Maria Giovanna Dainotti

Maria Giovanna Dainotti
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan | NAOJ · Division of Science

PhD

About

157
Publications
9,804
Reads
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2,683
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Introduction
I work on Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) relations to understand if GRBs can be used as valuable cosmological probes and can be upgraded as standard candles. Recently, with S. Postnikov, X. Hernandez and M. Ostrowski we discovered a fundamental plane in GRB afterglows that will boost the understanding of GRBs and their use as theoretical model discriminators and for finding cosmological parameters beyond SNe Ia, see a press release by NASA at https://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/news/2016/grbs_std_candles.html
Additional affiliations
November 2013 - January 2015
RIKEN
Position
  • PostDoc Position
November 2013 - January 2015
RIKEN
Position
  • Japanese Society of Promotion of Science
October 2012 - October 2013
Stanford University
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), observed to redshift z = 9.4, are potential probes of the largely unexplored z ∼ 2.7 − 9.4 part of the early Universe. Thus, finding relevant relations among GRB physical properties is crucial. We find that the Platinum GRB data compilation, with 50 long GRBs (with relatively flat plateaus and no flares) in the redshift ran...
Article
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), can be employed as standardized candles, extending the distance ladder beyond Supernovae Type Ia (SNe Ia, z = 2.26). We standardize GRBs using the 3D Fundamental Plane relation (the Dainotti relation) among the rest-frame end time of the X-ray plateau emission, its corresponding luminosity, and the peak prompt luminosity. C...
Preprint
Sub-relativistic materials launched during the merger of binary compact objects and the core-collapse of massive stars acquire velocity structures when expanding in a stratified environment. The remnant (either a spinning magnetized neutron star (NS) or a central black hole) from the compact-object or core-collapse could additionally inject energy...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mismatch between different independent measurements of the expansion rate of the Universe is known as the Hubble constant ($H_0$) tension, and it is a serious and pressing problem in cosmology. We investigate this tension considering the dataset from the Pantheon sample, a collection of 1048 Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) with a redshift range $0<...
Preprint
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are fascinating extragalactic objects. They represent a fantastic opportunity to investigate unique properties not exhibited in other sources. Multi-wavelength afterglow observations from some short- and long-duration GRBs reveal an atypical long-lasting emission that evolves differently from the canonical afterglow light cu...
Preprint
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), observed to redshift $z=9.4$, are potential probes of the largely unexplored $z\sim 2.7-9.4$ part of the early Universe. Thus, finding relevant relations among GRB physical properties is crucial. We find that the Platinum GRB data compilation, with 50 long GRBs (with relatively flat plateaus and no flares) in the redshift r...
Article
Measuring the redshift of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires the use of time-consuming and expensive spectroscopic analysis. However, obtaining redshift measurements of AGNs is crucial as it can enable AGN population studies, provide insight into the star formation rate, the luminosity function, and the density rate evolution. Hence, there is a...
Article
Full-text available
The standard Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model provides a good description of a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological data. However, there are a few big open questions that make the standard model look like an approximation to a more realistic scenario yet to be found. In this paper, we list a few important goals that need to be a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), observed up to $z=9.4$, can be employed as standardized candles, extending the distance ladder beyond Supernovae Type Ia (SNe Ia, $z=2.26$). We standardize GRBs using the 3D fundamental plane relation among the rest-frame end time of the X-ray plateau emission, its corresponding luminosity, and the peak prompt luminosity. C...
Preprint
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are fascinating events due to their panchromatic nature. We study optical plateaus in GRB afterglows via an extended search into archival data. We comprehensively analyze all published GRBs with known redshifts and optical plateaus observed by many ground-based telescopes (e.g., Subaru Telescope, RATIR) around the world and...
Preprint
Quasars (QSOs) are extremely luminous active galatic nuclei currently observed up to redshift $z=7.642$. As such, they have the potential to be the next rung of the cosmic distance ladder beyond SNe Ia, if they can reliably be used as cosmological probes. The main issue in adopting QSOs as standard candles (similarly to Gamma-Ray Bursts) is the lar...
Preprint
Emerging high redshift cosmological probes, in particular quasars (QSOs), show a preference for larger matter densities, $\Omega_{m} \approx 1$, within the flat $\Lambda$CDM framework. Here, using the Risaliti-Lusso relation for standardizable QSOs, we demonstrate that the QSOs recover the \textit{same} Planck-$\Lambda$CDM Universe as Type Ia super...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we will list a few important goals that need to be addressed in the next decade, also taking into account the current discordances between the different cosmological probes, such as the disagreement in the value of the Hubble constant $H_0$, the $\sigma_8$--$S_8$ tension, and other less statistically significant anomalies. While these...
Article
Full-text available
Redshift measurement of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remains a time-consuming and challenging task, as it requires follow up spectroscopic observations and detailed analysis. Hence, there exists an urgent requirement for alternative redshift estimation techniques. The use of machine learning (ML) for this purpose has been growing over the last few...
Preprint
Full-text available
Redshift measurement of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remains a time-consuming and challenging task, as it requires follow up spectroscopic observations and detailed analysis. Hence, there exists an urgent requirement for alternative redshift estimation techniques. The use of machine learning (ML) for this purpose has been growing over the last few...
Article
We show that the Platinum gamma-ray burst (GRB) data compilation, probing the redshift range 0.553 ≤ z ≤ 5.0, obeys a cosmological-model-independent three-parameter fundamental plane (Dainotti) correlation and so is standardizable. While they probe the largely unexplored z ∼ 2.3 − 5 part of cosmological redshift space, the GRB cosmological paramete...
Article
Full-text available
The difference from 4 to 6 σ in the Hubble constant (H0) between the values observed with the local (Cepheids and Supernovae Ia, SNe Ia) and the high-z probes (Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by the Planck data) still challenges the astrophysics and cosmology community. Previous analysis has shown that there is an evolution in the Hubble const...
Preprint
Full-text available
The difference from 4 to 6 $\sigma$ in the Hubble constant ($H_0$) between the values observed with the local (Cepheids and Supernovae Ia, SNe Ia) and the high-z probes (CMB obtained by the Planck data) still challenges the astrophysics and cosmology community. Previous analysis by Dainotti et al. (2021) has shown that there is an evolution in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measuring the redshift of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires the use of time-consuming and expensive spectroscopic analysis. However, obtaining redshift measurements of AGNs is crucial as it can enable AGN population studies, provide insight into the star formation rate, the luminosity function, and the density rate evolution. Hence, there is a...
Preprint
We show that the Platinum gamma-ray burst (GRB) data compilation, probing the redshift range $0.553 \leq z \leq 5.0$, obeys a cosmological-model-independent three-parameter fundamental plane (Dainotti) correlation and so is standardizable. While they probe the largely unexplored $z \sim 2.3-5$ part of cosmological redshift space, the GRB cosmologic...
Article
Full-text available
We extend previous work on gamma-ray burst afterglows involving hot thermal electrons at the base of a shock-accelerated tail. Using a physically motivated electron distribution based on first-principles simulations, we compute the broadband emission from radio to TeV gamma rays. For the first time, we present the effects of a thermal distribution...
Article
Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission can be observed from sub-TeV to radio wavelengths, though only 6.6% of observed GRBs present radio afterglows. We examine GRB radio light curves (LCs) to look for the presence of radio plateaus resembling the plateaus observed at X-ray and optical wavelengths. We analyze 404 GRBs from the literature with obs...
Preprint
Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission can be observed from sub-TeV to radio wavelengths, though only 6.6\% of observed GRBs present radio afterglows. We examine GRB radio light curves (LCs) to look for the presence of radio plateaus, resembling the plateaus observed in X-ray and optical. We analyze 404 GRBs from the literature with observed radi...
Preprint
Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic events that can be observed at extremely high redshift. However, inherent bias in GRB data due to selection effects and redshift evolution can significantly skew any subsequent analysis. We correct for important variables related to the GRB emission, such as the burst duration, $T_{90}^*$, the prompt iso...
Article
Full-text available
Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic events that can be observed at extremely high redshift. However, inherent bias in GRB data due to selection effects and redshift evolution can significantly skew any subsequent analysis. We correct for important variables related to the GRB emission, such as the burst duration, T90*, the prompt isotropic...
Preprint
Full-text available
The actual knowledge of the structure and future evolution of our universe is based on the use of cosmological models, which can be tested through the so-called 'probes', namely astrophysical phenomena, objects or structures with peculiar properties that can help to discriminate among different cosmological models. Among all the existing probes, of...
Preprint
Full-text available
We extend previous work on gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows involving hot thermal electrons at the base of a shock-accelerated tail. Using a physically-motivated electron distribution based on first-principles simulations, we compute broadband emission from radio to TeV gamma-rays. For the first time, we present the effects of a thermal distributio...
Article
Full-text available
One of the innovative approaches in contemporary philosophical ontology consists in the assumption of a plurality of ontologies based on different metaphysical presuppositions. Such presuppositions involve, among others, the identification of relevant properties for the objects of our domain as a guiding principle in uncovering what it is to be con...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate the evolution of the afterglow produced by the deceleration of the non-relativistic material due to its surroundings. The ejecta mass is launched into the circumstellar medium with equivalent kinetic energy expressed as a power-law velocity distribution $E\propto (\Gamma\beta)^{-\alpha}$. The density profile of this medium follows a...
Preprint
Full-text available
In light of the most recent observations of late afterglows produced by the merger of compact objects or by the core-collapse of massive dying stars, we research the evolution of the afterglow produced by an off-axis top-hat jet and its interaction with a surrounding medium. The medium is parametrized by a power law distribution of the form $n(r)\p...
Preprint
Full-text available
AGNs are very powerful galaxies characterized by extremely bright emissions coming out from their central massive black holes. Knowing the redshifts of AGNs provides us with an opportunity to determine their distance to investigate important astrophysical problems such as the evolution of the early stars, their formation along with the structure of...
Article
Full-text available
The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) shows long-lasting high-energy emission in many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), similar to X-ray afterglows observed by the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory (Swift). Some LAT light curves (LCs) show a late-time flattening reminiscent of X-ray plateaus. We explore the presenc...
Article
The Neil Gehrels Swift observatory observes gamma-ray burst (GRB) plateaus in X-rays. We test the reliability of the closure relations through the fireball model when dealing with GRB plateau emissions. We analyze 455 X-ray light curves collected by Swift from 2005 January until 2019 August for which the redshifts are either known or unknown using...
Preprint
The Neil Gehrels Swift observatory observe Gamma-Ray bursts (GRBs) plateaus in X-rays. We test the reliability of the closure relations through the fireball model when dealing with the GRB plateau emission. We analyze 455 X-ray lightcurves (LCs) collected by \emph{Swift} from 2005 (January) until 2019 (August) for which the redshift is both known a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the \Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (\Fermi) shows long-lasting high-energy emission in many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), similar to X-ray afterglows observed by the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory \citep[\textit{Swift};][]{gehrels2004}. Some LAT light curves (LCs) show a late-time flattening reminiscent of X-ray...
Preprint
Originating from neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) or neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers, short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are the first electromagnetic emitters associated with gravitational waves. This association makes the determination of SGRB formation rate (FR) a critical issue. We determine the true SGRB FR and its relation to the cosmic...
Article
Full-text available
The Hubble constant (H 0) tension between Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and Planck measurements ranges from 4 to 6 σ. To investigate this tension, we estimate H 0 in the ΛCDM and w 0 w a CDM models by dividing the Pantheon sample, the largest compilation of SNe Ia, into 3, 4, 20 and 40 bins. We fit the extracted H 0 values with a function mimicking t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Hubble constant ($H_0$) tension between Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and Planck measurements ranges from 4 to 6 $\sigma$. To investigate this tension, we estimate $H_{0}$ in the $\Lambda$CDM and $w_{0}w_{a}$CDM models by dividing the Pantheon sample, the largest compilation of SNe Ia, into 3, 4, 20 and 40 bins. We fit the extracted $H_{0}$ value...
Article
The Fermi-LAT collaboration presented the second gamma-ray burst (GRB) catalog covering its first 10 years of operations. A significant fraction of afterglow-phase light curves in this catalog cannot be explained by the closure relations of the standard synchrotron forward-shock model, suggesting that there could be an important contribution from a...
Preprint
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are fascinating events due to their panchromatic nature. Their afterglow emission is observed from sub-TeV energies to radio wavelengths. We investigate GRBs that present an optical plateau, leveraging on the resemblance with the X-ray plateau shown in many GRB light curves (LCs). We comprehensively analyze all published GRB...
Article
Full-text available
A large fraction of gamma-ray burst (GRB) lightcurves (LCs) show X-ray plateaus. We analyze all GRBs with known redshifts presenting plateaus observed by The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory from its launch until 2019 August. The fundamental plane relation between the rest-frame time and X-ray luminosity at the end of the plateau emission and the pea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cosmological models and the value of their parameters are at the center of the debate because of the tension between the results obtained by the SNe Ia data and the Plank ones of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Thus, adding cosmological probes observed at high redshifts, such as Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), is needed. Using GRB correlations...
Preprint
Full-text available
A large fraction of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) lightcurves (LCs) shows X-ray plateaus. We analyze all GRBs with known redshifts presenting plateaus observed by \emph{The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory} from its launch until August 2019. The fundamental plane relation between the rest-frame time and X-ray luminosity at the end of the plateau emission a...
Preprint
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most explosive phenomena in the Universe after the Big Bang. A large fraction of GRB lightcurves (LCs) shows X-ray plateaus. We perform the most comprehensive analysis of all GRBs (with known and unknown redshifts) with plateau emission observed by The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory from its launch until August 2019....
Article
Full-text available
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most explosive phenomena in the Universe after the Big Bang. A large fraction of GRB lightcurves (LCs) shows X-ray plateaus. We perform the most comprehensive analysis of all GRBs (with known and unknown redshifts) with plateau emission observed by The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory from its launch until August 2019....
Preprint
Full-text available
One of the innovative approaches in contemporary philosophical ontology consists in the assumption of a plurality of ontologies based on different metaphysical presuppositions. Such presuppositions involve, among others, the identification of relevant properties for the objects of our domain as a guiding principle in uncovering what it is to be con...
Preprint
The Fermi-LAT collaboration presented the second gamma-ray burst (GRB) catalog covering its first 10 years of operations. A significant fraction of afterglow-phase light curves in this catalog cannot be explained by the closure relations of the standard synchrotron forward-shock model, suggesting that there could be an important contribution from a...
Preprint
We present the afterglow light curves produced by the deceleration of the non-relativistic ejecta mass in a stratified circumstellar medium with a density profile $n(r)\propto r^{-k}$ with $k=0$, $1$, $1.5$, $2$ and $2.5$. Once the ejecta mass is launched with equivalent kinetic energy parametrized by $E(>\beta)\propto \beta^{-\alpha}$ (where beta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are spectacularly energetic events, with the potential to inform on the early universe and its evolution, once their redshifts are known. Unfortunately, determining redshifts is a painstaking procedure requiring detailed follow-up multi-wavelength observations often involving various astronomical facilities, which have to be...
Article
We extend our study of energetic radio-loud and-quiet gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), suggesting these GRBs potentially come from two separate progenitor systems. We expand the sample from our previous paper and find that our results are strengthened-radio-quiet GRBs have significantly shorter intrinsic prompt duration, and are also less energetic on aver...
Preprint
We extend our study of energetic radio loud and quiet gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), suggesting these GRBs potentially come from two separate progenitor systems. We expand the sample from our previous paper (Lloyd-Ronning & Fryer, 2017) and find our results are strengthened - radio quiet GRBs have significantly shorter intrinsic prompt duration, and are...
Article
Full-text available
p>THESEUS is a space mission concept aimed at exploiting Gamma-Ray Bursts for investigating the early Universe and at providing a substantial advancement of multi-messenger and time-domain astrophysics. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB and X-ray transient detection over a broad field of view (mor...
Article
The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z≈9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discri...