Maria D Kennedy

Maria D Kennedy
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education | UNESCO-IHE · Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology

About

211
Publications
159,597
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4,906
Citations
Citations since 2017
83 Research Items
2792 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (211)
Article
Full-text available
Jordan was late in adopting seawater and brackish water desalination as a source until the late 1990s and early 2000s. However, ongoing studies are still discussing the technical, economic, and socio-political aspects of brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination plants. In this study, the water–energy nexus was considered, in order to high...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to quantify the effect of membrane surface porosity on particulate fouling predicted by the MFI-UF method at constant flux. Firstly, the surface porosity of polyethersulfone UF membranes (5–100 kDa) was determined using ultra-high resolution SEM. Thereafter, the MFI-UF was measured using suspensions of polystyrene particles (75 nm)...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid population growth and urbanization are two main drivers for the over-abstraction of conventional freshwater resources in various parts of the world, which leads to the situation of water scarcity (per capita availability <1000 m3/year). Predictions based on the World Bank projected population data and the FAO AQUASTAT database for freshwater...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study are to assess the performance of antiscalants in increasing the recovery (≥85%) of a reverse osmosis (RO) plant treating anaerobic groundwater (GW) in Kamerik (the Netherlands), and to identify scalants/foulant that may limit RO recovery. Five different commercially available antiscalants were compared on the basis of t...
Article
Full-text available
The bacterial growth potential (BGP) of drinking water is widely assessed either by flow cytometric intact cell count (BGPICC) or adenosine triphosphate (BGPATP) based methods. Combining BGPICC and BGPATP measurements has been previously applied for various types of drinking water having high to low growth potential. However, this has not been appl...
Article
Full-text available
All of the possible strategies to reduce water losses in piped distribution systems follow the law of diminishing returns: the higher the expenditure on water loss reduction, the lower the progressive return in terms of water saved. Therefore, water utilities need to estimate the economic level of water losses (ELWL) so that they can reduce their w...
Book
Full-text available
Water utilities worldwide lose 128 billion cubic meters annually, causing annual monetary losses estimated at USD 40 billion. Most of these losses occur in developing countries (74%). This calls for a rethinking of the challenges facing water utilities in developing countries, foremost of which is the assessment of water losses in intermittent supp...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book can of interest to undergraduate and graduate engineering students and researchers, academics, plant operators, consultants, professionals and practitioners in the water sector. The book is not necessarily intended to be read from cover to cover, but consulted as the need arises. The content of this book deals with: Membrane-based desalin...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book can of interest to undergraduate and graduate engineering students and researchers, academics, plant operators, consultants, professionals and practitioners in the water sector. The book is not necessarily intended to be read from cover to cover, but consulted as the need arises. The content of this book deals with: Membrane-based desalin...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book can of interest to undergraduate and graduate engineering students and researchers, academics, plant operators, consultants, professionals and practitioners in the water sector. The book is not necessarily intended to be read from cover to cover, but consulted as the need arises. The content of this book deals with: Membrane-based desalin...
Chapter
Full-text available
The world's largest demonstrator of a revolutionary energy system in desalination for drinking water production is in operation. MIDES uses Microbial Desalination Cells (MDC) in a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis (RO), for simultaneous saline stream desalination and wastewater treatment. MDCs are based on bio-electro-chemical technology, in w...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book can of interest to undergraduate and graduate engineering students and researchers, academics, plant operators, consultants, professionals and practitioners in the water sector. The book is not necessarily intended to be read from cover to cover, but consulted as the need arises. The content of this book deals with: Membrane-based desalin...
Book
Full-text available
The world's largest demonstrator of a revolutionary energy system in desalination for drinking water production is in operation. MIDES uses Microbial Desalination Cells (MDC) in a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis (RO), for simultaneous saline stream desalination and wastewater treatment. MDCs are based on bio-electro-chemical technology, in w...
Chapter
Full-text available
The world's largest demonstrator of a revolutionary energy system in desalination for drinking water production is in operation. MIDES uses Microbial Desalination Cells (MDC) in a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis (RO), for simultaneous saline stream desalination and wastewater treatment. MDCs are based on bio-electro-chemical technology, in w...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book can of interest to undergraduate and graduate engineering students and researchers, academics, plant operators, consultants, professionals and practitioners in the water sector. The book is not necessarily intended to be read from cover to cover, but consulted as the need arises. The content of this book deals with: Membrane-based desalin...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphate removal from seawater is important for biofouling control on RO membrane because phosphorous is one of nutrients for microbial growth. This paper is based on the hypothesis that multi-stage coagulation results in better phosphate removal. Therefore, comparison of phosphate removal of one-step and three-step dose coagulation from the aspec...
Book
Full-text available
Desalination as a method to provide clean drinking water has become vital – particularly in a context where drought, water scarcity and rapid quality decrease of water bodies have become an undeniable reality. After more than half a century of membrane-based desalination, fouling and scaling is still a dominant challenge. In membrane technologies,...
Article
Full-text available
The role of phosphate and humic substances (HS) in preventing calcium carbonate scaling and their impact on antiscalant dose was investigated for a reverse osmosis (RO) system treating anaerobic groundwater (GW) (containing 2.1 mg/L orthophosphate and 6–8 mg/L HS). Experiments were conducted with the RO unit (treating anaerobic GW), and with a once...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the removal of particulate, organic and biological fouling potential was investigated in the two-stage dual media filtration (DMF) pretreatment of a full-scale seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant. Moreover, the removal of fouling potential in two-stage DMF (DMF pretreatment) was compared with the removal in two-stage D...
Article
Full-text available
Transient events are frequent in water distribution systems. However, until now, most of the applications based on transient analyses are merely theoretical. Additionally, their implementation to real engineering problems is limited due to several physical phenomena accompanying transient waves, which are not accounted for in the classic approach,...
Article
Full-text available
Antiscalants are well known to prevent the precipitation of carbonate and sulphate scales of calcium in reverse osmosis (RO) applications, but according to literature their inhibitory ability against calcium phosphate is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate if antiscalants, without acid addition, can prevent calcium phosphate s...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the bacterial growth potential of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) feed water is an issue that is receiving growing attention. This study developed and demonstrated the applicability of the flow-cytometry (FCM)-based bacterial growth potential (BGP) method to assess the biofouling potential in SWRO systems using natural microbial consortiu...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent supply is common worldwide. It triggers households with piped connection to adjust the supply scheme by the use of a water tank with a float valve (FV) at the entrance, which has a major influence on the water meter accuracy. This study investigated the impact of the water tank with a FV on the performance of water meters under intermi...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of bank filtration (BF) is highly dependent on the source water quality (e.g., organic matter composition, pH, and concentration of heavy metals (HMs)). In this study, the impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the removal of selected metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, and Ni) during BF was investigated. Column studies were conducted at...
Article
Full-text available
Several potential growth methods have been developed to monitor biological/organic fouling potential in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), but to date the correlation between these methods and biofouling of SWRO has not been demonstrated. In this research, the relation between a new adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bacterial growth potential (BGP)...
Article
Full-text available
Although water produced by reverse osmosis (RO) filtration has low bacterial growth potential (BGP), post-treatment of RO permeate, which is necessary prior to distribution and human consumption, needs to be examined because of the potential re-introduction of nutrients/contaminants. In this study, drinking water produced from anaerobic groundwater...
Article
Full-text available
Bank filtration (BF) is acknowledged as a sustainable and effective technique to provide drinking water of adequate quality; it has been known for a long time in Europe. However, this technique is site-specific and therefore its application in developing countries with different hydrologic and environment conditions remains limited. In this researc...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring bacterial growth potential (BGP) involves sample pre-treatment and inoculation, both of which may introduce contaminants in ultra-low nutrient water (e.g., remineralised RO permeate). Pasteurisation pre-treatment may lead to denaturing of nutrients, and membrane filtration may leach/remove nutrients into/from water samples. Inoculating re...
Article
Full-text available
Several software tools are available that can assess the performance of nonrevenue water (NRW) in water distribution networks and plan for reduction measures. Of the 21 tools that have been reported in the literature, 12 are freely available. The creation of these many tools and different versions of each individual tool indicates the promising fut...
Article
Bank filtration (BF) has been used for many years as an economical technique for providing high-quality drinking water. However, under anaerobic conditions, the aquifer release of undesirable metal(loid)s, such as iron manganese, and arsenic, reduces the bank filtrate quality and thus restricts the application of this technique. This study investig...
Cover Page
Full-text available
MIDES, Desalination innovation School,” on current desalination systems in use in different parts of the world, and innovative approaches to creating fresh water with less impact and energy. This day-and-a-half session is aimed at providing a closer look at salt water treatment for master’s students studying fresh water production technologies. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Various bacterial growth potential (BGP) methods have been developed recently to monitor biofouling in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems such as assimilable organic carbon and bacterial regrowth potential. However, the relationship between these methods and biofouling in SWRO desalination plants has not yet been demonstrated. In this research...
Article
Full-text available
This paper elaborates the hydraulic characteristics of the water supply network of the town of Puerto Ayora. First, it intends to replicate the household individual storage by simulating nodal tanks with the use of the EPANET software. Later, it uses the Pressure-Driven Approach (PDA) to develop a methodology that estimates the overflow of storage...
Article
The production of biologically stable drinking water is challenging in conventional surface water treatment plants. However, attainment of biological stability is essential to avoid regrowth in disinfectant-free distribution systems. A novel application of ultrafiltration as a posttreatment step to enhance biological stability of drinking water pro...
Article
Full-text available
Water utilities should monitor their nonrevenue water (NRW) levels properly to manage water losses and sustain water services. However, monitoring NRW is problematic in an intermittent water supply regime. This is because more supplied water to users imposes higher volumes of NRW, and supplying significantly less water results in an unmet water dem...
Article
Full-text available
A direct method for measuring adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in seawater was developed recently, in which commercial reagents are added directly to seawater. However, calibration is required if seawater quality changes (such as changes in salinity, pH, Mg 2+ , Fe 3+) as the seawater matrix interferes with ATP measurement. In this research, a 0.1 μm f...
Article
Full-text available
Riverbank filtration (RBF) represents a low-cost and sustainable alternative to advanced treatment technologies to pre-treat or remove several organic micropollutants (OMPs) from surface water. The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of biodegradation and adsorption processes in the removal of OMPs at high temperatures (20-30...
Conference Paper
Analysing the potentials of the different leakage reduction measures is important for leakage control, planning and management. This paper aims at analysing the leakage reductions options in Zarqa water distribution network (Jordan) using the concept of the component analysis of leakage (BABE) and an economic analysis tool of leakage reduction, dev...
Article
Full-text available
A significant portion of the water supplied to people doesn’t reach its valid users but instead leaks out of the distribution network, causing water wastage, revenue loss and contamination risks. This paper analyses the leakage rate, leakage components and leakage reduction potential. A minimum night flow (MNF) analysis was carried out on a distric...
Article
Full-text available
For assessing the particulate fouling of water, the modified fouling index (MFI 0.45) is a superior test to the silt density index (SDI). There is a need to compare both tests in terms of sensitivity, how they are affected by the filter material and the type of support plate and also illustrate their use for monitoring of seawater quality over time...
Article
A direct method for measuring adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in seawater was developed recently, in which commercial reagents are added directly to seawater. However, calibration is required if seawater quality changes (such as changes in salinity, pH, Mg2+, Fe3+) as the seawater matrix interferes with ATP measurement. In this research, a 0.1 μm filt...
Article
Supplementary material ATP measurement in seawater reverse osmosis systems: Eliminating seawater matrix effects using a filtration-based method Almotasembellah Abushaban, Sergio G. Salinas-Rodriguez, Muhammad Nasir Mangal, Subhanjan Mondal, Said A. Goueli, Aleksandra Knezev, Johannes S. Vrouwenvelder, Jan C. Schippers, Maria D. Kennedy
Article
Alternative disinfection technologies may overcome some of the limitations of conventional treatment applied in swimming pools: chlorine-resistant pathogens (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts. In this paper, results of full scale validation of an alternative disinfection technol...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in source water highly influences the removal of different contaminants and the dissolution of aquifer materials during bank filtration (BF). The fate of DOM during BF processes under arid climate conditions was analysed by conducting laboratory—scale batch and column studies under different environmental conditions w...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring the biological stability of drinking water is essential for modern drinking water supply. To understand and manage the biological stability, it is critical that the bacterial growth in drinking water can be measured. Nowadays, advance treatment technologies, such as reverse osmosis (RO), are increasingly applied in drinking water purificat...
Article
Possible transmission pathways of fungi in indoor swimming pool facilities were assessed through fungal counting in different areas of the facilities and typing of the collected fungal isolates. Air, water and surface samples were collected from seven different indoor swimming pool facilities. Fungal species were identified based on their internal...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a practical method for estimating the volume of apparent losses in water supply systems, particularly in a developing country context, so that real losses can be calculated from the volume of nonrevenue water (NRW). The method employs the fact that almost all apparent losses reach wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The volume...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Assessment of non-revenue water (NRW) components is crucial for its reduction and management. However, the uncertainty of NRW component assessment is high in developing countries where there is limited available data with low accuracy. Assessing NRW components through different methods should therefore improve the accuracy of NRW assessment and enh...
Article
Full-text available
The study was designed to synthesize iron oxide/alumina nanocomposites and to investigate their application as an adsorbent to remove both fluoride and arsenic from aqueous solutions. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta pot...
Article
Full-text available
Lately, due to overutilization of scarce natural resources such as water, tourist islands have been severely threatened. This is also the case in Santa Cruz Island, the main inhabited island of the Galápagos Archipelago. Therefore, a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was carried out with the aim of mitigating the future water crisis. The prop...
Article
Controlling fouling in seawater reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration systems is a major challenge during algal blooms. This study investigates UF fouling potential of four marine algae and their algal organic matter (AOM): Chaetoceros affinis (Ch), Rhodomonas balthica (Rh), Tetraselmis suecica (Te), and Phaeocystis globulosa (Ph). Batch culture moni...
Article
Full-text available
The use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to monitor bacterial growth potential of seawater is currently not possible as ATP cannot be accurately measured at low concentration in seawater using commercially available luciferase-based ATP detection. The limitation is due to interference of salt with the luciferin–luciferase reaction, which inhibits li...