Mari Wiklund

Mari Wiklund
University of Helsinki | HY · Department of Languages

PhD

About

39
Publications
4,498
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Introduction
Mari Wiklund (PhD, Docent) works at the Department of Languages of the University of Helsinki as a University Lecturer. Her current research interests include e.g. prosody (French, Finnish), foreign accent, interaction of persons with autism spectrum disorder, comprehension problems, conversational repairs, nonverbal communication, disfluencies of speech and asymmetric interaction. Her methodological background is mainly in conversation analysis and prosodic analysis.
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
University of Helsinki
Position
  • University Researcher

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Full-text available
Résumé Cette étude porte sur l’intonation des énoncés interrogatifs dans la parole des apprenants finnophones du français. Le corpus consiste en des enregistrements où 15 apprenants finnophones du français et un groupe de contrôle de 5 locuteurs natifs du français lisent un extrait d’un dialogue tiré de la pièce de théâtre En attendant Godot (Becke...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses disfluencies and ungrammatical expressions in the speech of 11-13-year-old Finnish-speaking boys with ASD (N = 5) and with neurotypical development (N = 6). The ASD data were from authentic group therapy sessions and neurotypical data from teacher-led group discussions. The proportion of disfluencies and ungrammatical expression...
Article
Full-text available
Autismikirjon häiriö on aivojen neurobiologinen kehityshäiriö, jota luonnehtivat mm. sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen ongelmat, aistiyliherkkyydet sekä rajoittuneet kiinnostuksen kohteet (APA, 2013). Autismikirjon henkilöillä puheen prosodiaanliittyy usein epätyypillisiä piirteitä. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan autismikirjonpoikien puheen lausumanlo...
Article
Full-text available
Autismikirjon häiriö on aivojen neurobiologinen kehityshäiriö, jota luonnehtivat mm. sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen ongelmat, aistiyliherkkyydet sekä rajoittuneet kiinnostuksen kohteet (APA, 2013). Autismikirjon henkilöillä puheen prosodiaanliittyy usein epätyypillisiä piirteitä. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan autismikirjonpoikien puheen lausumanlo...
Article
Full-text available
The focus in this article is on how two therapists orient a group of four French-speaking boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) towards achieving meaningful learning outcomes with regard to the topic of conversation. The analysis concentrates on the therapists’ output or response strategies when they orient the group discussion and assess speech...
Article
Given the extensive body of research in audio description – the verbal-vocal description of visual or audiovisual content for visually impaired audiences – it is striking how little attention has been paid thus far to the spoken dimension of audio description and its para-linguistic, prosodic aspects. This article complements the previous research...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is known that persons afflicted with autism often have deviant prosodic features in their speech. For example, they may have a limited range of intonation, their speech can be overly fast, jerky or loud, or it can be characterized by large pitch excursions, quiet voice, inconsistent pause structure, prominent word stress and/or by creaky or nasa...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the role of ungrammatical utterances and disfluent speech in the creation of comprehension problems between the participants in group therapy sessions of preadolescents with autism. The speech of the autistic preadolescents included frequent disfluencies and morpho-syntactic problems, such as wrong case endings, ambiguous prono...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article porte sur les initiateurs de réparation non spécifiées (open class repair initiators) dans un entretien d’asile (durée 2 : 22 : 15) interprété par téléphone en Finlande entre le finnois, la langue de l’enquêteur, et le français, la langue du demandeur d’asile. Une initiation de réparation non spécifiée indique que l’ensemble d’un tour d...
Article
Full-text available
In certain languages and in certain types of data, prosodic features are used to group prosodic units called by some scholars spoken sentences into larger units, often called speech paragraphs. The onsets of the first spoken sentences of these units are marked by a raised pitch level compared to the beginning of the preceding spoken sentence. The p...
Article
Full-text available
Ymmärrysongelmat ja vuorovaikutustaitojen opettaminen lievästi autististen varhaisnuorten kuntoutuskeskusteluissa Autismiin liittyy monenlaisia sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen ongelmia. Tämän artikkelin lähtökohtana ovat aiemmassa tutkimuksessa tehdyt havainnot siitä, kuinka sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen vaikeudet näkyvät kuntoutuskeskusteluissa, joiss...
Article
Full-text available
Using eye-movement analysis, the article examines the reading process of speech-to-text interpretation involving dynamic text emerging letter by letter on the screen. The article focuses on regressions of gaze as well as on their relationship to linguistic factors in order to reveal how the reader's gaze behaviour reflects the reading process of dy...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focusses on repair sequences occurring in institutional interaction with autistic preadolescents. More precisely, the paper discusses the role of prosodic and non-verbal features in situations where the participants of interaction have difficulties understanding each other. The discussion will include analysis of the prosodic and non-ver...
Article
Full-text available
Dans cet article, nous présenterons les résultats d’un test de perception où 28 informateurs finnophones ayant un niveau avancé en français ont entendu les cinq premières pages de L’étranger d’Albert Camus. Leur tâche a consisté à ajouter tous les points et les virgules au texte écrit correspondant sur la base des indices prosodiques. Les résultats...
Article
Full-text available
Speakers use intonation in order to group spoken sentences together into larger units. One such grouping is often referred to as "paragraph intonation." One of its principal characteristics is that the beginning of a new speech paragraph is marked with a high pitch level at the beginning of the first spoken sentence. This phenomenon is called "pitc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Print interpreting is a form of communication that allows deaf and hard of hearing people to get access to speech. We carried out an eye tracking experiment where twenty participants read print interpreted text presented dynamically on a computer screen. We compared regression landing points on reread words between two dynamic text presentation for...
Article
Full-text available
Cette étude portera sur la traduction des phrases sans verbe fini dans les versions finnoises des Mains sales (1948) et de Huis clos (1947) de Jean-Paul Sartre. La construction sans verbe fini est très fréquente dans les pièces de théâtre où le texte consiste principalement en des dialogues. Normalement, c’est surtout le verbe de la phrase qui sert...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article examines the role of French prosody in indicating a subordinate relationship between the clauses in L'étranger (The Stranger) by Albert Camus (1942) [1998]. More precisely, this article presents different prosodic realizations of the commas that occur between subordinate clauses and main clauses. The objective of the study is to determ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines one aspect of turn-taking organization in institutional interactions: the use of first names and their prosodic marking for next-speaker selection. Institutional interaction is characterized by asymmetrical rights to talk and pre-allocation of action. This involves the restriction of one party to asking questions and the other t...
Chapter
Full-text available
La subordination sera abordée ici d'un point de vue permettant à la fois la comparaison de l'écrit avec I'oral, ainsi que la mise en parallèle de la production et de la perception d'un texte sonore. Plus précisément, l'étude portera sur les traits prosodiques apparaissant d la frontière syntaxique d'une proposition subordonnée circonstancielle et d...
Article
Full-text available
Kirjoitetussa kielessä virkkeitä yhdistetään tekstikappaleiksi typografisin keinoin. Puheessa lausumia ryhmitellään intonaation avulla nk. ’puhekappaleiksi’. Jaksottelun perusperiaate on, että uusi puhekappale alkaa korkealta säveltasolta, ja saman kappaleen seuraavat lausumat alkavat ensimmäistä lausumaa matalammalta säveltasolta. Kun laskeva kaar...
Article
Full-text available
Asperger syndrome (AS) is a form of high-functioning autism characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction. People afflicted with AS typically have abnormal nonverbal behaviors which are often manifested by avoiding eye contact. Gaze constitutes an important interactional resource, and an AS person's tendency to avoid eye contact may...
Article
Full-text available
At first sight, the intonation systems of French and Finnish – which are typologically distant languages – seem completely different. This paper aims, however, at showing that the discourse-structuring role of the utterance-final pitch rises in spontaneous spoken Finnish is in many respects reminiscent of the final pitch rises that constitute an es...
Thesis
Full-text available
Cette thèse porte sur la contextualisation du discours radiophonique par des moyens prosodiques. Plus précisément, le travail est focalisé sur sept « figures marquées » consistant en des variations saillantes d’un ou de plusieurs paramètres prosodiques. Ces phénomènes sont envisagés ici aussi bien du point de vue de leurs formes acoustiques que du...
Chapter
Full-text available
D’une manière générale, les fonctions des points de suspension sur les tchats semblent donc être liées à l’indication de la continuité et à la fragmentation du tour. Ces fonctions dites principales se chevauchent cependant souvent avec différents emplois interactionnels et stylistiques. En effet, lorsque les points de suspension s’associent aux ter...
Article
Cet article porte sur le rôle d'un contour intonatif montant – descendant dans la structuration et dans la contextualisation du discours radiophonique. En raison de la forme acoustique caractéristique du phénomène étudié, nous avons choisi de l'appeler la figure HB ('H' pour 'haut' et 'B' pour 'bas'). Le corpus étudié consiste en des émissions radi...
Article
RésuméThe article focuses on three different prosodic schemas which consist of a systematic repetition of several acoustic parameters and constitute complex phenomena both from the prosodic point of view and on the discursive plane. The functions of these figures are mostly examined with the prospect of the contextualisation of speech : in this per...
Article
Résumé : Cet article porte sur la contextualisation de la parole par des moyens prosodiques. Deux phénomènes différents – que j'ai choisi d'appeler la « prosodie soulignante » et la « prosodie zéro » – sont abordés aussi bien sur le plan de leurs formes acoustiques que du point de vue de leurs fonctions discursives relatives à la construction du ca...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Persons afflicted with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have prominent prosodic features in their speech. For example, they may have a limited range of intonation, their speech can be overly fast, jerky or loud, or it can be characterized by large pitch excursions, quiet voice, inconsistent pause structure, prominent word stress and/or by creaky or nasal voice. By creating an impression of “oddness”, these features can constitute a significant obstacle to the social acceptance of the individual. They also affect ASD speakers’ ratings of social and communicative competence. The crucial role of eye contact in fluent interaction has long been acknowledged. One of the key features of normal gaze behavior is that listeners look at speakers. ASD subjects are deficient in this ‘gaze response’. Gaze constituting such an important interactional resource, ASD persons’ tendency to avoid eye contact may affect the fluidity of conversations and cause misunderstandings. For this reason, it is important to know the precise ways in which the gaze avoidance is done, and the ways in which it affects the interaction. This project aims at discovering prosodic features and gaze behavior that characterize people afflicted with ASD independently of the mother tongue and the cultural environment of the person. It has already been shown that certain prosodic features are typical of ASD people’s speech (see above). It is however not yet known to what extent 1) neurotypical people find these features prominent; 2) the exact acoustic values of these features differ from the corresponding values of neurotypical people; 3) these features are language-specific. In addition the project will focus on these issues: 4) what kind of gaze behavior is typical of preadolescent ASD boys in multi-party conversations; 5) to what extent is this behavior language- and culture-specific; 6) what is the role of the prosodic features and the direction of gaze in misunderstanding situations occurring in ASD people’s interaction. The data consist of audiovisual material recorded from group therapy sessions where 11–13-year-old French-, Finnish- and English-speaking boys afflicted with ASD are interacting. A small control group data is also constructed for all three languages. Methodologically, two different viewpoints will be adopted. One of these is qualitative (conversation analysis, CA) and the other one is quantitative (experimental and instrumental phonetics). CA will be used to discover the role of ASD subjects’ prosodic and nonverbal deficiencies in misunderstanding situations. CA will also be used for defining the nonverbal features that characterize ASD persons’ interaction. Methods of experimental and instrumental phonetics will be used to define the prosodic features that characterize ASD persons’ speech as well as to find out which features occur only in one of the languages and which ones occur independently of the language. Perception tests will allow discovering how neurotypical people perceive ASD subjects’ prosody and comparing statistically the impressions of the French-, Finnish- and English-speaking informants.
Project
This project focuses on (im)politeness in Finland and in France, aimed at addressing the following: (1) What kind of perceptions do outsiders carry related to (im)politeness in Finland and in France? (2) How are these perceptions of (im)politeness re-created during discussions? (3) What sort of variation exists in evaluations of (im)politeness in intercultural interactions?