Maria Melchior

Maria Melchior
French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Inserm · Pierre Louis Institute for Epidemiology and Public Health (IPLESP)

ScD

About

324
Publications
36,292
Reads
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8,250
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - present
Sorbonne Université
Position
  • Research Director
January 2007 - August 2016
French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (324)
Article
Full-text available
Emerging research suggests that the prevalence of child and adolescent mental health problems has increased considerably during the COVID-19 crisis. However, there have been few longitudinal studies on children’s mental health issues according to their social determinants in this context, especially in Europe. Our aim was to investigate the associa...
Article
Résumé Les conditions de la grossesse et de vie dans la petite enfance – notamment les comportements de santé et la santé mentale des parents, sont associées au développement et au devenir à moyen terme des enfants, ce que montrent les données de cohortes longitudinales telles qu’EDEN. En particulier, les données de la cohorte EDEN qui suit des enf...
Preprint
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Background: Persons experiencing unstable housing – including recently arrived migrants – are at elevated risk of contracting COVID-19 and suffer from high morbidity and mortality. In this context, the COVID-19 vaccine was foreseen as a promising way to control the pandemic and reduce social inequalities in this area. Understanding the motives of C...
Article
Background : In Western societies, individuals are increasingly exposed to external stimuli and performance demands. Some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative and positive environmental conditions. Specifically, high « sensory processing sensitivity » (SPS) can make it difficult to adjust to certain demands. Psychoactive su...
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Background Screen media use in early childhood has largely increased in recent years, even more so during the COVID-19 epidemic, and there is much discussion regarding its influence on neurodevelopment, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods We examined the relationship between use of TV, computer, tablet and smartphone at age 2 years a...
Article
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Many studies have investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Throughout the pandemic, time spent at home increased to a great extent due to restrictive measures. Here we set out to investigate the relationship between housing conditions and the mental health of populations across European countries. We analyzed survey data c...
Preprint
Objective To examine the relationship between young adults’ labor force participation and depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, Participants Data come from the nationally-representative EPICOV cohort study set up in France, and were collected in 2020 and 2021 (3 waves of online or telephone interviews) among 2217 par...
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Objective: Previous studies on effects of emotional demands on depression have relied on self-reported exposure data and lacked control for potential confounding by pre-employment risk factors for depression. This study used a register-based design to examine the risk of hospital-treated depressive disorder in relation to occupational levels of em...
Article
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Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might affect mental health. Data from population-representative panel surveys with multiple waves including pre-COVID data investigating risk and protective factors are still rare. Methods: In a stratified random sample of the German household population (n = 6684), we conducted survey...
Article
Background: Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration of children's mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures. Our study compared emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during school closure between preterm and full-...
Article
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The comorbidity between physical and mental health conditions is challenging and frequently goes unrecognized in practice. Associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and physical conditions have been reported in youth. However, prior research failed to: (1) address the patterns of associations in early childhood, middle ch...
Article
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Social inequalities tended to increase in the context of the pandemic, particularly in relation to the measures taken to manage and reduce the risk of COVID-19. When lockdown measures required the general population “to stay home”, what were homeless people expected to do? The ECHO study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study with a convergent mix...
Article
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Introduction In the pandemic, healthcare professionals face even higher levels of stress. It is therefore a priority to estimate the impact of the pandemic on mental health and to propose targeted strategies to improve resilience. The aims of the study were to (1) assess the mental health of healthcare professionals working with patients with COVID...
Article
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Background In northern countries, suicide rates among prisoners are at least three times higher for men and nine times higher for women than in the general population. The objective of this study is to describe the sociodemographic, penal, health characteristics and circumstances of suicide of French prisoners who died by suicide. Methods This stu...
Preprint
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic might affect mental health. Data from population-representative panel surveys with multiple waves including pre-COVID data investigating risk and protective factors are still rare.Methods: In a stratified random sample of the German household population (n=6,684), we conducted survey-weighted multiple linear regres...
Article
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Background Compared to smokers with favorable socio-economic position (SEP), those with low SEP are less likely to have a successful smoking cessation attempt. Tailored approaches are therefore needed, and general practitioners could help reaching and assisting usually hard-to-reach population. Method STOP (Sevrage Tabagique à l’aide d’Outils dédi...
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(1) Background: Little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted social support and loneliness over time and how this may predict subsequent mental health problems. This study aims to determine longitudinal trajectories of social support and loneliness in the French general population during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and s...
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Background Although the role of diet is increasingly acknowledged in psychiatry, data is still scarce regarding its early impact on the most significant behavioral disorders of childhood (i.e., hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems). Objective The objective of this study was to explore the relation between children's dietary patterns at 2...
Article
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COVID-19 limitation strategies have led to widespread school closures around the world. The present study reports children’s mental health and associated factors during the COVID-19 school closure in France in the spring of 2020. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the SAPRIS project set up during the COVID-19 pandemic in France...
Article
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Background: The EU LifeCycle Project was launched in 2017 to combine, harmonise, and analyse data from more than 250,000 participants across Europe and Australia, involving cohorts participating in the EU-funded LifeCycle Project. The purpose of this cohort description is to provide a detailed overview over the major measures within mental health d...
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Background France accounts for one of the highest levels of recreational cannabis use, with almost 40% of youth aged 17 reporting having experimented with cannabis. We investigated the impact of early cannabis experimentation (defined as first-time use ≤ 16 years) on future probability of unemployment in young to mid-adulthood using a longitudinal,...
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PurposeFew studies examined psychosocial risks among immigrants and explored their association with mental health. Our study aims to 1) describe the prevalence of job strain and iso-strain according to migratory status and model the probability of exposure, 2) verify whether the association between job strain, iso strain and anxiety holds for all i...
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Background Accumulating evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected global mental health and well-being. However, the impact amongst homeless persons has not been fully evaluated. The ECHO study reports factors associated with depression amongst the homeless population living in shelters in France during the Spring of 2020....
Article
In France, immigrants’ excess of mortality was higher than natives’ during the Spring 2020 lockdown. Were immigrants in frontline jobs and more exposed to Covid-19? Based on a nationally representative survey, we model the probability to work in a frontline job according to migratory status, taking sociodemographic and occupational characteristics...
Article
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Background To cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing restrictions where implemented in France, which could have led to social isolation. This is expected to have affected the mental health situation, including increasing risk of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population. Persons with prior mental health difficulties c...
Article
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Background The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic lead to high levels of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Consequences of this outbreak and possible associated infection are an increase in mental health disorders and an increased likelihood of internalizing problems, particularly depression. However, to date few studies have tested this hyp...
Article
Objective There exists no national French study on suicide attempts among people who use drugs (PWUD). Our objectives are to analyze lifetime suicide attempts in that population and to compare associated risks based on gender. Method The ANRS-Coquelicot study (2011–2013) conducted 1718 interviews with people over 18 who have injected or snorted a...
Article
Social inequalities in health and their early life origins have been extensively documented. Although the complex direct and intermediate mechanisms linking early life disadvantage to later health are not yet fully understood, new findings on biological markers distinctly related with early life experiences suggest a causal relation. In their paper...
Article
Background: Given the high incidence of perinatal maternal depression, implementation of preventive actions is crucial. In France, two prenatal preventive measures are available to the general population: early prenatal interview (EPI) and antenatal classes (ANC). Objective: To explore the independent associations between EPI and / or ANC and ma...
Article
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Introduction Many smoking cessation aids such as nicotine replacement treatments and e-cigarettes have been proven effective in aiding smoking cessation attempts. Encouraging smokers with low socioeconomic position (SEP) to choose their smoking aid tool based on their preferences, and giving that tool free of charge, might increase the odds of smok...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: COVID-19 limitation strategies have led to widespread school closures around the world. The present study reports children’s mental health and associated factors during the COVID-19 school closure in France in the spring of 2020. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the SAPRIS project set up during the COVID-...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is frequent and can constitute a barrier to the dissemination of vaccines once they are available. Unequal access to vaccines may also contribute to socioeconomic inequalities with regard to COVID-19. We studied vaccine hesitancy among persons living in homeless shelters in France between May and June 2020 (n=235). Overal...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is frequent and can constitute a barrier to the dissemination of vaccines once they are available. Unequal access to vaccines may also contribute to socioeconomic inequalities with regard to COVID-19. We studied vaccine hesitancy among persons living in homeless shelters in France between May and June 2020 (n=235). Overal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Accumulating evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected global mental health and well-being. However, the impact amongst homeless persons has not been fully evaluated. The ECHO study reports factors associated with depression amongst the homeless population living in shelters in France during the Spring of 2020....
Article
Objectives The aim of this study is to provide information on changes in mental health among disadvantaged immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area and their level of information about Covid-19. Methods Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Makasi community-based cohort followed 850 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa in the Great...
Article
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L'étude ECHO évalue les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques liées à l'épidémie de Covid-19 et mesure l'impact de cette dernière sur les personnes en situation de précarité vivant en centres d'hébergement en France, dont une grande majorité d'étrangers. Une première vague de cette étude a été menée en mai et juin 2020. Une bonne connaissance des s...
Article
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Objective The COVID-19 epidemic has spread worldwide since December 2019. To contain it, preventive measures including social distancing, economic shutdown, and school closures were introduced, carrying the risk of mental health burden in adults and children. Although the knowledge base regarding children's response to trauma and adverse events in...
Article
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Objective The tobacco industry has been reported to employ sex-specific marketing strategies, which include different types of tobacco packaging, publicity, as well as price strategies. We examined whether characteristics associated with the purchase of more expensive cigarette brands varied by sex, in the context of the introduction of plain tobac...
Article
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Children of immigrants may have higher neurodevelopmental risks than those of non-immigrant populations. Yet, some evidence suggests that this group may receive late diagnosis, and therefore miss beneficial early interventions. Clinicians may misattribute symptoms of disorders to other social, behavioral or language problems. Likewise, there might...
Article
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Background: We examined the association between probability of work-related violence and first diagnosis of depressive disorder whilst accounting for the potential selection of individuals vulnerable to depression into occupations with high probability of work-related violence. Methods: Based on a pre-published study protocol, we analysed nationwid...
Article
We examine the association between trajectories of childhood adversities and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) using a register-based Danish cohort. The DANish LIFE Course (DANLIFE) cohort includes and prospectively follows all individuals born in Denmark from 1980. We estimated the rate of PTSD diagnosed from age 16, according to childhood adv...
Article
Introduction We examined whether duration of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use could be associated with smoking reduction or cessation attempt. Methods 5,409 current smokers at baseline enrolled in the French CONSTANCES cohort in 2015 or 2016 were included. Duration of e-cigarette use was categorized as follows: never; former user for more th...
Article
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Background In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world instituted various public-health measures. Our project aimed to highlight the most significant similarities and differences in key mental-health indicators between four Western and Northern European countries, and identify the population subgroups with the poorest mental-...
Article
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Background: Migrants, and particularly asylum seekers, are at increased risk of psychiatric disorders in comparison with natives. At the same time, inequalities in access to mental health care are observed. Methods: In order to evaluate whether the Parisian public psychiatric system is optimally structured to meet the needs of this population, w...
Article
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Background Maternal diet quality during pregnancy has been linked to offspring's physical and mental health outcomes across the lifespan. However, few studies have examined its association with subsequent offspring's anxiety and depression issues. Objectives The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal prenatal dieta...
Article
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Introduction-Plusieurs études mettent en évidence des conséquences plus importantes de l'épidémie de Covid-19, tant sur le plan sanitaire que sur le plan socio-économique, dans les populations défavorisées. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par le cumul de plusieurs facteurs pouvant freiner l'application des mesures de préven-tion de l'infection à SARS-C...
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Aims Depression is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the role of poor medical adherence is mostly unknown. We studied the association between depressive symptoms and non-adherence to medications targeting treatable cardiovascular risk factors in the CONSTANCES population-based French cohort. Methods and results We...
Article
Background Recent research suggests that immune dysregulation in pregnancy could be a risk factor for anxiety/depression symptoms in offspring. Whereas animal studies have demonstrated the importance of the link between perinatal cytokines and abnormal behaviors in offspring, human epidemiological studies in this area remain limited. The objectives...
Article
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Background Recently, France has intensified tobacco control policies which included gradual increase in tobacco product price and the introduction of plain packaging. However, there has been suggestion that cross-border tobacco purchases from neighbouring countries, with lower tobacco prices, will increase. We examine trends in cross-border tobacco...
Article
This systematic review seeks to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at preventing unintended pregnancies in women using psychoactive substances. Seven electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection, PsycINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL database) were searched in October 2017. Twenty-two articles met our inclusion crite...
Article
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Background: Previous studies have found low job control to be associated with a higher risk of disability pension (DP). Most studies have measured job control only at one time-point, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the role of exposure duration. This study examines the prospective association between job control and DP measuring exposur...
Article
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Migrant women are disproportionately more likely to experience traumatic events in their country of origin, during migration and after arriving in the host country. Homeless women are more likely to be exposed to multiple victimizations in childhood (emotional or physical maltreatment) and in adulthood (sexual abuse, street victimization). This stu...
Article
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Background: General practitioners (GPs) often manage individuals with work-related common mental disorders (CMD: depressive disorders, anxiety and alcohol abuse). However, little is known about the ways in which they proceed. The aim of this study is to analyze GPs' management and patterns of referral to other health professionals of patients with...
Article
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Non-clinical psychotic experiences (PEs) occur at over twice the rate of psychotic disorders along a continuum in the general population and increase risk for progression to diagnoseable disorders. Social isolation is a risk factor for psychotic disorders, although it is unclear if childhood social isolation increases risk for experience of non-cli...
Article
Background: Irritability is frequently comorbid with ADHD. Although irritability alone has been linked to deleterious mental health and adaptive issues, the joint developmental course of ADHD and irritability symptoms during childhood as well as its association with later mental health and suicidal outcomes is not fully understood. We aimed to des...
Article
Background An advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) and satisfying social support during pregnancy (SSP) have been found to be protective factors of maternal postpartum depression (PDD). An advantaged SEP is also associated with satisfying SSP, making SSP a potential mediator of social inequalities in PPD. SEP, SSP and PPD are associated with mig...
Article
Background Small for gestational age (SGA) birthweight, a risk factor of infant mortality and delayed child development, is associated with maternal educational attainment. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy could contribute to this association. We aimed to quantify the contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy to social inequalities...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background An advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) and satisfying social support during pregnancy (SSP) have been found to be protective factors of maternal postpartum depression (PDD). An advantaged SEP is also associated with satisfying SSP, making SSP a potential mediator of social inequalities in PPD. SEP, SSP and PPD are associated with mig...
Preprint
Background Small for gestational age (SGA) birthweight, a risk factor of infant mortality and delayed child development, is associated with maternal educational attainment. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy could contribute to this association. We aimed to quantify the contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy to social inequalities...
Article
Background: Insufficient social support has been intensively studied as a risk factor of postpartum depression (PPD) among mothers. However, to date, no study has examined the role of informal and formal dimensions of social support during pregnancy with regard to joint maternal and paternal depression after birth. Aim: Study associations between...
Article
Objective The association of obesity with a large range of physical conditions and numerous psychiatric disorders has been extensively studied. Our study sought the extent to which physical conditions or psychiatric disorders associated with obesity mediate the association of obesity with unemployment or disability. Method Using data from the Nati...
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Purpose Job control, the combination of skill discretion and decision authority, is considered a central component of the psychosocial working environment. This longitudinal study examines the relation between job control and risk of incident depressive disorder using a life-course approach. Methods We analyze data from The Danish Work Life Course...
Article
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are sold in France since 2010 and have rapidly become popular. However, factors associated with e-cigarette use among young adults are not well known. Methods: We used data from the 2015 French TEMPO community based cohort study, restricted to current and former smokers with data on e-cigarette use (...