Maria P Civeira

Maria P Civeira
Universidad de Navarra | UNAV · Department of Internal Medicine

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105
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Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Oncostatin M (OSM) is an inflammatory cytokine which interacts with a heterodimeric receptor formed by gp130 and either OSMRβ or LIFR. Here we have analysed OSM and its receptors in livers with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and studied the factors that regulate this system. OSM, OSM receptors and OSM-target molecules were studied by immunohistochemistr...
Article
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IL-7 and IL-15 are produced by hepatocytes and are critical for the expansion and function of CD8 T cells. IL-15 needs to be presented by IL-15Rα for efficient stimulation of CD8 T cells. We analysed the hepatic levels of IL-7, IL-15, IL-15Rα and interferon regulatory factors (IRF) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (78% genotype 1) and the...
Article
Dendritic cells (DC) transfected with an adenovirus encoding hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protein (AdNS3) induce potent antiviral immune responses when used to immunize mice. However, in HCV infected patients, controversial results have been reported regarding the functional properties of monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), a cell population commonly used i...
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The N-alpha-acetyltransferase NatB, composed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the Nat3p and Mdm20p subunits, is an important factor for yeast growth and resistance to several stress agents. However, the expression and functional role of the mammalian counterpart has not yet been analysed. Here, we report the identification of Nat3p human homologue (h...
Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is remarkably efficient at establishing persistent infection. The current treatment with IFN-alpha given alone or in combination with ribavirin is ineffective in eliminating the virus in a large proportion of individuals with chronic hepatitis C. Recent data suggest that HCV blocks IFN-alpha signalling, an effect that facili...
Article
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is induced by proinflammatory cytokines and by CTLA-4-expressing T cells and constitutes an important mediator of peripheral immune tolerance. In chronic hepatitis C, we found upregulation of IDO expression in the liver and an increased serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (a reflection of IDO activity). Huh7 cells su...
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Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) play a critical role in antiviral defence. STAT3 is also important in cell protection against inflammatory damage. STAT proteins are activated by interferons and by hepatoprotective cytokines of the interleukin 6 superfamily, including cardiotrophin 1. We analysed the status of STATs in hep...
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Recombinant adenovirus administration gives rise to transgene-independent effects caused by the ability of the vector to activate innate immunity mechanisms. We show that recombinant adenoviruses encoding reporter genes trigger IFN-alpha and IFN-beta transcription from both plasmacytoid and myeloid mouse dendritic cells. Interestingly, IFN-beta and...
Article
Successful clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with strong cellular immune responses against viral antigens. However, although the magnitude of these responses is clearly important for viral eradication, more studies are needed to unravel the fine specificity of the protective anti-HCV immunity in infected patients. T...
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Systems for in vitro culture of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are essential tools to analyse virus-cell interactions and to investigate relevant pathophysiological aspects of HCV infection. Although the HCV replicon methodology has increased our understanding of HCV biology, this system does not reproduce the natural infection. Recently, tupaia (Tupaia b...
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Interferon-alpha5 (IFN-alpha5) is the main IFN-alpha subtype expressed in the liver. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with low IFN-alpha5 mRNA levels, possibly reflecting an escape mechanism of the virus. In this work, we sought to compare IFN-alpha2 and IFN-alpha5 with respect to activation of early cell signaling cascades and induc...
Article
Hepatitis autoinmune. La hepatitis autoinmune se caracteriza por la presencia de autoanticuerpos, niveles elevados de gammaglobulinas y manifestaciones de autoinmunidad a otros niveles. Las manifestaciones clinicas incluyen desde formas fulminantes hasta la cirrosis. El diagnostico se basa en la clinica, autoanticuerpos e histologia. El tratamiento...
Article
The mechanisms of liver damage in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are poorly understood. The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), regulates the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, inflammation, and antiviral response. It plays a protective role in several forms of liver damage. In this study, we analyzed NF-ka...
Article
Interferon (IFN)-alpha is a family of antiviral proteins encoded by different genes. The biological significance of the existence of various IFN-alpha subtypes is not clear. We have investigated the interferon system in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a disease that responds to interferon-alpha2 therapy in only a limited proportion of ca...
Article
Interferon (IFN)-α is a family of antiviral proteins encoded by different genes. The biological significance of the existence of various IFN-α subtypes is not clear. We have investigated the interferon system in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a disease that responds to interferon-α2 therapy in only a limited proportion of cases. We anal...
Article
Full-text available
Dendritic cells (DC) are being used as natural adjuvants to induce therapeutically useful immune responses. To achieve so, DC are often provided with relevant antigens by gene transfection using diff e rent viral and non-viral vectors. Recombinant defective adenoviruses encoding antigens or cytokines have been used to transfer genes to DC to enhanc...
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The histopathological spectrum and role of hepatitis viruses in cases of hypertransaminasaemia of unknown aetiology have not been correctly analysed in a sufficiently large number of patients. We studied 1075 consecutive patients referred for liver biopsy because of elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for more than six months. From t...
Article
Oxidative stress could play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection. We investigated the oxidant/antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C and controls. Lipid peroxidation products and superoxide dismutase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were higher in chronic he...
Article
Viral infections stimulate the transcription of interferon type I, which includes IFN-alfa (IFN-alpha) (13 subtypes) and IFN-beta (a single substance). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is remarkable by its ability to evade host antiviral defenses; however, there is little information as to whether endogenous IFN is activated or not in this disease...
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Full-text available
The immunogenicity of variable regions of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins was studied by ELISA by using 543 synthetic peptides from 120 variable regions and 90 sera from HCV-infected patients. Some regions from certain genotypes were less immunogenic, or even non-immunogenic, compared with their equivalents in other genotypes. However, the mean re...
Article
The term sustained response should be applied to patients with negative serum HCV-RNA and normal values of serum transaminases 6 months after interferon withdrawal. To investigate which factors identify sustained responders early during treatment we analysed 18 reports which used the definition sustained response. Eight reports, comprising 988 pati...
Article
To investigate the involvement of T-cell response against hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens in viral clearance after interferon therapy, we measured interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by peripheral mononuclear cells in response to HCV core in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In a cohort of 43 patients, we investigated the frequency of circulating cor...
Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows a high degree of variability resulting in many different variants. In this work we described the variability of several subgenomic fragments from the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) and E1, E2/NS1 and NS5 regions comparing, for every position, all the sequences published in GenBank v. 88 (July 1995) as well as new sequ...
Article
Recurrent hepatitis C is a frequent complication after liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis, but risk factors related to its development remain ill defined. Twenty-three patients receiving a primary liver graft for hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and with an assessable biopsy performed at least 6 months after liver tran...
Article
It has been reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may cause oxidative stress in infected cells. Patients with chronic hepatitis C exhibit an increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), a cytokine that can produce oxidative stress by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell defense against ROS includes o...
Article
Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be reproduced in chimpanzees, these animals are rare and expensive. Tree shrews (tupaias) are small animals, closely related to primates, which adapt easily to a laboratory environment. In this work we have investigated the susceptibility of Tupaia belangeri chinensis to HCV infection. Tupaias caught i...
Article
In chronic hepatitis C, interferon alfa induces sustained remission in less than 30% of treated patients. The aim of this study is to analyze viral status early after initiation interferon therapy as a predictor of treatment outcome. One hundred eighty-one patients with chronic hepatitis C who had been treated with interferon alfa for 12 months (me...
Article
The role of cellular immunity in the clearance of hepatitis C virus after interferon therapy has not yet been elucidated. Here, we analyzed the T cell response to peptides from hepatitis C virus E1 protein in untreated and interferon-treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. We used thirty-six 15-mer synthetic peptides from hepatit...
Article
Phenylalanine-containing peptides from CD4 were synthesized on the basis of chemical similarity with active CD4(81-92)-benzylated peptides. Systematic replacement of amino acids of these peptides bearing the benzyl group by phenylalanine, afforded several peptides that were able to block the binding of gp120 to CD4 and to inhibit HIV-induced syncyt...
Article
Different variants of hepatitis C virus might show different susceptibility to interferon alpha treatment, but it is important to understand whether this difference in sensitivity reflects an association with other factors, such as cirrhosis or age. We have used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent hepatitis C virus typing assay based upon the detection...
Article
Antiphospholipid antibodies are a type of autoantibodies that have been implicated in the occurrence of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events and have been described in autoimmune disorders and diverse viral diseases. In this study anticardiolipin antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] isotype) were determined in serum from 100 patients with chronic h...
Article
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine with pleiotropic properties that is induced in a variety of pathological situations including viral infections. In this work, we analyzed the expression of TNF-alpha gene in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Serum TNF-alpha levels were found to be elevated in all chronic hepatitis C patients in...
Article
We have analyzed the sequence of the 5'-untranslated region of hepatitis C virus from 24 patients with chronic hepatitis C and we found a conserved six-nucleotide motif previously described as a modulator of gene expression.
Article
To determine the incidence of postransfusion hepatitis (PTH) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in blood recipients in Navarra and to evaluate the impact of excluding anti-HCV positive donors on the incidence of posttransfusion HCV infection. 248 transfusion recipients were included, 150 in a first period before anti-HCV(+) donors exclusion, and...
Article
alpha-Interferon therapy normalizes aminotransferase levels in approximately 50% of the patients with chronic hepatitis C, but post-therapy relapses are common and predictive factors of sustained response remain largely unknown. We retrospectively assessed several parameters as predictors of sustained remission after a 12-month course of lymphoblas...
Article
The presence of Leu-8 antigen, the human homologue of the murine MEL-14 peripheral lymph node homing receptor, defines subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with different functions. Since it has been suggested that abnormal function of Leu-8 subsets may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), this st...
Article
The aim of the study was the evaluation of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection rate and semiquantification of viremia in healthy people. Healthy blood donors were studied. Human herpesvirus-6 IgG and IgM antibody titers were measured by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Human herpesvirus-6 DNA amplification (nested-PCR) was performed in peripher...
Article
The majority of circulating CD4+ T cells express the Leu-8 peripheral lymph node homing receptor, and these cells have previously been shown to have suppressor-inducer and suppressor function. In the present study, it was found that CD4+, Leu-8+ T cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have a significantly (P < 0.01) lower prolife...
Article
The majority of circulating CD4+ T cells express the Leu-8 peripheral lymph node homing receptor, and these cells have previously been shown to have suppressor-inducer and suppressor function. In the present study, it was found that CD4+, Leu-8+ T cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have a significantly (P+, Leu-8− T cells was...
Article
Phenylalanine-containing peptides from CD4 were synthesized based on chemical similarity with active CD4(81-92)-benzylated peptides. The synthetic peptide FYIFFVEDQKEEDD blocked the binding of gp120 to CD4 and inhibited 50% human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced syncytia formation at a concentration (IC50) of approximately 40-50 microM and HIV...
Article
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by granuloma formation, plurivisceral involvement and the presence of a complex immune dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a cytokine endowed with powerful systemic actions which is believed to participate in granulomatous reactions. In this work we analyzed the expression of TNFα mRNA in...
Article
For the 30-50% of patients with chronic hepatitis C who do not respond to alpha-interferon therapy there is no alternative treatment. Some previously untreated patients have shown a biochemical response to ribavirin, but the antiviral effects of this substance on alpha-interferon-resistant cases is largely unknown. Twelve patients with chronic hepa...
Article
Full-text available
Pretreatment variables that could predict the response of chronic hepatitis C to interferon alfa treatment have not been fully assessed. Eighteen baseline variables were evaluated in a series of 100 consecutive patients treated with a 12 month course of interferon alfa. For the purposes of this study, response was defined as the return to normal of...
Article
We investigated the presence of positive (genomic) and negative (replicative intermediate) hepatitis C virus RNA strands in liver, peripheral mononuclear cells and serum from patients with chronic hepatitis C using a selective and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction procedure. Negative and positive hepatitis C virus RNA strands were present...
Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA virus that replicates in both the liver and lymphoid cells. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a useful treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) although resistance to this drug occurs frequently. The mechanisms underlying resistance to IFN remain unknown. In this work, we have measured the levels of glutathione in plas...
Article
To assess the effect of long-term alfa interferon therapy (12 months) on liver histology of chronic hepatitis C, we studied 61 treated patients, and compared their outcome with 28 untreated cases followed as controls. A liver biopsy was taken from all patients, before (month 0) and after the completion of the treatment or the control period (month...
Article
A novel ELISA assay for the detection of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies in the sera of infected individuals is described. This assay is based on a mixture of three 15-amino acid synthetic peptides encompassing regions of core and NS4 proteins of hepatitis C virus. Comparison with other available ELISA assays based on recombinant polypeptides sho...
Article
Seventy-two patients with chronic hepatitis C were included in a randomised trial of lymphoblastoid interferon versus no treatment. Thirty-six patients entered each group. Interferon was given in a step-down schedule for 12 months. Aminotransferase activities became normal during treatment in 30 of 36 (83.3%) treated patients, but in only 1 out of...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of hepatitis B virus occult infection in asymptomatic subjects with persistent anti-HBc reactivity but no other hepatitis B virus serological markers, including HBsAg, anti-HBs, IgM anti-HBc and HBV-DNA. For this purpose we used both polymerase chain reaction assays in sera and immunohistochemis...
Article
Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) were included in an open randomized controlled trial of lymphoblastoid alpha-interferon (L-IFN) versus no treatment. Twenty patients entered each group, and features of therapy and control cases were similar. L-IFN was given in low doses (1.5-4.5 megaunits) for 1 yr. In 16 of 20 patients treated with L-...
Article
Exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the stilbene derivative DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) (60 microM and above) significantly increased the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as determined by TNF-alpha activity in the incubation media. When the TNF-alpha message was analyzed in...
Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus which replicates through a negative-stranded RNA intermediate. Using a PCR procedure to detect positive and negative strands, we investigated the existence of HCV replication in lymphoid cells. Both positive and negative strands were found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of a...
Article
Patients with depression present immunodepression and it has been proposed that, in these patients, endogenous opioid peptides may be mediators between the dysfunction of the central nervous system and immune alterations. The function and the surface markers of monocytes were studied in 15 patients with major unipolar depression and in 24 healthy c...
Article
A new serological assay to detect antibodies against hepatitis C, based on a recombinant protein (BHC10) which incorporates structural and non-structural viral antigens, was tested in 67 healthy subjects and 409 patients with various forms of liver disease. Results were compared with the current assay based on the recombinant non-structural viral a...
Article
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) constitutes important methodological progress for detecting the presence of viral nucleic acids when these are found in small quantities in serum or tissues. The aim of this study was the use of PCR to detect DNA of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with chronic HBsAg positive hepatitis (HC-B) and in patien...
Chapter
Chronic hepatitis is defined as a persistent inflammatory reaction in the liver lasting for more than 6 months [1, 2]. Different agents can act as triggers of the inflammatory process. The cellular infiltrate is mainly composed of lymphocytes [3]. Neither the target antigens nor the pathogenic mechanisms are known in many cases.