Maria Lisa Garavaglia

Maria Lisa Garavaglia
University of Milan | UNIMI · Department of Life Sciences

PhD

About

58
Publications
16,649
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1,090
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
515 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
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Urea is the uremic toxin accumulating with the highest concentration in the plasma of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, not being completely cleared by dialysis. Urea accumulation is reported to exert direct and indirect side effects on the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, adipocytes, and cardiovascular system (CVS), although its pathogenicity...
Article
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Indoxyl sulphate (IS) is a uremic toxin accumulating in the plasma of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. IS accumulation induces side effects in the kidneys, bones and cardiovascular system. Most studies assessed IS effects on cell lines by testing higher concentrations than those measured in CKD patients. Differently, we exposed a human microv...
Article
Full-text available
Thiols (sulfhydryl groups) are effective antioxidants that can preserve the correct structure of proteins, and can protect cells and tissues from damage induced by oxidative stress. Abnormal levels of thiols have been measured in the blood of patients with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to healthy subjects, as well as in e...
Article
Cigarette smoke (CS) is likely the most common preventable cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, inexpensive interventional strategies for preventing CS-related diseases would positively impact health systems. Inhaled CS is a powerful inflammatory stimulus and produces a shift in the normal balance between antioxidants and...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression; during renal replacement therapy, oxidative stress-derived oxidative damage also contributes to the development of CKD systemic complications, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, i...
Article
Cigarette smoke (CS) is one of the most important preventable risk factors for the development of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and various types of cancer. Due to its high intracellular concentration and central role in maintaining the cellular redox state, glutathione (GSH) is one of the key players in several enzymatic a...
Article
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the impairment of the excretory function leads to elevation in the blood concentrations of urea, creatinine, and various protein metabolic products. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), along with protein carbonyls, protein-bound di-tyrosines and S-thiolated proteins, are considered biomarkers of oxidative st...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette smoke is a well-established exogenous risk factor containing toxic reactive molecules able to induce oxidative stress, which in turn contributes to smoking-related diseases, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and oral cavity diseases. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract on human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were...
Article
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Background: Although pharmacological treatment has increased the average life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis, the median survival of females is shorter than that of males. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogens play a relevant role in the disease progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-...
Article
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Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis (HD) experience oxidative/carbonyl stress, which is postulated to increase after the HD session. The influence of diabetes mellitus and sex on oxidation of plasma proteins in ESRD has not yet been clarified despite that diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of ESRD in dev...
Article
Glutathione (GSH) is the major non-protein thiol in humans and other mammals, which is present in millimolar concentrations within cells, but at much lower concentrations in the blood plasma. GSH and GSH-related enzymes act both to prevent oxidative damage and to detoxify electrophiles. Under oxidative stress, two GSH molecules become linked by a d...
Chapter
This chapter will summarize the most recent findings on protein carbonylation in smokers and in cultured human cells exposed to whole cigarette smoke or cigarette smoke extract. Specifically, we shall focus our attention on cigarette smoke-induced carbonylation of proteins in human saliva and in the human respiratory system as well as on cigarette...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis (HD) experience enhanced oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of excess morbidity and mortality for these patients. Different pathways producing different types of oxidative stress occur i...
Article
Biological significance: In this study we evaluated the oxidative damage occurring on plasma proteins when reconstituted human blood was exposed to inflammatory concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Pathophysiological concentrations of HOCl are able to induce different modifications on plasma proteins such as carbonylation, sulfhydryl oxidat...
Article
Significance: Oxidative stress is one mechanism whereby tobacco smoking affects human health, as reflected by increased levels of several biomarkers of oxidative stress/damage isolated from tissues and biological fluids of active and passive smokers. Many investigations of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced oxidative stress/damage have been conducted in...
Article
Protein carbonylation represents the most frequent and usually irreversible oxidative modification affecting proteins. This modification is chemically stable and this feature is particularly important for storage and detection of carbonylated proteins. Many biochemical and analytical methods have been developed during the last thirty years to assay...
Article
The role of oxidative stress in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), which occurs at significantly higher levels than in the general population, is often underestimated in clinical practice. Emerging evidence highlights the strong correlation of oxidative stress with chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease, which are highly prevale...
Article
Full-text available
To optimise the efficiency of cell machinery, cells can use the same protein (often called a hub protein) to participate in different cell functions by simply changing its target molecules. There are large data sets describing protein-protein interactions ("interactome") but they frequently fail to consider the functional significance of the intera...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE), a model for studying the effects of tobacco smoke in vivo and in vitro, induces cell oxidative stress and affects the antioxidative glutathione system. We evaluated the impact of CSE on airway epithelial cells and the possible cytoprotective effect of the mucolitic drug S-carboximethilcysteine lysine salt...
Article
Full-text available
The CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) activity and localization are influenced by the cytoskeleton, in particular by actin and its polymerization state. In this study we investigated whether the expression of the hypertensive mutations of α-adducin (G460W-S586C in humans, F316Y in rats), an actin capping protein, led to a f...
Article
Abstract The CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) activity and localization are influenced by the cytoskeleton, in particular by actin and its polymerization state. In this study we investigated whether the expression of the hypertensive mutations of α-adducin (G460W-S586C in humans, F316Y in rats), an actin capping protein,...
Data
Assessment of HU33/NU12 transfection efficiency and plasma membrane protein enrichment. A) Confocal images showing CFTR expression in HU33 (upper panels) and NU12 (lower panels) cells, transfected with pcDNA3-CFTR plasmid (HU CFTR, NU CFTR, left), non transfected NU and HU cells (HU NT, NU NT, right) served as control. Primary antibody: anti-CFTR,...
Data
Actin and adducin staining in NU12 and HU33 cells. Confocal images showing actin (Act, left) and adducin (Add, right) in HU33 (HU, upper panels) and NU12 (NU, lower panels) cells. Primary antibody: anti-HA; secondary antibody: Alexa 488 anti-mouse. Actin fibers were stained with Alexa 568 Phalloidin. Scale bar is 10 µm. (TIF)
Data
Interaction between adducin and CFTR: immunoprecipitation experiments. A) Immunoprecipitation experiment on HEK cells cotransfected with pcDNA3-CFTR and pcDNA3.1-WT adducin-FLAG (C-terminal FLAG tag, Add-FLAG); pcDNA3-CFTR and pFLAG-CMV4-BAP (bovine alkaline peroxidase, FLAG-BAP) cotransfection served as control. CFTR signal (upper panel; anti-CFTR...
Data
Adducin expression in NU12 and HU33 cells. A) Western blot analysis of HA-adducin expression in NU12 (Nu1, Nu2) and HU33 (Hu1, Hu2) cells, compared with non transfected HEK cells (NT1, NT2). Two independent preparations are shown for each condition. The blot was probed with anti-HA antibody. B) Confocal images showing HA-adducin expression in NU12...
Data
Interaction between adducin and CFTR: FRET experiments. The acceptor photobleaching method was used to obtain the FRET efficiency. A) Cell images of the CFP (CFP, upper panel) or YFP (YFP-CFTR, lower panel) channel before (pre-bleach) and after (post-bleach) the YFP photobleaching and FRET efficiency images (FRET) for HEK cells overexpressing CFP a...
Data
Supplementary methods. Additional methodological information concerning the results presented in the supplementary figures, i.e. evaluation of transfection efficiency, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments, immunoprecipitation, HA-adducin and actin staining of HU33/NU12 cells. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) encompass a wide array of cell subsets with different capacities of engraftment and injured tissue-regenerating potential. The characterization/isolation of the stem cell subpopulations represents a major challenge to improve the efficacy of transplantation protocols used in regenerati...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na+-K+-2Cl...
Article
Full-text available
The mucoactive drug S-carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (S-CMC-Lys) stimulates glutathione (GSH) efflux from respiratory cells. Since GSH is one of the most important redox regulatory mechanisms, the aim of this study was to evaluate the S-CMC-Lys effects on GSH efflux and intracellular concentration during an oxidative stress induced by the hy...
Article
The many different functional phenotypes described in mammalian cells can only be explained by an intense interaction of the underlying proteins, substantiated by the fact that the number of independently expressed proteins in living cells seems not to exceed 25 K, a number way too small to explain the >250 K different phenotypes on a one-protein-o...
Article
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Malfunction of the SLC26A4 protein leads to Pendred syndrome, characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, often associated with mild thyroid dysfunction and goiter. It is generally assumed that SLC26A4 acts as a chloride/anion exchanger, which in the thyroid gland transports iodide, and in the inner ear contributes to the conditioning of the endol...
Article
Full-text available
Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important defense mechanisms against oxidative stress in the respiratory epithelial lining fluid. Considering that GSH secretion in respiratory cells has been postulated to be at least partially electrogenic, and that the mucoregulator S-carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (S-CMC-Lys) can cause an activation o...
Article
Full-text available
The SLC26A4 protein (pendrin) seems to be involved in the exchange of chloride with other anions, therefore being responsible for iodide organification in the thyroid gland and the conditioning of the endolymphatic fluid in the inner ear. Malfunction of SLC26A4 leads to Pendred syndrome, characterized by mild thyroid dysfunction often associated wi...
Article
Full-text available
ICln is a multifunctional protein involved in regulatory mechanisms as different as membrane ion transport and RNA splicing. The protein is water-soluble, and during regulatory volume decrease after cell swelling, it is able to migrate from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Purified, water-soluble ICln is able to insert into lipid bilayers to form...
Article
The function of the gallbladder is not only to store bile, but also to concentrate it during the interdigestive phase by means of salt-dependent water reabsorption. On the contrary, secretions of water and salt take place during the digestive phase. Dysregulation of ion absorption or secretion are common in many gallbladder diseases, such as coleli...
Article
Full-text available
Thiazides, such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), are used to control blood pressure and to reduce renal calcium excretion. These effects are a result of interactions with the NaCl-cotransporter (NCC). This is demonstrated by the fact that mutations within the NCC protein lead to salt-resistant hypotension and hypocalciuria, paralleled by an increase...
Article
Anion channels in human mesothelial and mesothelioma cell lines were characterized by patch-clamp and biomolecular approaches. We found an outwardly rectifying anionic current which was inactivated at positive voltages and inhibited by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Mesothelial and mesothelioma cells behaved differently concerning c...
Article
Purified, water-soluble ICln protein forms ion channels by spontaneously incorporating into artificial lipid bilayers. Site-directed mutation experiments revealed E41 and D49 as the amino acids responsible for the Ca2+-dependence of the channels’ ion selectivity and G49 to be part of the putative nucleotide binding site of the protein. H64 could be...
Article
Full-text available
The plasma membrane is a highly dynamic cell-barrier if the nature and distribution of its constituents are considered. Ion channels are embedded in these double lipid bilayers, which modulate their 3D-structures. The structure modulations by the lipid bilayer can assume such a degree that channel activation depends on them, as was shown for the Kc...
Article
The ability of cells to readjust their volume after swelling, a phenomenon known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), is a fundamental biological achievement guaranteeing survival and function of cells under osmotic stress. This article reviews the mechanisms of RVD in mammalian cells with special emphasis on the activation of ion channels during R...
Article
ICln is an ion channel cloned from renal epithelial cells. The reconstitution of the protein in 1,2-diphytanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Diph-PC) bilayer membranes reveals potassium-selective channels, which become more chloride selective in the presence of calcium. Here we show that the ion selectivity of ICln also depends on the lipid enviro...
Article
In guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells, an increase in intracellular cAMP levels elicits the rise of anion channel activity. We investigated by patch-clamp techniques whether K(+) channels were also activated. In a cell-attached configuration and in the presence of theophylline and forskolin or 8-Br-cAMP in the cellular incubation bath, an incr...
Article
Full-text available
Cell volume alterations are involved in numerous cellular events like epithelial transport, metabolic processes, hormone secretion, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Above all it is a need for every cell to counteract osmotic cell swelling in order to avoid cell damage. The defence against excess cell swelling is accomplished by a reduct...
Article
In the apical plasma membrane of rabbit gallbladder epithelium various drugs (hydrochlorothiazide, phlorizin, phenylglyoxal) inhibit Cl–/HCO3– exchange and probably enhance the almost negligible intrinsic anion conductance of the exchanger. By radiochemical measurements of apical Cl– influx, the anion exchange is shown here to be directly and immed...
Article
The stilbene- and dipyridamole-sensitive Cl– conductance (G Cl), non-additively activated by some inhibitors of the Cl–/HCO3– exchanger (hydrochlorothiazide, phlorizin, phenylglyoxal) after the exchanger inhibition in the apical plasma membrane of rabbit gallbladder epithelium, has been investigated by patch-clamp technique with cell-attached and i...
Article
In guinea pig gallbladder epithelium, a secretion of fluid, secondary to an electrogenic secretion of Cl− and HCO−3, is elicited in the presence of a high intracellular concentration of adenosine 3′-5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of secretagogues on the activity of anionic channels in isolated epith...
Article
Full-text available
Cl- apically enters the epithelium of rabbit gallbladder by a Na+-Cl- symport, sensitive to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Since HCTZ also activates an apical SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance (G(Cl)), the symport inhibition might be merely due to a short circuit of the symport by G(Cl) rather than to a direct action of HCTZ on the symporter. To examine...

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