Maria C Caldeira

Maria C Caldeira
University of Lisbon | UL · Forest Research Center (CEF)

Degree Forestry

About

120
Publications
66,375
Reads
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6,280
Citations
Introduction
I am Assistant Professor and Head of the Ecophysiological Lab at Forest Reseach Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Portugal. I teach Plant Ecology and Ecophysiology, Ecosystem Processes at Undergraduate, MSc and Ph.D. level. My main research interests are forest, agro-forest and grassland ecology; Impacts of global changes on ecosystem functioning, namely on carbon and water balances; Tree ecophysiology and resilience to drought; Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
School fo Agriculture, University of Lisbon
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Ecology and Ecophysiology
May 2015 - December 2016
University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior de Agronomia
Position
  • Researcher
January 2015 - April 2015
University of Lisbon
Position
  • Pos-doc Researcher

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
Understanding of plant hydraulic strategies (i.e., the degree of iso-/anisohydricity) is crucial to predict the response of plants to changing environmental conditions such as climate-change induced extreme drought. Several abiotic factors, including evaporative demand, have been shown to seasonally modify the isohydricity of plants. However, the i...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient enrichment can simultaneously increase and destabilise plant biomass production, with co-limitation by multiple nutrients potentially intensifying these effects. Here, we test how factorial additions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium with essential nutrients (K+) affect the stability (mean/standard deviation) of aboveground bio...
Poster
Full-text available
Shrub encroachment is a global change driver occurring in a wide range of ecosystems, including in tree plantations. This phenomenon is known to affect tree physiology and overall ecosystem functioning and productivity. In tree plantations, forest management, such as shrub clearing and tree thinning, aims to increase wood and non-woody products yie...
Preprint
Background and aims: The amount of nitrogen (N) derived from symbiotic N 2 fixation by legumes in grasslands might be affected by anthropogenic N and phosphorus (P) inputs, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Methods: We evaluated symbiotic N 2 fixation in 17 grasslands on four continents that are subjected to the same full-factorial N and...
Article
Nutrients and herbivores are well-known drivers of grassland diversity and stability in local communities. However, whether they interact to impact the stability of aboveground biomass and whether these effects depend on spatial scales remain unknown. It is also unclear whether nutrients and herbivores impact stability via different facets of plant...
Article
Forest certification is a conservation tool, which aims to promote the sustainable management and conservation of forest ecosystems. Establishing set-aside or lower intervention conservation zones to promote biodiversity conservation is a requisite of forest certification. We tested the effects of conservation zones on the tree bio-metrics and rege...
Article
Shrub encroachment is a global phenomenon occurring in a wide range of ecosystems, including in tree plantations, which is known to affect ecosystem functioning and productivity. Forest management in tree plantations (e.g. shrub clearing, tree thinning and pruning) often aims to increase wood and non-woody products yield while optimizing other ecos...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of altered nutrient supplies and herbivore density on species diversity vary with spatial scale, because coexistence mechanisms are scale dependent. This scale dependence may alter the shape of the species–area relationship (SAR), which can be described by changes in species richness (S) as a power function of the sample area (A): S = c...
Article
Plant damage by invertebrate herbivores and pathogens influences the dynamics of grassland ecosystems, but anthropogenic changes in nitrogen and phosphorus availability can modify these relationships. Using a globally‐distributed experiment, we describe leaf damage on 153 plant taxa from twenty‐seven grasslands worldwide, under ambient conditions a...
Article
Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment is driving global biodiversity decline and modifying ecosystem functions. Theory suggests that plant functional types that fix atmospheric nitrogen have a competitive advantage in nitrogen-poor soils, but lose this advantage with increasing nitrogen supply. By contrast, the addition of phosphorus, potassium, and ot...
Article
Full-text available
Interaction effects of different stressors, such as extreme drought and plant invasion, can have detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning and recovery after drought. With ongoing climate change and increasing plant invasion, there is an urgent need to predict the short‐ and long‐term interaction impacts of these stressors on ecosystems. We esta...
Preprint
Knowledge of plant hydraulic strategies (isohydric vs anisohydric) is crucial to predict the response of plants to changing environmental conditions, such as climate-change induced extreme drought. Several abiotic factors, such as evaporative demand, have been shown to seasonally modify the isohydricity of plants, however, the impact of biotic fact...
Presentation
Full-text available
The impact of interacting global change stressors on terrestrial ecosystems is hard to predict due to non-linear, amplifying, neutral or even buffering interaction effects. We investigated the effects of drought and plant invasion on Mediterranean cork oak (Quercus suber L.) ecosystem functioning and recovery with a combined rain exclusion (30-45 %...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nutrients and herbivores have independent effects on the temporal stability of aboveground biomass in grasslands; however, their joint effects may not be additive and may also depend on spatial scales. In an experiment adding nutrients and excluding herbivores in 34 globally distributed grasslands, we found that nutrients and herbivores mainly had...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interannual variability in grassland primary production is strongly driven by precipitation, nutrient availability and herbivory, but there is no general consensus on the mechanisms linking these variables. If grassland biomass is limited by the single most limiting resource at a given time, then we expect that nutrient addition will not affect bio...
Article
Full-text available
Droughts can strongly affect grassland productivity and biodiversity, but responses differ widely. Nutrient availability may be a critical factor explaining this variation, but is often ignored in analyses of drought responses. Here, we used a standardized nutrient addition experiment covering 10 European grasslands to test if full‐factorial NPK‐ad...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20997-9.
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20985-z.
Poster
Full-text available
World forests hold 80% of the terrestrial biodiversity, providing critical ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management is essential for promoting environmental and socio-economic forest values, for present and future generations. Forest certification is a voluntary third-party audited tool, under which forest managers commit to responsible fo...
Article
Sap flow measurements are essential for estimating whole plant- and ecosystem water use. Yet, several challenges and pitfalls exist in the application and analysis of sap flow data, such as the determination of zero-flow (ΔTmax). Here, we used different methods to estimate ΔTmax and their effect on the determination of sap flow of Quercus suber L....
Article
Full-text available
Human activities are transforming grassland biomass via changing climate, elemental nutrients, and herbivory. Theory predicts that food-limited herbivores will consume any additional biomass stimulated by nutrient inputs (‘consumer-controlled’). Alternatively, nutrient supply is predicted to increase biomass where herbivores alter community composi...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication is a widespread environmental change that usually reduces the stabilizing effect of plant diversity on productivity in local communities. Whether this effect is scale dependent remains to be elucidated. Here, we determine the relationship between plant diversity and temporal stability of productivity for 243 plant communities from 42...
Experiment Findings
Article
Full-text available
Soil nitrogen (N) availability is critical for grassland functioning. However, human activities have increased the supply of biologically‐limiting nutrients, and changed the density and identity of mammalian herbivores. These anthropogenic changes may alter net soil N mineralization (soil net Nmin), i.e., the net balance between N mineralization an...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Microbial processing of aggregate‐unprotected organic matter inputs is key for soil fertility, long‐term ecosystem carbon and nutrient sequestration and sustainable agriculture. We investigated the effects of adding multiple nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium plus nine essential macro‐ and micro‐nutrients) on decomposition and biochemica...
Presentation
Increased nutrient inputs and climate change are affecting ecosystems worldwide. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how the interacting effects of multiple nutrient inputs and climatic variability may affect ecosystem functioning including grassland species and functional diversity, productivity or resilience to disturbances. This is partic...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate (a) whether dominant native and non‐native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, (b) h...
Article
Full-text available
Soil nitrogen mineralisation (Nmin), the conversion of organic into inorganic N, is important for productivity and nutrient cycling. The balance between mineralisation and immobilisation (net Nmin) varies with soil properties and climate. However, because most global-scale assessments of net Nmin are laboratory-based, its regulation under field-con...
Article
Full-text available
Our knowledge on the biosynthesis of several biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) is still limited. In this regard, natural abundant stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of BVOCs may provide a powerful tool to evaluate different metabolic pathways. In the present study, BVOC emissions, and their carbon isotope composition from two Mediterrane...
Poster
Full-text available
Effects of forest certification on shrub and grassland diversity of cork oak woodlands The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is the dominant forest certification scheme applied to cork oak (Quercus suber) woodlands in Portugal. Certified estates are required to have conservation zones for biodiversity conservation, where livestock grazing, a common...
Article
In the Mediterranean and temperate regions, an increase in the frequency and intensity of drought events has been recorded, probably due to climate change. In consequence, trees will more frequently experience hydric stress, a condition that can be expected to affect insect–tree interactions, while adaptation mechanisms may be further in course. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Mediterranean ecosystems are hotspots for climate change, as the highest impacts are forecasted for the Mediterranean region, mainly by more frequent and intense severe droughts. Plant phenology is a good indicator of species' responses to climate change. In this study, we compared the spring phenology of cork oak trees (Quercus suber), an evergree...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit...
Article
The ‘two‐water‐worlds’ hypothesis is based on stable isotope differences in stream, soil and xylem waters in dual isotope space. It postulates no connectivity between bound and mobile soil waters, and preferential plant‐water‐uptake of bound soil water sources. We tested the pool‐weighted impact of isotopically distinct water pools for hydrological...
Article
1.Ungulates influence ecosystem services in important ways, including by altering the amount of standing plant biomass and species composition. Browsing, for example, removes biomass and, in consequence, can decrease the risk of wildfires. The influence of ungulates on carbon storage is more complicated. Browsers reduce carbon stocks directly by co...
Article
Mediterranean annual grasslands are species-diverse ecosystems of high economic and ecological value. CO2 and water fluxes in these grasslands are triggered by the first rains in autumn, after a long hot and dry summer. Climate change scenarios project altered rainfall patterns, such as prolonged dry season into the autumn, while simultaneously nit...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities are increasing nutrient availability and altering precipitation regimes. This may lead to critical changes in grasslands functioning. This is particularly important for grasslands in the Mediterranean Basin that have evolved in nutrient poor soils, and where more frequent and prolonged droughts are projected to occur. Howev...
Article
Full-text available
We applied an empirical modelling approach for gross primary productivity (GPP) estimation from hyperspectral reflectance of Mediterranean grasslands undergoing different fertilization treatments. The objective of the study was to identify combinations of vegetation indices and bands that best represent GPP changes between the annual peak of growth...
Article
Full-text available
Drought is a major environmental constrain affecting plant performance and survival, particularly in Mediterranean ecosystems. Terpenoids may play a protective role under these conditions, however, observations of drought effects on plant terpenoid emissions are controversial ranging from decreased emissions to unaffected or increased release of te...
Article
Full-text available
Mediterranean vegetation emits a wide range of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) among which isoprenoids present quantitatively the most important compound class. Here, we investigated the isoprenoid emission from two Mediterranean Cistaceae shrubs, Halimium halimifolium and Cistus ladanifer, under controlled and natural conditions, respe...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism resistance, hydraulic conductivity and branch growth, in...
Data
Species, studied populations and latitude and climate conditions per population. Coordinates are provided in decimal degrees. MAT: annual mean temperature (°C); MAP: annual sum of precipitation (mm); PET: annual sum of potential evapotranspiration (mm); AI: aridity index (calculated as MAP/PET); T_Sum: average temperature of June, July and August (...
Data
P50 (MPa) versus xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks, kg m-1 MPa-1 s-1) measured for each tree, for the two species for which P50/Ks correlations were statistically significant (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris). (DOCX)
Data
Natural distribution areas of the studied species (dark grey) in Western Europe (www.euforgen.org). The triangles represent the populations and sites sampled for this study. CR: Czech Republic; PO: Portugal; NE: The Netherlands; FI-RU: Finland-Ruotsinkylä; FI-VA: Finland-Värriö; FI-HYY: Finland-Hyytiälä; IT: Italy; SW-LOE: Switzerland-Loetschental;...
Data
Vulnerability curves of each individual and species. Black dot are the raw measure of percentage of loss of conductivity (PLC in %) along the negative pressure gradient (in MPa). The red line connects the PLC fitted by the Pammenter model to the measured xylem pressure. All adjustments were statistically significant. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Trees scale leaf (AL) and xylem (AX) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in AL : AX balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in AL : AX in similar ways over their entire (continental) distributions is unknown. We analyze...
Article
Full-text available
We applied an empirical modelling approach for Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) estimation from hyperspectral surface reflectance of Mediterranean grasslands undergoing different fertilization treatments. The objective of the study was to identify combinations of vegetation indices and bands that better represent GPP changes between the annual-peak...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity is declining in many local communities while also becoming increasingly homogenized across space. Experiments show that local plant species loss reduces ecosystem functioning and services, but the role of spatial homogenization of community composition and the potential interaction between diversity at different scales in maintaining e...
Article
Full-text available
The sum of fruit and seed predation by multiple species may strongly affect plant reproduction and population dynamics. We evaluated the combined effects of ungulates, seed-eating rodents and insect pre-dispersal seed predators on the reproductive success of the Mediterranean gum cistus shrub (Cistus ladanifer), over two consecutive years within a...
Article
Global change is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing globally and climate change scenarios forecast an increase of prolonged autumn droughts particularly in the Mediterranean regions. Mediterranean grasslands occupy 1.3 million km² of the terrestrial surface, host high biodiversity values and generate important eco...
Article
Full-text available
Plant-animal interactions imply costs and benefits with net balance depending on interacting species and ecological context. Ungulates, in particular, confer costs (e.g., plant leaf consumption, flower bud predation) and benefits (e.g., plant overcompensation, seed dispersal) to plants. Magnitude of costs and benefits may be altered by habitat mana...
Article
Full-text available
Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plan...
Article
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variabil...
Book
Full-text available
The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaborat...
Article
Full-text available
Mediterranean oak woodlands are ecosystems of high conservation and socio-economic value that occur in Southwestern Europe, North Africa and California. Oak regeneration failure is occurring in these ecosystems and may be endangering their long-term conservation. Most studies suggest that inadequate management practices may be contributing to oak r...