Margaret C Stanley

Margaret C Stanley
University of Auckland · School of Biological Sciences

PhD (Monash University)

About

87
Publications
15,431
Reads
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1,349
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
928 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
My interests in terrestrial ecology are diverse (research areas and taxa), but can be grouped into three main research strands: invasion ecology; urban ecology; plant-animal interactions. Often the most interesting and challenging projects occur where these three research areas overlap. Although much of my research is applied ecology, I do undertake research on the co-evolutionary aspects of plant-animal interactions.
Additional affiliations
July 2001 - September 2007
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Position
  • Ecologist
March 1997 - June 2001
Monash University (Australia)
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
January 2001
Monash University (Australia)
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences
December 1996
University of Otago
Field of study
  • Zoology

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Sugar-water bird feeding in residential backyards is increasingly popular, but its effects on wildlife are poorly understood. One concern is whether it results in maladaptive behaviour, such as reliance on artificial food or increased aggression due to increased density of visiting individuals. We studied sugar-water feeder-associated bird behaviou...
Article
Full-text available
The incorporation of native, woody vegetation into New Zealand’s agricultural ecosystems offers a “nature-based solution” approach for mitigating poor environmental outcomes of land use practices, biodiversity loss, and the accelerating effects of climatic change. However, to achieve this at scale requires a systematic framework for scoping, assess...
Article
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Sleep is one of the few truly ubiquitous animal behaviours, and though many animals spend enormous periods of time asleep, we have only begun to understand the consequences of sleep disturbances. In humans, sleep is crucial for effective communication. Birds are classic models for understanding the evolution and mechanisms of human language and spe...
Article
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Conservation volunteering aims to benefit species and ecosystems, but whether positive collective social outcomes exist for conservation group participants is largely unknown. To examine the importance of the collective social benefits from conservation, we surveyed members of the Auckland, New Zealand public to investigate social capital: the conn...
Article
Garden bird sugar water feeding is increasingly popular worldwide, but little is known about its effects on bird health and associated diseases. There is a concern that feeding stations can accumulate pathogens and facilitate pathogen transmission between individuals, resulting in adverse effects on body condition of visiting birds. We tested the e...
Article
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Managing invasive species requires knowledge of their ecology, including distribution, habitat use, and home range. In particular, understanding how biotic and abiotic factors influence home range can help with pest management decision-making, as well as informing native species management. Feral cats, self-sustaining cat populations that live inde...
Article
Urbanization has caused multiple environmental grand challenges that impair urban sustainability. Urban vegetation (UV), a mainstream nature-based solution (NBS), can mitigate urban challenges through providing important ecosystem services (ESs). However, successful implementation of UV to provide ESs, is impaired due to insufficient knowledge of i...
Article
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Light pollution is an issue of global significance for urban ecosystems, especially where areas of natural and ecological importance are located in and around cities. We investigated levels of night sky brightness around Auckland, Aotearoa-New Zealand, to determine the extent of sky glow, its potential to mask the lunar cycle, its relation to land...
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Aotearoa–New Zealand has embarked on an ambitious goal: to completely eradicate key invasive mammals by 2050. This will require novel tools capable of eliminating pests on a large scale. In New Zealand, large-scale pest suppression is typically carried out using aerial application of the toxin sodium fluoroacetate (1080). However, as currently appl...
Article
Enhancing functional connectivity is key to achieving a sustainable agroecosystem. There has been an increase in using connectivity metrics to understand how spatial heterogeneity affects dispersal, yet most studies have been single-species focused. Variability in species’ ecological traits, such as movement ability, are predicted to interact with...
Article
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Rapid advances in eradicating invasive species from islands are improving conservation outcomes in these biodiversity hotspots. However, recent conservation gains could be reversed not only by future invasions from non‐native species but also by future extinctions of native taxa, both of which may be facilitated by – or exacerbated by interactions...
Article
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Technology is transforming societies worldwide. A major innovation is the emergence of robotics and autonomous systems(RAS), which have the potential to revolutionize cities for both people and nature. Nonetheless, the opportunities and challenges associated with RAS for urban ecosystems have yet to be considered systematically. Here, we report the...
Article
Artificial light at night (ALAN) causes a wide range of ecological impacts across diverse ecosystems. Most concentrated in urban areas, ALAN poses a particular risk to associated wildlife by disrupting physiology, behaviour and ultimately survival. This risk is predicted to shift as nighttime lightscapes in many cities undergo change. Globally, str...
Article
Full-text available
Feeding backyard birds with sugar water is increasingly popular in urban areas, but it has poorly understood effects on bird assemblages. In New Zealand, ca. 20% of households engaged in feeding wild birds use sugar water, often in an attempt to attract native, nectarivorous birds. Developing best practices for sugar water feeding could be a powerf...
Article
Technology is transforming societies worldwide. A major innovation is the emergence of robotics and autonomous systems (RAS), which have the potential to revolutionize cities for both people and nature. Nonetheless, the opportunities and challenges associated with RAS for urban ecosystems have yet to be considered systematically. Here, we report th...
Article
Over 50% of the world’s human population lives in cities, and the rate of urbanisation continues to increase globally. Consequences of urbanisation, such as noise pollution and land use change, impact bird communities and movement dynamics. Furthermore, cities are fragmented and heterogeneous, so it is pertinent to assess how birds respond to urban...
Article
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Ants represent a highly diverse and ecologically important group of insects found in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. A subset of ant species have been widely transported around the globe and invade many natural ecosystems, often out-competing native counterparts and causing varying impacts on recipient ecosystems. Decisions to control non-native...
Article
Monitoring is an important component of pest species management in New Zealand. Chew cards are increasingly used for mammalian pest monitoring. They are effective for measuring the relative abundance of rats (Rattus spp.), but their effectiveness for measuring hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) relative abundance has not been tested. Camera traps are a...
Article
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Cat ownership is increasing globally, representing a growing threat to urban wildlife. Although some cities have policies and strategies for managing owned cats, the companionship value placed on cats makes such management contentious. Prioritizing cat management in urban residential zones adjacent to large significant ecological areas (SEAs; areas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding how spatial heterogeneity affects movement and dispersal is critical for maintaining functional connectivity in agroecosystems. Least-cost path models are popular conservation tools to quantify the cost of a species dispersing though the landscapes. However, the variability of species in life history traits and landscape configuration...
Article
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An ever‐expanding human population, climatic changes and the spread of intensive farming practices are putting increasing pressure on agroecosystems and their inherent biodiversity. Non‐production vegetation elements, such as woody patches, riparian margins and restoration plantings, are vital for conserving agroecosystem biodiversity. Furthermore,...
Article
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Global changes are predicted to facilitate the introduction, establishment, and spread of species into new environments leading to potential negative impacts on local biodiversity. Evaluating the risk associated with introduced species with a high likelihood of arrival, or species that have already been introduced, is therefore increasingly importa...
Article
Full-text available
Global environmental change and humanity's growing demands for resources have generated concerns regarding how much pressure Earth systems can absorb without drastic, potentially irreversible consequences. In natural resource production systems, tipping points can generate immediate threats to human well-being. However, empirically exploiting conce...
Preprint
Full-text available
An ever-expanding human population, ongoing global climatic changes, and the spread of intensive farming practices is putting increasing pressure on agroecosystems and the inherent biodiversity they contain. Non-production vegetation elements, such as woody patches, riparian margins, and inter-crop and restoration plantings, are vital for conservin...
Preprint
Global environmental change and humanity's growing demands for resources have generated concerns regarding how much pressure Earth systems can absorb without drastic, potentially irreversible consequences. In natural resource production systems, tipping points can generate immediate threats to human well-being. However, empirically exploiting conce...
Article
Full-text available
The order Procellariiformes, or albatross and petrels, face declining populations and many species hold threatened species status. Translocations of petrel chicks are increasingly recognised as a powerful conservation tool with multiple benefits: restoring species to their former range, restoring lost land-sea ecological linkages and 'spreading the...
Article
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Damage function models can determine the nature of relationships between the pest population and impact, and can provide guidance about when pest control is required. However, damage functions usually assess risk to species currently occupying conservation areas. Damage functions are not currently used to predict risk to species yet to be reintrodu...
Article
Handling of avian study species is common in ecological research, yet few studies account for the impact of handling in nestlings where exposure to stress may result in negative lifetime fitness consequences. As a result, our understanding of stress reactivity in free-living avian young is limited. In this study we examined the cumulative impact of...
Article
Predators play a critical role in ecosystems; however, when overly abundant, they can disrupt natural processes and cause extinctions of species. In particular, oceanic islands have endured many impacts of introduced mammalian predators. Whereas knowledge and management of introduced mammalian predators on islands is well advanced in natural landsc...
Article
Context: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are revolutionising areas of animal behaviour research and are advantageous based on their ability to be deployed remotely and unobtrusively, for long time periods in inaccessible areas. Aims: We aimed to determine the feasibility of using a WSN to track detailed movement paths of small animals, e.g. rats (R...
Article
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Identifying vectors of soil-borne forest pathogens is crucial in limiting disease spread. Phytophthora agathidici-da causes kauri dieback disease, killing kauri (Agathis australis (D.Don) Lindl.), Aotearoa-New Zealand's largest endemic tree. Currently incurable, management focuses on spread prevention. Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are implicated in spre...
Article
Full-text available
The practice of garden bird feeding is a global phenomenon, involving millions of people and vast quantities of food annually. Many people engage in the practice of feeding assuming that birds gain some benefit from the food they provide, yet recent studies have revealed the potential for detrimental impacts as well. However, there is still a pauci...
Article
Abstract Context. Knowledge of the movements and space-use patterns of wildlife is crucial for implementation of effective conservation and management actions. Such information can be difficult to obtain, especially from hard-to-capture or far-ranging taxa. Global-positioning-system (GPS) receivers that have remote data-acquisition capability via...
Article
Wild bird feeding often results in high densities of birds, potentially facilitating transmission of disease. Wild birds are major reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and although a number of avian disease outbreaks have been linked to bird feeders, urban bird-feeding and its role in disease systems remains poorly studied. We examined the impacts...
Article
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Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the imp...
Article
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Climate change may exacerbate the impacts of plant invasions by providing opportunities for new naturalisations and for alien species to expand into regions where previously they could not survive and reproduce. Although climate change is not expected to favour invasive plants in every case, in Aotearoa-New Zealand a large pool of potential new wee...
Article
As urbanization intensifies, urban ecosystems are increasingly under pressure from a range of threats. Horizon scanning has the potential to act as an early warning system, thereby initiating prompt discussion and decision making about threat mitigation. We undertook a systematic horizon scanning exercise, using a modified Delphi technique and expe...
Article
As an increasing proportion of the global human population resides in urban areas, urban forests are becoming both more important and more threatened. In many cities urban tree cover conflicts with strategies for urban intensification, and is being reduced due to inadequate protection. Here, we assess the effectiveness of one type of tree protectio...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Bird feeding is essentially a massive global supplementary feeding experiment, yet few studies have attempted to explore its ecological effects. In this study we use an in situ experimental approach to investigate the impacts of bird feeding on the structure of local bird assemblages. We present vital evidence that bird feeding contrib...
Article
Native re-forestation is a widely used restoration tool, typically undertaken with the expectation that planting native trees will initiate succession processes (including the re-establishment of native fauna) that will eventually return the ecosystem to a native-dominated state. Invertebrate groups can be used to assess restoration progress, as th...
Chapter
Australia and New Zealand are home to a remarkable and unique assemblage of flora and fauna. Sadly though, by virtue of their long isolation, and a naïve and vulnerable biota, both countries have suffered substantial losses to biodiversity since European contact. Bringing together the contributions of leading conservation biologists, Austral Ark pr...
Article
The practice of feeding wild birds is a widespread phenomenon, but there has been little consideration of both human and ecological dimensions of the impacts. We used a comprehensive approach to investigate the practice of bird feeding in the unique avian landscape of New Zealand. We quantified the practice and motivations of bird feeding via a nat...
Article
The interaction between the European wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa and its coevolved florivore the parsnip webworm Depressaria pastinacella, established in North America for over 150 years, has resulted in evolution of local chemical phenotype matching. The recent invasion of New Zealand by webworms, exposing parsnips there to florivore selection f...
Article
Although selection by herbivores for increased feeding deterrence in hostplants is well documented, selection for increased oviposition deterrence is rarely examined. We investigated chemical mediation of oviposition by the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) on its principal hostplant Pastinaca sativa to determine whether ovipositing adults...
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Lack of biological knowledge of invasive species is recognised as a major factor contributing to eradication failure. Management needs to be informed by a site-specific understanding of the invasion system. Here, we describe targeted research designed to inform the potential eradication of the invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes on Nu'...
Article
Climate change, comprising an increase in carbon dioxide levels coupled with elevated temperature, may favor invasive plants, as they possess traits that will facilitate adaptation to a new climate. In particular, alien plants of subtropical origin introduced to a colder region are expected to increase the number and size of their populations and s...
Article
Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to...
Article
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Overlap in the form of sexual signals such as pheromones raises the possibility of reproductive interference by invasive species on similar, yet naive native species. Here, we test the potential for reproductive interference through heterospecific mate attraction and subsequent predation of males by females of a sexually cannibalistic invasive pray...
Article
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Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are a widespread invasive species, and cause biotic disturbance. This study evaluated the impacts associated with ground disturbance by feral pigs in the North Island of New Zealand. Exclosure cages were erected over feral pig-disturbed ground and visually undisturbed ground (the latter as controls). Buried resin bags and li...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Classical biocontrol is frequently used in the management of invasive weeds but how rapidly invasive weeds can evolve in response to their re-associated natural enemies is largely unknown. The wild parsnip, Pastinaca sativa, is a Eurasian species widely distributed across North America as an invasive weed. This plant h...
Article
Invasive soil-borne pathogens are a major threat to forest ecosystems worldwide. The newly discovered soil pathogen, Phytophthora 'taxon Agathis' (PTA), is a serious threat to endemic kauri (Agathis australis: Araucar-iaceae) in New Zealand. This study examined the potential for feral pigs to act as vectors of PTA. We investigated whether snouts an...
Article
Full-text available
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that cannibalism should be more likely to arise if close relatives can be avoided, suggesting that cannibalistic species will possess mechanisms for minimizing predation on kin. Juvenile Miomantis caffra are good candidates for the possession of such traits because; (1) groups of siblings hatch together into the sa...
Article
When plant species invade new areas, they can escape from specialist enemies and thereby reduce investment in chemical defense. Enemy release may have other impacts on plant chemistry; in the absence of specialists, plants may be able to increase production of volatiles that enhance attractiveness to pollinators. In the United States (US), the intr...
Conference Paper
Wild parsnips in North America have been associated with a detrimental florivore, Depressaria pastinacella, the parsnip webworm, for over a century. In 2004, webworms were discovered in New Zealand (NZ), an area with parsnip populations that have been free from herbivory since the 1800s. We predict that escape from and subsequent reassociation with...
Article
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), is an invasive species that has been associated with various negative impacts in native communities around the world. These impacts, as for other invasive ants, are principally towards native ant species, and impacts on below-ground processes such as decomposition remain largely unexplored. We investiga...
Article
Full-text available
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), is a highly invasive global pest. It has been just over twenty years since Argentine ants were fi rst discovered in New Zealand. Through the result of human-mediated dispersal, they are now relatively widespread, but patchily distributed, in many North Island towns and cities, and also in several locati...
Article
The direct and indirect interactions of invasive ants with plants, insect herbivores, and Hemiptera are complex. While ant and Hemiptera interactions with native plants have been well studied, the effects of invasive ant–scale insect mutualisms on the reproductive output of invasive weeds have not. The study system consisted of Argentine ants (Line...
Article
Full-text available
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that cannibalism should be more likely to arise if close relatives can be avoided, suggesting that cannibalistic species will possess mechanisms for minimizing predation on kin. Juvenile Miomantis caffra are good candidates for the possession of such traits because; (1) groups of siblings hatch together into the sa...
Article
Effective sampling and detection plays an important role in the surveillance and management of invasive species. Invasive ants are prime candidates for imperfect detection because of their small size, cryptic nature and also because of their strong association with human transportation around the globe. We examined site occupancy, colonization-exti...
Article
Las aves frugívoras pueden ser capaces de reducir el costo de procesar semillas descartándolas, seleccionando frutos que tengan una alta relación fruto-semilla o eligiendo frutos en los cuales las semillas estén empaquetadas de modo que el sistema digestivo del frugívoro pueda evacuarlas más rapidamente. Es probable que una preferencia de los fruto...
Article
Seed packaging is one fruit characteristic that may influence post-ingestional fruit processing in avian frugivores. We tested the response of a facultative frugivore, the Silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), to fruit containing different forms of seed packaging. Wild-caught, captive Silvereyes were presented with artificial fruit containing either one...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous ant species are being transported around globe through international trade, many of which become invasive. To mitigate the potential impacts of invasive ant species, an assessment system is needed which is simple, can be tailored for specific-user and regional requirements, and has the potential to integrate a variety of additional informa...
Article
Full-text available
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, was first found in New Zealand in 1990. At present, its distribution is predominantly in towns and cities in northern New Zealand, although its presence is increas-ingly being reported from new locations. Its distribution in many of these new locations cannot be explained by natural spread, but by human mediat...
Article
Abstract The effectiveness of avian fruit consumers as seed dispersers of fleshy-fruited plants was studied in a temperate woodland community. As a consequence of the short and overlapping fruiting phenologies of fleshy-fruited plant species in temperate regions of Australia, there are very few avian species that are true specialist frugivores. The...