María Sofía Martínez-García

María Sofía Martínez-García
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Departamento Tecnología Electrónica y de las Comunicaciones

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34
Publications
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190
Citations

Publications

Publications (34)
Article
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) technology has become widespread for testing purposes, gaining special importance in micro-grids and renewable energy. One of the main challenges in HIL technology is its use in mid or high-frequency applications. In those cases, oversampling gate signals is a must to obtain enough accuracy and avoid undesirable sub-harmo...
Article
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems are commonly used to debug controllers in closed-loop operation. Therefore, the frequency response of the emulated subsystem is of special relevance. Undesirable oscillations can appear as a consequence of digitally sampling the switch control signals in power converter HIL models. These oscillations at relatively...
Article
Full-text available
Hardware in the loop is a widely used technique in power electronics, allowing to test and debug in real time (RT) at a low cost. In this context, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) play an important role due to the high-speed requirements of RT simulations, in which area optimization is also crucial. Both characteristics, area and speed, are a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to compare different design alternatives of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) for emulating power converters in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). It proposes various numerical formats (fixed and floating-point) and different approaches (pure VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL), Intellectual Properties (IPs), automated MATLAB H...
Article
Full-text available
The study of fatigue during training is becoming a very useful tool to avoid possible injuries not only during the training sessions but also during recovery time. Many researches have proved that concepts such as muscular fatigue and postactivation potentiation have a close relationship. With this aim, vertical jump can provide a very important in...
Article
Hardware in the Loop (HIL) allows one to emulate a system or part of it in real time, and it is, therefore, widely used for power electronics. Real-time simulations require high speed so FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) in HIL are widely used. It is crucial to minimize the delay and area, without losing either resolution or accuracy. Therefore...
Article
The laboratories of control theory are often limited to simulations and a few or none experimental tests. As in other technical subjects, practical experiments really help to understand the theory but need much time and the experimental platforms are usually expensive. This paper describes a platform that implements a universal third‐order discrete...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main decisions when making a digital design is which arithmetic is going to be used. The arithmetic determines the hardware resources needed and the latency of every operation. This is especially important in real-time applications like HIL (Hardware-in-the-loop), where a real-time simulation of a plant—power converter, mechanical system...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main techniques for debugging power converters is hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), which is used for real-time emulation. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are the most common design platforms due to their acceleration capability. In this case, the widths of the signals have to be carefully chosen to optimize the area and speed. For this...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technique is widely used to test different power electronic converters. These real-time simulations require processing large data at high speed, which makes this application very suitable for FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) as they are capable of parallel processing. This paper provides an analytical d...
Article
Full-text available
The use of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) systems implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is constantly increasing because of its advantages compared to traditional simulation techniques. This increase in usage has caused new challenges related to the improvement of their performance and features like the number of output channels, while...
Article
The communication architecture required to provide a bidirectional communication between a central command node and a full set of fiber positioners feeding a spectrograph is studied. Six different architectures have been analyzed in terms of communication time and power consumption. These architectures are the result of the combination of three dif...
Article
Full-text available
Low back pain affects around 50% of pregnant women and presents significant morbidity and persistence for years in 20% of postpartum women who report that pain. Numerous studies have documented gait alterations during pregnancy and postpartum. Therefore, an analysis of the relationship between certain gait parameters and low back pain was attempted...
Article
Full-text available
Common implementations of power factor correction include sensors for the input and output voltages and the input current. Many alternatives have been considered to reduce the number of sensors, especially the current sensor. One strategy is to precalculate the duty cycles that must be applied to every ac main, so the system only needs to synchroni...
Article
The equilibrium of pregnant women is compromised because the falling risk increases as pregnancy progresses. The trajectories of the centers of pressure are related to equilibrium, gait and posture. The purpose of this work was to investigate the fractal behavior of the trajectories of the center of pressure of both feet in standing and walking pre...
Presentation
Semiconductor ionizing radiation dosimeters operating in the current mode are particularly useful for real-time measurement of dose rate and absorbed dose in ionizing radiation because their low size, cost and direct readout to electronic circuitry. The have been employed in applications such as radiotherapy, industrial processing and high-energy p...
Article
In this work we describe and evaluate a dosimetric system based on an NFC (Near Field Communication) tag and a smartphone that uses commercial MOSFETs as radiation sensors. The tag is designed with commercial integrated circuits and the smartphone is the power source of the tag configured as a readout unit, user interface and storage unit. The NFC...
Presentation
In the present work an NFC tag has been developed as an ultra-compact reader system to measure the dose absorbed by a MOSFET dosimeter with the help of a smartphone. The Near Field Communication protocol (NFC) is a technology based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) according to the ISO14443 standard. The RFID/NFC tags can be supplied by the...
Presentation
Interface and fixed oxide trapped charges are produced on MOSFET when they are exposed to ionizing radiation. This irradiation influences on the electrical parameters and characteristics of transistors. Traditionally, the threshold voltages shift (ΔVt) in the saturation region has been used as main dosimetric parameters when pMOS transistors are us...
Article
Different low-cost commercial general-purpose MOSFETs and a RADFET are subjected to ionizing photon beams for comparison. The main characteristics of the radiation response, such as sensitivity, reproducibility, and short-term fading, have been determined using traditional measurement algorithms and others previously developed by our research group...
Article
A technique for thermal compensation in MOS sensors using its internal structure is presented and experimentally tested. The parasitic PIN diode, composed of the drain and bulk-source junction, is used to monitor the temperature of the silicon die. This diode is activated by a current sink, and the source-drain voltage (the signal containing the re...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a design proposal for controlling the five thousand fiber positioners within the focal plate of the DESI instrument. Each of these positioners is a robot which allows positioning its optic fiber with a resolution within the range of few microns. The high number and density of these robots poses a challenge for handling the commu...
Article
This work presents a dosimetry system based on MOSFET sensors for real-time dose monitoring. MOS transistors were biased during irradiation, and the response of lateral, general-purpose 3N163 and CD4007 transistors were characterized with a 15-MV photon beam provided by a linear accelerator. The electronic circuitry to condition the sensor output a...
Conference Paper
This work presents the dynamic study of the plantar pressure in a group of 15 pregnant women. An instrumented insoles (ECnsole) developed by the research group were used in order to measure the plantar pressure distribution. A questionnaire that described their perception of the back pain were filled by the participants. This test were repeated in...
Article
A comparative study of radiation-sensitive field effect transistors (RADFETs) response to photon and electron beams has been carried out in reference conditions. Both types of beams, routinely used in clinical radiotherapy, have been applied to RADFETs manufactured by Tyndall National Institute. All tests were carried out on RADFETs of several gate...
Article
Extraction of radiation dose information from MOSFET (RADFET) based dosimetry systems usually relies on biasing the MOSFET during readout at zero temperature coefficient drain current (${{mbi {I}}_{{ZTC}}}$ ), measured before irradiation. This current can vary due to accumulated radiation doses and thermal fluctuations, which degrades dosimetric ac...
Conference Paper
A comparative study of Radiation-sensitive field effect transistors (RADFETs) response to photon and electron beams has been carried out in reference conditions. Both types of beams, which are routinely used in clinical radiotherapy, have been applied to RADFETs of several gate oxide thicknesses, sizes and technological processes manufactured by Ty...
Article
This work presents a novel model to describe the thermal dependence of source-drain voltage of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in saturation regime, justified and experimentally tested in n-channel and p-channel transistors. This model provides the temperature coefficient of source-drain voltage as a function of transis...
Article
The experimental response of different commercial Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor transistors to electron beams in order to check their capabilities as radiation sensors for intra-operative radiotherapy treatments is studied. The main characteristics of the radiation response, such as sensitivity and reproducibility, have been determined using measuring...
Article
This work presents the development of a portable, wireless activity monitoring system for the estimation of biomechanical gait parameters. The system uses a pair of instrumented insoles able to measure pressure from different points of the foot including four commercial piezoresistive pressure sensors and a three-axis accelerometer, all together in...
Conference Paper
A study of the degradation of the subthreshold swing in a general-purpose pMOSFET is carried out to evaluate its use as a dosimetric parameter. Its reliability in terms of sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility is experimentally tested and compared with the threshold voltage shift under gamma rays from a 60Co source up to 56 Gy, typical in rad...
Article
A study of the degradation of the subthreshold swing in a general-purpose pMOSFET is carried out to evaluate its use as a dosimetric parameter. Its reliability in terms of sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility is experimentally tested and compared with the threshold voltage shift under gamma rays from a 60Co source up to 56 Gy, typical in rad...

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Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to announce this Special Issue of the MDPI journal Electronics on “Hardware in the Loop and Real-Time Simulation Based on FPGAs”. Power electronics is playing a leading role in the revolution of energy generation and consumption. The ever-increasing complexity of control mechanisms invokes the need for safer and faster yet reliable testing methods that do not compromise on the degree of detail and, at the same time, are economical and require minimal testing time. In this context, hardware in the loop (HIL) has emerged as a driving technology for testing. Being able to run real-time models of the system parts (power converters, loads or grid elements) that have the same interface as those of the real parts allows a new degree of flexibility and debugging capabilities unthought of when considering previous testing techniques. HIL allows testing in real-time and with a high degree of detail regarding the interactions between different parts of a grid with zero risk. This emulation allows severe damage to be avoided and saves effort during the design process. HIL has not been widely used in areas where high frequencies are involved, such as power electronics. In order to overcome the speed limitations, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) were introduced in this field. In this context, it is crucial to minimize the delay and area without losing either resolution or accuracy. This Special Issue focuses on novel developments in the field of hardware in the loop and real-time simulations with FPGAs in power electronics and their applications. Dr. María Sofía Martínez-García Dr. Alberto Sanchez Guest Editors