María-Isabel Encinar

María-Isabel Encinar
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica)

PhD

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35
Publications
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245
Citations

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Full-text available
Emergence is a generic property that makes economies become complex. The simultaneous carrying out of agents' intentional action plans within an economic system generates processes that are at the base of structural change and the emergence of adaptive complex systems. This paper argues that goals and intentionality are key elements of the structur...
Article
Full-text available
One important challenge to evolutionary economics consists of tackling the paradoxical relationship between purposeful human action and the 'blindness' of evolutionary processes. We argue that the theoretical treatment of intended action is a prerequisite for venturing beyond the phenomenological explanation of evolutionary processes. If so, evolut...
Article
Full-text available
Is novelty as such an intra or extra-economic phenomenon? Must we, necessarily, treat novelty uniquely as something that, from outside of an economic system, has an influence on it and on its evolution? Is it not a paradox to say that something that has no economic meaning is able to explain economic change? If so, is this paradox present in the Sc...
Article
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Together with the concepts of equilibrium, scarcity, choosing, etc., efficiency is at the core of economics. However, in an evolutionary context, efficiency raises several issues concerning to rationality, the complex evolving nature of the economy, economic change as the fundamental economic problem, and the role of expectations-that link purposef...
Article
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El presente artículo es una exposición muy sintética de una de las principales aportacio-nes de la obra de Rafael Rubio de Urquía a la Teoría Económica y la ciencia de la Acción Humana. En particular, en un reciente trabajo (Rubio de Urquía, 2005) al que este artículo hace especial referencia, se presenta por primera vez, y como resultado formal, l...
Chapter
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From an economics perspective, choice understood as rational action is planned action; it is action that follows reasons to act (see Searle, 2001). In order to be rational, action needs to be intentional, even if it ends up leading to unintended results due to the complex process of social interaction (Popper, 1948). Reasons and intentions show up...
Conference Paper
Choice among alternative action plans, and the implication of the interactive deployment of selected courses of action within complex systems provide the basic subject of economics. The process of choosing is characterized by the projective allocation of means to alternative ends. Any theoretical explanation of the selected plans, their interactive...
Article
The paper proposes an efficiency criterion for evolving economic systems. Drawing on the idea that these systems develop from the interconnected actions of intentional creative agents (which invent and try to carry out action plans), the suggested criterion at a micro level could be state as follows: a system is efficient (from a micro evolutionary...
Chapter
The performances of different Systems of Innovation (SI) vary substantially due to the fact that, apart from the differences in the underlying technologies, institutions, etc., there are specific causes at work. In particular, we refer to the intentionality of the agents interacting within a System of Innovation to find out the relationship between...
Article
Full-text available
La dinámica económica entendida como producción de instantes de realidad permite integrar tanto la dimensión inherentemente intencional de la acción como el carácter evolutivo de la economía. Cualquier consideración de un marco conceptual no dinámico (en un sentido sustantivo) acaba convirtiendo la racionalidad económica de los agentes en un mero c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The interactive implementation of agents’ intentional actions generates new combinations that are at the base of structural change and complexity and produce unexpected consequences. An interesting case of study is provided by the absorption of new technology strategies for development. A common hypothesis is that development requires an institutio...
Article
Full-text available
The performances of different Systems of Innovation (SI) vary substantially due to the fact that, apart from the differences in the underlying technologies, institutions, etc., there are specific causes at work. In particular, we refer to the intentionality of the agents interacting within a System of Innovation to find out the relationship between...
Chapter
Full-text available
The main aim of this chapter is to determine whether or not and to what extent innovative Spanish firms apply open innovation practices. Accordingly, the authors analyze microdata from the Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC) database. This study develops a methodology that focuses on the description of the existing connections between the elemen...
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggests that understanding questions such as those related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) re-quires economic theorizing to include in its explanatory models the very fact that (economic) agents have their own distinctive conception of how reality ought to be (which implies making judgments of value). Under standard economic th...
Article
Much of the Spanish biotechnology industry activity operates in the Community of Madrid (CM). Regional and local authorities are very interested in constituting a biotechnology cluster in the Community. All the necessary elements can be found in the region: as shown, there exists the opportunity for the emergence of a biotechnology cluster in CM. H...
Article
Full-text available
We are interested on why and how an economic system evolves and, in particular, on the causes of the differences across systems of innovation (SI). SI’s performance differs substantially because there are specific causes at work, apart from the differences in the underlying technologies, institutions, etc. In particular, we refer to the intentional...
Article
Full-text available
Within evolutionary economics, entrepreneurship is seen as the main force of economic change, as the agency of self-transformation within restless capitalist economic systems. Therefore, a truly evolutionary perspective on economic policy-making must consider the significance and scope of entrepreneurship. On the basis of such a perspective, it mig...
Article
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The intriguing relationship between knowledge and innovation, the persistence of different patterns of innovation across sectors and the multidimensional character of innovation processes, have given rise to the proposal of new analytical frameworks for capturing the specific and differential role of knowledge in innovation processes. This is the c...
Article
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The analysis of learning processes in an evolutionary environment permits to state that agents must keep ongoing processes of factual as well as normative learning in order to adapt to an ever-changing environment. The key conceptual element «ongoing learning processes» is explored in this paper linking it with the proposed concepts of cognitive an...
Article
Full-text available
An important challenge to evolutionary economics consists of how to tackle with the dramatic tension between purposeful human action and the ‘blindness’ of evolutionary processes. On the one hand, economic action, if rational, has to be planned (which implies purposeful ordering of the means used to achieve objectives). On the other hand, an evolut...
Article
Full-text available
The Asian market is not merely a factory with low wages. It is also a consumer market with a huge potential for growth, in which there exists high technology and qualified workers. This paper explores the trends of Japanese manufacture firms in their expansion in South East countries and China. The big magnitude of these markets is a key point in t...
Article
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We may argue that individual and organisational dynamic capabilities evolve through the interaction of intentions and action goals. Capabilities are renewed and reshaped by the appearance of new action goals. A feedback process between capabilities and goals opens up new possibilities of action. This may happen when agents (organisations and indivi...
Article
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New Welfare Economics and Social Choice Theory have given rise to a group of problems which lie on the frontier between Economic Theory and Ethics. The attempts to deal with these problems have generated a literature known as «on Ethics and Economics». The analytical developments of concepts like utility, preferences or well-being and notions like...
Article
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Agents’ knowledge combines their perception of what reality is with their conception of what reality should be. “Ethical dynamics” refers to the evolution in the latter conception. This is a key element to explain changes in agents’ objectives of action, which usually do not result simply from interaction or “cognitive dynamics”. “Ethical novelties...
Article
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vinculada a objetivos innovadores. Palabras clave: Economía evolutiva, Dinámica económica, Capacidades dinámicas, Planes de acción, Intencionalidad innovadora. The understanding of economic dynamics requires the analytical consideration of the future "irreality" in which action goals are located. Producing or innovating are actions conditioned by t...
Article
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Versión académica del contenido de una parte del Informe al Plan Estratégico Metropo-litano de Barcelona, de José Ramón Lasuén y Ezequiel Baró, que se ha difundido en offset y se publicará bajo el título Sectors quinaris, motor de desenvolupament. Esta versión se ha rea-lizado con la autorización del citado Plan. RESUMEN Este artículo establece nue...
Article
Full-text available
Desde la Nueva Economía del Bienestar y la Teoría de la Elección Social han surgido un conjunto de problemas fronterizos entre la Teoría Económica y la Ética cuyo intento de solución ha generado una literatura conocida como «sobre ética y economía» El desarrollo analítico de conceptos como utilidad, preferencias o bienestar y las nociones como meta...

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Choice among alternative action plans, and the implications of the interactive deployment of selected courses of action (within complex systems) provide the basic subject of Economics. Any theoretical explanation of how agents select action plans, deploy them interactively and which are the consequences (both intended and unintended) or outcomes of such interactive processes must necessarily consist of a system of theoretical statements about both (a) the processes generating the set of alternative plans for each agent, and (b) the nature of the allocative operation taking place once these sets of plans are defined. To analyze this kind of processes in a systematic way, a previous theoretical task is necessary. Economic agents and their space of (inter-)action (with objects and other agents) need to be analytically characterized. The theoretical practice consists of constructing (closed) models as a means of initiating and proceeding with this theoretical investigation. The theory proceeds analyzing systematically the logical implications of each allocative process previously defined; by doing so, the set of implications or economic laws of the allocative process is obtained. In this paper we develop an analytical approach that allows to accommodate, compare and classify different economic theories.