Maria Grazia Caporali

Maria Grazia Caporali
Istituto Superiore di Sanità | ISS · National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion

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65
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Introduction
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Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
In 2017, a chikungunya outbreak in central Italy later evolved into a secondary cluster in southern Italy, providing evidence of disease emergence in new areas. Officials have taken action to raise awareness among clinicians and the general population, increase timely case detection, reduce mosquito breeding sites, and promote mosquito bite prevent...
Article
Full-text available
According to European Guidelines for Legionnaires’ Disease prevention and control, travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases are managed differently if classified as sporadic or as part of a cluster and more stringent control measures are deployed after clusters are identified. In this study, we propose to modify the current cluster defi...
Article
Routine immunization of infants with conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has greatly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease; however changes in the epidemiology of H. influenzae disease have occurred. We describe the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae disease and the characterization of isolates collected in It...
Article
Full-text available
The unprecedented flow of migrants over the last three years places Italy in front of new issues regarding medical care from the rescue phase up to the integration into the national health services, including preventive actions. We used online questionnaires to investigate the Italian national and regional policies for immunization offer targeting...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last three years an unprecedented flow of migrants arrived in Europe. There is evidence that vaccine preventable diseases have caused outbreaks in migrant holding centres. These outbreaks can be favored by a combination of factors including low immunization coverage, bad conditions that migrants face during their exhausting journey and ove...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Istituto Superiore di Sanità Contribution of digital disease surveillance to infectious disease surveillance in Italy, 2007-2017. Flavia Riccardo, Martina Del Manso, Maria Grazia Caporali, Silvia Declich, Stefania Giannitelli, Jens Linge, Danilo Cereda, Alessandra Piatti, Virgilio Costanzo, Loredana Vellucci, Elvira Rizzuto, Caterina Rizzo, Patrizi...
Article
Full-text available
An autochthonous chikungunya outbreak is ongoing near Anzio, a coastal town in the province of Rome. The virus isolated from one patient and mosquitoes lacks the A226V mutation and belongs to an East Central South African strain. As of 20 September, 86 cases are laboratory-confirmed. The outbreak proximity to the capital, its late summer occurrence...
Article
Full-text available
Under the coordination of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the European Legionnaires' disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) conducts surveillance of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in Europe. Between 2011 and 2015, 29 countries reported 30,532 LD cases to ECDC (28,188 (92.3%) confirmed and 2,344 (7.7%) probable). Four coun...
Article
Background: The use of PCV7 for children immunization was gradually implemented in the Italian regions starting from 2006 and was replaced by PCV13 in 2010-2011. In this study we aimed to assess the PCV impact on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance in Italian children under 5years old. M...
Article
Full-text available
More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EB...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe the trend of invasive pneumococcal disease in the years 2008-2014; to verify the impact of the conjugate vaccine and monitor the occurrence of serotype replacement. Design: Prospective observational study based on data from the national surveillance for invasive bacterial diseases coordinated by the Istituto superiore di s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in Italy in 2005, changes in the epidemiology of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) were expected. The study aims were to describe the epidemiological trend and to characterize the isolates collected during the period 2008/09-2012/13 by multilocus sequence typi...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the possible association between patient age and sex, clinical presentation, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and death in invasive pneumococcal disease cases reported by 17 European countries during 2010. The study sample comprised 2,921 patients, of whom 56.8% were men and 38.2% were >65 years of age. Mening...
Article
An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST...
Article
Molecular typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates are essential epidemiological tools in prevention and control of Legionella infections and outbreaks. A selection of 56 out of 184 Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) clinical isolates, collected from different Italian regions between 1987 and 2012, and stored at the Nati...
Article
Full-text available
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is an opportunistc human pathogen that can cause a severe respiratory syndrome known as Legionnaires' Disease (LD).…
Article
Full-text available
According to the Italian Surveillance System for Legionnaires' disease (LD), physicians must fill in a form for every case and send it through the Local Health Units to the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS). Forms reported in the period from 2000 to 2011 were analysed and discussed. A total of 9,803 cases of LD were r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: PCV7 has been available in Italy since 2001, however only in 2005 national recommendations were issued and vaccination was implemented with different modalities by the Regions. Objectives: Aim of this study was to describe changes in serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of S. pneumoniae from invasive pneumococcal diseases...
Article
Full-text available
Since 18 August 2011, 17 cases of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease have been reported. They were tourists from five European countries who had stayed in five accommodation sites in Lazise, Italy. The dates of symptom onset ranged from 18 July to 25 August 2011. Control measures were implemented and no further cases associated with stays at t...
Article
The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has greatly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease. However, concern exists about the possible emergence of "strain replacement". We report the epidemiology and characterization of isolates from invasive H. influenzae disease in Italy through 2007-2009, 10 years after...
Article
To assess in Italy the pre-pandemic susceptibility of the general population to the 2009 A/H1N1v influenza virus, 587 serum samples collected in 2004 were analyzed using haemagglutination-inhibition (HI), single-radial-haemolysis (SRH) and microneutralisation (MN) assays. Serum samples were stratified by age group, gender, and geographic area. Over...
Article
Two clusters of invasive meningococcal disease in the north of Italy both due to serogroup C/ST-11 clonal complex are here described. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the phenotype and the genotype of meningococci involved in the two clusters which were of national relevance due to the fatal outcome of the majority of cases (six of...
Article
As of 7 July 2009, a total of 158 laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)v were reported in Italy, from half of the 21 Italian regions. To date all cases have had symptoms consistent with seasonal influenza and no severe or fatal cases have been reported. An active surveillance of cases has been set up in Italy in order to undertake appropr...
Article
For several years, over 50% of the cases of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) reported to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLINET) have been among travellers to France, Italy, and Spain. We describe clusters of TALD cases reported in these countries during a four-year period. We analysed data from EWGLINET and fr...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of underreporting to the Italian National Legionellosis Register (NLR). For the year 2002, all cases of Legionellosis notified to the NLR were compared with cases recorded in the hospital discharge record (HDR) database. The number of unreported cases and the total number of cases in the popula...
Article
Full-text available
The 7-valent anti-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), anti-meningococcal C-conjugate vaccine (MenC) and varicella vaccine have been recently introduced in EU. In Italy, these vaccines have so far been recommended for use in specific groups. Since the health system is decentralised, the Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) can decide to recommend va...
Article
Full-text available
In molte istituzioni pubbliche si sta assistendo a un’evoluzione delle forme organizzative, da strutture prevalentemente gerarchiche a strutture basate sulla comunicazione. In tali contesti il capitale umano assume un’importanza fondamentale per il buon funzionamento dell’organizzazione e il benessere del personale rappresenta un aspetto determinan...
Poster
Full-text available
Since 2002 Italy has reported approximately 650 cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) each year, the third highest in Europe. In 2002, 639 cases of Legionnaires’ disease were notified to the national surveillance system, of which 586 were confirmed and 53 were presumptive according to the EWGLI case definition.
Article
In Italy, 35 clusters of travel associated Legionnaires' disease were identified from July 2002, when the European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease have been adopted by the EWGLINET network, to October 2003. Eight per cent (28.6%) would not have been identified without the network. The clusters detect...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of new polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C prompted European National Health authorities to carefully monitor isolate characteristics. In Italy, during 1999–2001, the average incidence was 0.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Serogroup B was predominant and accounted for 75% of the iso...
Article
The influence of intracaudate administration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5) was studied on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced scratching in rabbits. NMDA (28 nmol) significantly increased the latency of TRH-induced scratching but did not modify t...
Article
A method is described for the simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, adenosine and their metabolites in rat striatal tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet spectrophotometric and electrochemical detection. Peaks in the chromatograms of striatal tissue extracts were identified by retention times and by on-line a...
Article
The influence of CGS 21680 (2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenos ine), an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, was tested in an animal model of Huntington's disease. Male Wistar rats received bilateral intrastriatal injections of quinolinic acid and then, 1 and 2 weeks later, they were treated with intrastriatal CGS 21680 (3...
Article
The influence of bilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA, 300 nmol) was studied in male Wistar rats. Behavioral and electrophysiological experiments were conducted in 15 lesioned plus 15 vehicle-injected (control) animals. With respect to control animals, QA-lesioned rats showed marked, statistically significant alterations from bo...
Article
The present article studies the influence of A2 (CGS 21680) and A1 (CPA) adenosine receptor agonists on TRH-induced behavioural excitation in rabbits. The results show that CGS 21680 was the most effective drug when administered into the nucleus caudate, while its intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration did not influence the effects induced...
Article
Muscarinic cholinoceptor subtypes (M1 and M2) were studied in membrane particles of the rat frontoparietal cortex 72 h and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after ipsilateral lesioning of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The affinity of the ligand used to characterize muscarinic cholinoceptors, 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate did not significantly change i...
Article
The probability of hippocampal long-term potentiation induction in the mossy fiber CA3 and commissural/associational CA3 responses and the cortical levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity were compared in right nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)-lesioned rats. A 50% reduction in the right cortical ChAT activity was demonstrated 4 wee...
Article
A pattern of perioral dyskinesia was induced in adult male rabbits by concomitant stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors (SKF 38393) and blockade of dopamine D2 receptors (sulpiride). Rabbits treated with sulpiride (6 and 12.5 mg/kg i.v.) then, 90 min thereafter, with SKF 38393 (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg i.v.) showed a pattern of perioral dyskinesia charac...
Article
We have recently demonstrated that monolateral lesions of the Nucleus Basalis Magnocellularis (NBM), which is a nucleus sending cholinergic projections to the fronto-parietal cortex, cause a loss in the intensity of Timm staining in the intrahippocampal pathway of mossy fibres (MF). Moreover, these lesions induce ultrastructural changes consistent...
Article
The interactions between dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the model of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced behavioural excitation were assessed in adult male rabbits. As we had previously observed with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.01 mg/kg i.v.), sulpiride (12 mg/kg i.v.), a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, also significa...
Article
The sulfide staining technique, known also as neo-Timm staining, predominantly stains associational fibres arising from cortical interneurons located primarily in the neuropil of layers I-III of the rat cerebral cortex. The density of these fibres, considered to have a possible role in cognitive and mnemonic processes, has been demonstrated to be r...
Article
Abstract— The administration of reserpine with α-methyl-p-tyrosine (2.5 and 200 mg kg−1 i.p., 24 and 3 h before the test, respectively) induced a marked akinesia in mice. This effect was significantly and dose-dependently reversed by the methylxanthine, caffeine. The anti-akinetic effect of caffeine within a pattern of catecholamine depletion has b...
Article
Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) cause depletion of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the cerebral cortex and behavioral changes consisting of impaired ability to learn avoidance tasks. Since hippocampal mossy fibers (MF) are involved in the elaboration of passive avoidance responses, we analyzed MF by means of Timm's histoche...
Article
A behavioural study on the effects of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH 23390 and sulpiride respectively) and of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (N6-L-phenylisopropyladenosine, L-PIA) against phencyclidine (PCP)-induced effects was assessed in adult male rabbits. SCH 23390 (0.003-0.01 mg/kg i.v.) and sulpiride (12.5 mg/kg i.v.) were abl...
Article
Although biochemical and behavioural studies have shown right-left differences in several areas of the rat limbic system, some anatomical studies reported no significant right-left differences in several morphological parameters of the hippocampus. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are asymmetries in the micro-anatomy...
Article
The influence of the dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced behaviour was assessed in adult male rabbits. SCH 23390 prevented the effects of TRH (100 micrograms i.c.v.), starting at a very low dose (0.01 mg/kg i.v.). This finding seems to indicate that dopamine D-1 receptors are involved in TRH-i...
Article
A behavioral study on the stereotypy induced by caffeine and carbamazepine or caffeine and haloperidol was assessed in adult male rabbits. The stereotypy induced by caffeine + carbamazepine was not reduced by pretreatment with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) or SCH 23390 (0.01 mg/kg). N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 0.01 mg/kg), an A2 adenosine receptor...
Article
In the present work the effects of a stable analog of adenosine (N-6-L-phenylisopropyladenosine, L-PIA) have been investigated against the epileptic focus induced by intracortical injection of penicillin. The intracortical (i.c.) injection of penicillin (300 units) in rabbits elicits an epileptiform EEG and motor activity. Pretreatment with L-PIA (...
Article
Administration of L-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, induced EEG activation, arousal and signs of behavioral excitation in the rabbit. The effects were fully prevented by pretreatment with minute doses (0.01 mg/kg i.v.) of the selective D-1 antagonist SCH 23390. Conversely, its S-enantiomer SCH 23388, which has weak actions on D-1 receptors, displaye...
Article
The EEG and behavioral effects of caffeine, carbamazepine and haloperidol were assessed in adult male rabbits. Caffeine (50 mg/kg i.v.) induced a long-lasting EEG desynchronization (45.6/60 min in mean) which was not modified by pretreatment of the rabbits with carbamazepine or haloperidol. All these drugs, administered alone, failed to induce ster...
Article
The selective D-1 dopamine antagonist SCH 23390 (R-enantiomer) and its unselective S-enantiomer (SCH 23388) were compared for their ability to prevent EEG and behavioral activation induced by the dopamine receptor agonists SKF 38393, apomorphine and LY 171555 in the rabbit. SCH 23390, at very low doses (0.003 mg/kg IV), inhibited EEG responses elic...
Article
SKF 38393, a selective agonist for dopamine D-1 receptors, LY 171555, a selective agonist for D-2 receptors and apomorphine, an agonist for both receptor sites, all induced activation of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG) in the rabbit. While SKF 38393 induced EEG changes without concomitant signs of stereotyped behaviour, the injection of...
Article
The dopamine D-1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 dose-dependently (2.5-10 mg/kg) induced desynchronization of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and behavioral arousal in both rabbits and rats. Unlike apomorphine, SKF 38393 elicited no signs of stereotyped behavior in rabbits and minimal effects, such as episodes of grooming, in rats. The effect...
Article
The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of inverse benzodiazepine (BDZ) agonists have been studied in rabbits after i.v. administration. A dose-dependent progression of three different stages of EEG changes have been observed with inverse BDZ agonists. At first, trains of slow waves in the occipital cortex occur, followed by trains of spike-and-w...

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Archived project
Survey on organization and working conditions at the National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità