Marianne Schmid Mast

Marianne Schmid Mast
University of Lausanne | UNIL · Faculty of Business and Economics (HEC)

Dr.

About

177
Publications
218,583
Reads
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5,586
Citations
Citations since 2016
59 Research Items
3617 Citations
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Introduction
I study how individuals in power hierarchies interact, perceive, and communicate (verbally and nonverbally), how first impressions affect interpersonal interactions and evaluations, how people form accurate impressions of others (interpersonal sensitivity), and how physician communication affects patient outcomes. I use immersive virtual environment technology and computer-based automatic sensing and analyzing of nonverbal behavior for the study of social interactions and communication.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
University of Lausanne
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2006 - present
Université de Neuchâtel
Position
  • Full professor of psychology (personnel psychology)
February 2006 - September 2006
Université de Fribourg
Position
  • SNF-Professorship
Education
April 2006
University of Zurich
Field of study
  • Psychology
March 2000
University of Zurich
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Full-text available
Experimental research conducted with student participants has documented that feeling powerful or powerless (psychological power) affects outcomes with high practical relevance for organizations. However, it is unclear how results from these studies can be generalized to organizational settings in which individuals have various roles that imply mor...
Article
Objective: To investigate how medical students' empathy is related to their mental health and burnout. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 886 medical students from curriculum years 1-6. The cognitive, affective, and behavioural dimensions of empathy were measured with self-report questionnaires and an emotion recognition test. Regressi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Physician interpersonal competence is crucial for patient care. How interpersonal competence develops during undergraduate medical education is thus a key issue. Literature on the topic consists predominantly of studies on empathy showing a trend of decline over the course of medical school. However, most existing studies have focused...
Article
Accurately reading others’ emotions, personality, intentions etc. (interpersonal accuracy, IPA) is crucial to successful interpersonal interactions. However, most existing tests to measure IPA focus on people’s ability to recognize emotions and do not specifically target the workplace. The newly developed WIPS (Workplace Interpersonal Perception Sk...
Article
Full-text available
The study of nonverbal behavior (NVB), and in particular kinesics (i.e., face and body motions), is typically seen as cost-intensive. However, the development of new technologies (e.g., ubiquitous sensing, computer vision, and algorithms) and approaches to study social behavior [i.e., social signal processing (SSP)] makes it possible to train algor...
Article
Full-text available
The growing literature on gender inequality in academia attests to the challenge that awaits female researchers during their academic careers. However, research has not yet conclusively resolved whether these biases persist during the peer review process of research grant funding and whether they impact respective funding decisions. Whereas many ha...
Article
When seeing algorithms err, we trust them less and decrease using them compared to after seeing humans err; this is called algorithm aversion. This paper builds on the algorithm aversion literature and the third-party reactions to mistreatment model to investigate a wider array of reactions to erring algorithms. Using an experimental design deploye...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal skills require mastering a wide range of competencies such as communication and adaptation to different situations. Effective training includes the use of videos in which role models perform the desired behaviours such that trainees can learn through behavioural mimicry. However, new technologies allow new ways of designing training....
Article
Power in experimental research has been commonly induced by methods that raise concerns regarding demand effects. In this paper, we investigate the empirical relevance of these concerns. In an incentivized online study (N = 1632), we manipulated the method of power manipulation (power priming vs. resource allocation), the level of power (high-power...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Physician self-disclosure is typically seen as patient-centered communication because it creates rapport and is seen as an expression of empathy. Given that many physician behaviors affect patients differently depending on whether they are shown by a female or male physician, we set out to test whether physician self-disclosure affects p...
Article
Behavioral adaptability is the ability to adapt one's interpersonal behavior to the expectations of the social interaction partners. In this paper, we investigated two factors that impact the extent to which people express behavioral adaptability. First, we investigated whether behavioral adaptability depends on the interaction partners' social cat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Asynchronous video interviews (AVIs) are increasingly used by organizations in their hiring process. In this mode of interviewing, the applicants are asked to record their responses to predefined interview questions using a webcam via an online platform. AVIs have increased usage due to employers' perceived benefits in terms of costs and scale. How...
Article
In an evaluative context, does the impression we think we convey to others matter, such that the more positive we think the impression conveyed is, the better we perform? Does this belief need to be accurate to perform better? We investigate the role of meta-perception and meta-accuracy in a public speaking context by asking participants to deliver...
Article
An individual’s speaking time behavior in groups is influenced by many elements. We investigate whether giving feedback on speaking time about how much each group member talks and whether group task interdependence influence hierarchy emergence in problem-solving groups. We also aim to investigate how these effects emerge by looking at whether init...
Article
Objective: The present study explores students' perspective on the added value of a virtual patient (VP) simulation as part of a breaking bad news training in undergraduate medical education. Methods: The VP simulation allows trying out and practicing different ways of disclosing a cancer diagnosis to a VP (avatar) and to react to emotionally-la...
Chapter
Interpersonal accuracy (IA), which is the ability to correctly assess others, is an important aspect of successful social interactions. But what exactly are the advantages of being interpersonally accurate in social interactions, and how does being able to correctly read and interpret nonverbal cues in others affect the outcomes of social interacti...
Chapter
We use a Brunswikian lens model approach to address the kinds of emotions powerful people feel and express and how emotional expressions influence power perception. For instance, when a target expresses anger, happiness, or pride, the target is perceived as more powerful. Conversely, when a target expresses shame or sadness, the target is perceived...
Article
Objective: This paper reports on the continuation of an initial study that demonstrated the effectiveness, as rated by experts, of an undergraduate training in breaking bad news (BBN) using simulated patient (SP) and individual feedback. The current study aimed to further explore whether such an individualized training approach also has positive e...
Article
Objective: Healthcare communication research, teaching, and practice is in a period of innovation and disruption from new technologies, consumerization, and emerging models of care delivery. The goal of this commentary is to discuss perceived barriers and provide baseline metrics of academic-industry partnership in health communication. Methods:...
Article
The ability to recognise others’ emotions from nonverbal cues (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is measured with performance-based tests and has many positive correlates. Although researchers have long proposed that ERA is related to general mental ability or intelligence, a comprehensive analysis of this relationship is lacking. For instance, it...
Article
We review the scientific evidence concerning the relation between power and social information processing. Does having or obtaining power affect how we perceive and judge our social interaction partners and how accurately we do this? High power individuals perceive others as more agentic and tend to project characteristics of themselves onto others...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy is a well-defined active ingredient in clinical encounters. To measure empathy, the current gold standard is behavioral coding (i.e., trained coders attribute overall ratings of empathy to clinician behaviors within an encounter), which is labor intensive and subject to important reliability challenges. Recently, an alternative measurement...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies we investigated the behavioral process through which visible female leader role models empower women in leadership tasks. We proposed that women tend to mimic the powerful (open) body postures of successful female role models, thus leading to more empowered behavior and better performance on a challenging leadership task, a process w...
Book
Les leaders qui accumulent les succès ont un point commun : ils sont experts en interactions sociales. Ils s'expriment clairement et efficacement, ils comprennent leurs collaborateurs et s'adaptent à toutes les situations. En tant que leader, vous devez donc non seulement savoir inspirer, motiver et convaincre votre entourage, mais également être à...
Article
Full-text available
We present five studies investigating the predictive validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior (NVB). Predictive validity of thin slices refers to how well behavior slices excerpted from longer video predict other measured variables. Using six NVBs, we compared predictive validity of slices of different lengths with that obtained when coding is...
Article
Full-text available
People behave differently in different situations. With the advances in ubiquitous sensing technologies, it is now easier to capture human behavior across multiple situations automatically and unobtrusively. We investigate human behavior across two situations that are ubiquitous in hospitality (job interview and reception desk) with the objective o...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal accuracy, the ability to correctly assess other people’s states or traits, has been studied for over 60 years, and many correlates have been uncovered. Furthermore, theorists routinely propose that having this kind of skill matters for social and workplace outcomes. However, much of the empirical work concerned with interpersonal accu...
Article
Objective: Understanding nonverbal behavior is key to the research, teaching, and practice of clinical communication. However, the measurement of nonverbal behavior can be complex and time-intensive. There are many decisions to make and factors to consider when coding nonverbal behaviors. Methods: Based on our experience conducting nonverbal beh...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To compare two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, t...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This paper is based on a 2017 Baltimore International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) plenary presentation by the first author and addresses how female and male physicians' communication is perceived and evaluated differently. Female physicians use patient-centered communication which is the interaction style clearly pr...
Article
Full-text available
A physician who communicates in a patient-centered way is a physician who adapts his or her communication style to what each patient needs. In order to do so, the physician has to (1) accurately assess each patient's states and traits (interpersonal accuracy) and (2) possess a behavioral repertoire to choose from in order to actually adapt his or h...
Article
Full-text available
We present how immersive virtual reality (IVR) technology can be used for interpersonal skills training in organizations. We review the distinguishing features of IVR and its potential strengths and limitations for interpersonal skills training. There is a pressing need for more empirical evidence, which is why we propose a research agenda with the...
Chapter
Les comportements discriminatoires en entreprise sont encore une réalité bien présente. Les recherches passées ont démontré que les comportements discriminatoires adoptés par les membres d’une organisation ne sont pas toujours le résultat de leur propre volonté, mais de pression émanant de leurs supérieur.e.s hiérarchiques. Nous qualifions ce phéno...
Conference Paper
In the service industry, customers often assess quality of service based on the behavior, perceived personality, and other attributes of the front line service employees they interact with. Interpersonal communication during these interactions is key to determine customer satisfaction and perceived service quality. We present a computational framew...
Article
Full-text available
Airbnb is changing the landscape of the hospitality industry. For guests, the process of selecting a place to stay is a type of zero-acquaintance situation, and to this day little is known about the inferences that guests make about Airbnb listings. Environmental psychologists were among the first studying home environments, but most works were bas...
Article
Full-text available
People tend to like objects that are looked at by others, especially if the person looking at the object expresses a positive emotion. But not all positive emotions are equal. We investigated the effect of third party gazing while expressing subtle positive emotions on perceivers’ subsequent preferences and evaluations of objects and people. In two...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Training medical students in breaking bad news (BBN) in oncology may be key to improve patient care in an area where many physicians tend to be uncomfortable. Given the lack of evidence in the literature, this study aimed to assess empirically the impact of 2 teaching strategies to prepare students for the task of BBN in oncology: one-t...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research investigated the effects of power poses at the behavioral, subjective, and neuroendocrine level. However, it is not clear whether the same effects would be obtained also by just imagining, rather than adopting, a power pose. We planned to investigate this question by asking 200 participants to either perform or imagine a constrict...
Conference Paper
First impressions play a critical role in the hospitality industry and have been shown to be closely linked to the behavior of the person being judged. In this work, we implemented a behavioral training framework for hospitality students with the goal of improving the impressions that other people make about them. We outline the challenges associat...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated individual differences in nonverbal self-accuracy (NVSA), which is the ability to accurately recall one's own nonverbal behavior following a social interaction. Participants were videotaped during a social interaction with a stranger and then asked to recall how often they displayed five common nonverbal behaviors. Co...
Article
Full-text available
The approach/inhibition theory by Keltner, Gruenfeld, and Anderson (2003) predicts that powerful people should feel more positive and less negative emotions. To date, results of studies investigating this prediction are inconsistent. We fill this gap with four studies in which we investigated the role of different conceptualizations of power: felt...
Article
Full-text available
Using the theoretical framework of circumplex models, we investigated how the actual nonverbal behaviors of interviewers can hinder female applicants' performance in simulated job interviews. Fifty-seven dyads conducted mock job interviews for a managerial position. Applicants were always women, whereas interviewers were either men or women. Interv...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss how interpersonal accuracy – the ability to accurately assess others’ states and traits – plays out in hierarchies, particularly those related to workplace and leadership. We begin by discussing the importance of interpersonal accuracy for workplace relationships, such as those with customers, co-workers, and among subor...
Book
We are constantly forming impressions about those around us. Social interaction depends on our understanding of interpersonal behavior - assessing one another's personality, emotions, thoughts and feelings, attitudes, deceptiveness, group memberships, and other personal characteristics through facial expressions, body language, voice and spoken lan...
Chapter
Research on people's accuracy in perceiving other people's states, traits, and social attributes has existed for over 100 years. In the past few decades, however, it has exploded into a vibrant, interdisciplinary, and international pursuit with relevance to all areas of social, interpersonal, and intrapersonal life. However, researchers typically w...
Article
Full-text available
We tested whether the personality trait of agreeableness predicts different individual reactions to the level of nonverbal affiliativeness shown by a physician, in the context of a simulated bad news delivery. We predicted that individuals with high levels of agreeableness would react better to a physician adopting a highly affiliative communicatio...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we tested whether physicians’ ability to adapt their nonverbal behavior to their patients’ preferences for a paternalistic interaction style is related to positive consultation outcomes. We hypothesized that the more physicians adapt their nonverbal dominance behavior to match their patients’ preferences for physician paternalism, th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Female leaders are typically evaluated less favorably than their male counterparts. Since physicians are perceived as being high in status and power just like leaders, we propose to examine to what extent female doctors are affected by the same evaluations as female leaders in general. We present a review of the literature showing how the sex of th...
Article
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In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether including an applicant’s photograph on a resume boosts or hampers the accurate assessment of that person’s (Big Five) personality traits and intelligence. A group of 114 participants rated 8 applicants (4 men and 4 women) with respect to their personality traits and intelligence. We used a 3 × 2 (Condition [resume with photo...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient sat...
Article
The goal of the present review is to explain how immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) can be used for the study of social interactions and how the use of virtual humans in immersive virtual environments can advance research and application in many different fields. Researchers studying individual differences in social interactions are ty...
Article
Full-text available
There is little consensus regarding how verticality (social power, dominance, and status) is related to accurate interpersonal perception. The relation could be either positive or negative, and there could be many causal processes at play. The present article discusses the theoretical possibilities and presents a meta-analysis of this question. In...
Article
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This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first-person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who wer...
Article
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In this article, we show how the use of state-of-the-art methods in computer science based on machine perception and learning allows the unobtrusive capture and automated analysis of interpersonal behavior in real time (social sensing). Given the high ecological validity of the behavioral sensing, the ease of behavioral-cue extraction for large gro...
Article
Full-text available
Although explicit stereotypes of women in the workplace have become increasingly positive, negative stereotypes persist at an implicit level, with women being more likely associated with incompetent—and men with competent—managerial traits. Drawing upon work on self-fulfilling prophecies and interracial interactions, we investigated whether and how...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Previous research has shown that power increases focus on the main goal when distractor information is present. As a result, high-power people have been described as goal-focused. In real life, one typically wants to pursue multiple goals at the same time. There is a lack of research on how power affects how people deal with situations in...