romania, 5-7 October 2012, 279-290.
Article
Full-text available
Fibulae as main the metal elements of people’s costume and clothing vary significantly in form and shape through time, and therefore, they are the perfect chronological markers of periods and time horizons and help archaeologists to date associated finds and stratigraphic units precisely. Five Late La Tène fibulae (150–80 BC) typical of the Western...
Article
Full-text available
A 3000-year-old sword with a broken blade of the Schalenknauf-type, that has been found in a Late Bronze Age grave near St. Plten, Lower Austria, was analysed using different methods to get information about the manufacture and usage of Bronze Age swords. Among the methods used were X-ray, micro-X-ray computer tomography, EPMA, metallographic and s...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
Project
Analytical investigations on Archaeological artefacts.
Project
The research project ‘Chemical and metallurgical aspects of arsenical bronze: the case of arsenic-loss in prehistoric metal production‘ is hosted by the Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux – Centre de recherche en physique appliquée à l’archéologie (IRAMAT-CRP2 – UMR 5060 CNRS) at the Université Bordeaux Montaigne, in cooperation with the Laboratorio di Metallurgia e Materiali (LMM-DCCI) at the Universitá degli Studi di Genova. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, grant agreement no. 656244 (2015 to 2017). The main goal of this project is to investigate out-of-equilibrium Cu-As alloys, i.e. 0-10 wt.% arsenic, as used in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. The research protocol consists of several steps: equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium phase diagrams in the above mentioned range, evaluation of mechanical properties of Cu-As alloys in the most common metallurgical states (i.e. as-cast, annealed, cold-hardened, recrystallized), and estimation of the loss of arsenic during metallurgical transformations (i.e. melting / casting, homogenisation annealing, recrystallisation annealing) according to the number of iterations, the treatment temperature and the dwell time. The fulfillment of these objectives is of particular importance for archaeometallurgy, a branch of material science applied to archaeology, which also deals with the development and usage of arsenical bronze – the first alloy made by humans. New knowledge in the production, thermomechanical treatments and consequent properties of the misknown arsenical bronzes will be achieved. ArsenicLoss will: Investigate and contribute to the construction of out-of-equilibrium phase diagrams for arsenic bronzes up to 10 wt.% arsenic; Evaluate mechanical properties and characteristics of arsenical bronze such as hardness, ductility, castability or tensile strength; Quantify and evaluate the loss of arsenic during prehistoric manufacturing processes through re-melting, casting and annealing activities