Margaret Carroll

Margaret Carroll
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | CDC · National Center for Health Statistics

MSPH

About

144
Publications
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Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Objective-This report presents trends in mean weight, recumbent length, height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents in the United States from 1999 through 2018.
Article
Based on nationally representative anthropometric data, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has published reference tables on the distribution of various body measurements for the U.S. population (1-5). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data are the primary source of body measurement information for the U.S. pop...
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Public health surveillance of obesity describes changes over time and identifies subgroups at risk of obesity-related consequences. We analyzed trends, stratified by race and Hispanic origin, in high weight for length, obesity, and severe obesity in the US from 1999 to 2018.
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Fast food has been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (1). In 2011-2012, children and adolescents aged 2-19 years consumed on average 12.4% of their daily calories from fast food on a given day (2). This report presents 2015-2018 estimates of the percentage of calories consumed from fast food o...
Article
Obesity is associated with serious health risks (1). Severe obesity further increases the risk of obesity-related complications, such as coronary heart disease and end-stage renal disease (2,3). From 1999-2000 through 2015-2016, a significantly increasing trend in obesity was observed (4). This report provides the most recent national data for 2017...
Article
Differences by nativity status for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been previously reported. Recent research has focused on understanding how other acculturation factors, such as length of residence, affect health behaviors and outcomes. This study examines the association between CVD risk factors and nativity/length of US residence....
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Objectives-Guidelines for lowering cholesterol have focused on total and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although the emphasis remains on LDL-C, more attention is now being given to apolipoprotein B (apo B) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). This report presents trends in mean apo B, non-HDL-C, and LDL-C in adults...
Article
Objective-This report presents the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, total diabetes, and prediabetes among adults aged 20 and over in Los Angeles County and the United States in 1999-2006 and 2007-2014. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, total diabetes, and prediabetes in 2007-2014 are presented by age, sex, and race and Hi...
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Background: Daily flossing prevalence was determined among adults ≥30 years old in the United States, by demographic and risk factors for periodontal disease, including current tobacco use and diabetes. Methods: Data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed for 8,356 adults. Flossing prevalence was estimate...
Article
Importance Differences in obesity by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin among US adults have been reported, but differences by urbanization level have been less studied. Objectives To provide estimates of obesity by demographic characteristics and urbanization level and to examine trends in obesity prevalence by urbanization level. Design,...
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Importance Differences in childhood obesity by demographics and urbanization have been reported. Objective To present data on obesity and severe obesity among US youth by demographics and urbanization and to investigate trends by urbanization. Design, Setting, and Participants Measured weight and height among youth aged 2 to 19 years in the 2001-...
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Obesity prevalence has been increasing since the 1980s among adults, but among youth, prevalence plateaued between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014.¹,2 We analyzed trends in obesity prevalence among US youth and adults between 2007-2008 and 2015-2016 in order to determine recent changes.
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Obesity prevalence varies by income and education level, although patterns might differ among adults and youths (1-3). Previous analyses of national data showed that the prevalence of childhood obesity by income and education of household head varied across race/Hispanic origin groups (4). CDC analyzed 2011-2014 data from the National Health and Nu...
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Studies have suggested that obesity prevalence varies by income and educational level, although patterns might differ between high-income and low-income countries (1-3). Previous analyses of U.S. data have shown that the prevalence of obesity varied by income and education, but results were not consistent by sex and race/Hispanic origin (4). Using...
Article
Obesity is associated with serious health risks. Monitoring obesity prevalence is relevant for public health programs that focus on reducing or preventing obesity. Between 2003–2004 and 2013–2014, there were no significant changes in childhood obesity prevalence, but adults showed an increasing trend. This report provides the most recent national e...
Article
High total cholesterol (≥ 240 mg/dL) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (< 40 mg/dL) levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of U.S. deaths (1–3). From 2007–2008 to 2013–2014, declining trends were observed in high total and low HDL cholesterol prevalence (4). This report provides 2015–2016 estimates fo...
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What is already known about this topic? Approximately one third of U.S. adults have hypertension, and only about half of these adults have their hypertension under control. Hypertension is an important and common risk factor for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death in adults. What is added by this report? The examination com...
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Background The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) disseminates information on a broad range of health topics through diverse publications. These publications must rely on clear and transparent presentation standards that can be broadly and efficiently applied. Standards are particularly important for large, cross-cutting reports where est...
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Background and objectives: The surveillance of children's growth reflects a population's nutritional status and risk for adverse outcomes. This study aimed to describe trends in length-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and early childhood weight gain among US children aged 6 to 23 months. Methods: We analyzed NHANES data from 1976-1980...
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Total cholesterol (TC) levels, triglyceride levels, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are linked to coronary heart disease.¹ Between 1999 and 2010, mean TC, triglycerides, and LDL-C levels declined in the United States, regardless of cholesterol-lowering medication use.² We used 2013/2014 National Health and Nutrition Examinati...
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Importance Previous analyses of obesity trends among children and adolescents showed an increase between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000, but no change between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012, except for a significant decline among children aged 2 to 5 years. Objectives To provide estimates of obesity and extreme obesity prevalence for children and adolescents for...
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Importance Between 1980 and 2000, the prevalence of obesity increased significantly among adult men and women in the United States; further significant increases were observed through 2003-2004 for men but not women. Subsequent comparisons of data from 2003-2004 with data through 2011-2012 showed no significant increases for men or women. Objective...
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Introduction: This study evaluated recent trends in the prevalence of coronary heart disease in the U.S. population aged ≥40 years. Methods: A total of 21,472 adults aged ≥40 years from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the analysis. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Coronary heart disease included...
Article
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among adults in the United States. To improve the cardiovascular health of the U.S. population, clinical practice guidelines recommend screening children and adolescents for risk factors associated with CVD, including abnormal blood cholesterol levels. This report provides 2011-2014 estimates...
Chapter
• In the late 1970s, the prevalence of childhood obesity was the same in Canada and the United States, but recently the prevalence is 4.5 percentage points higher in the United States than in Canada. • No change has been seen over the last decade in the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in Canada or the United States. • The preva...
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Key findings: Hypertension is a public health challenge in the United States because it directly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (1). National and regional health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, the Million Hearts Initiative, and the Community Preventive Services Task Force, have sought to increase public awareness of the...
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Key findings: Obesity is associated with health risks (1,2). Monitoring the prevalence of obesity is relevant for public health programs that focus on reducing or preventing obesity. No significant changes were seen in either adult or childhood obesity prevalence in the United States between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012 (3). This report provides the mo...
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Key findings: High levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") are risk factors for coronary heart disease (1-3). During 2009-2010, 13.4% of adults had high total cholesterol and 21.3% had low HDL cholesterol (4). This report presents estimates of the percentage of adults with h...
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The percentage of adults aged 20 and over with elevated triglyceride (150 mg/dL or more) declined from 33.3% during 2001-2004 to 25.1% during 2009-2012. Percentages with elevated triglyceride decreased for both men and women-among men, from 37.3% for 2001-2004 to 28.7% for 2009-2012, and among women, from 29.3% for 2001-2004 to 21.5% for 2009-2012....
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Recent national data suggest there were improvements in serum lipid concentrations among US children and adolescents between 1988 and 2010 but an increase in or stable blood pressure (BP) during a similar period. To describe the prevalence of and trends in dyslipidemia and adverse BP among US children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrit...
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence among U.S. children 1-5 years-old was assessed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval) of IgG was 20.7% (14.4-28.2%), IgM 1.1% (0.4-2.4%), and low IgG avidity 3.6% (1.7-6.6%), corresponding to a 17.3% (10.1-26.7%) prevalence of recent in...
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More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010. To provide the most recent national estimates of childhood obesity, analyze trends in childhood obesity between 2003 and 2012, and provide detailed obesity trend analyses among adults. Weight and he...
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Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. One-quarter (25.6%) of non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over had hypertension in 2011-2012. Approximately 1 in 10 non-Hispanic Asian adults had high total cholesterol. Just over 14% of non-Hispanic Asian adults had low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Jus...
Chapter
The prevalence of obesity among adults in the United States doubled between 1980 and 2000 and the prevalence remains high at over one third of the population. Obesity has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in the USA and globally. In 2008, an estimated 502 million adults worldwide were obese. Obesity is estimated based on body mass in...
Chapter
Between 2010 and 2050, the American older adult population aged 65 years and older is projected to grow from 40.2 million to 88.5 million. Similar to estimates in the entire adult population, in 2007-2010 over a third of adults aged 65 years and older were obese, which represents over 13 million adults. Because both aging and obesity contribute to...
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Key findings: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. More than one-third (34.9%) of adults were obese in 2011-2012. In 2011-2012, the prevalence of obesity was higher among middle-aged adults (39.5%) than among younger (30.3%) or older (35.4%) adults. The overall prevalence of obesity did not differ between men...
Article
Background-Analytic guide lines were first created in 1996 to assist data users in analyzing data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),conducted from 1988 to 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES became a continuous annual survey in 1999, with d...
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Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980, 1988-1994, 2001-2004, and 2007-2010 The prevalence of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL-C, decreased from 59% to 27% from the late 1970s through 2007-2010. The percentage of adults using cholesterol-lowering medication increased from 5% to 23% from the late 19...
Article
Serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) contribute to atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Between the periods 1988-1994 and 1999-2002, mean TC and mean LDL-C declined in adults. During this time, there was an increase in the percentage of adults receiving lipid-lowering medications. Geometric mean tri...
Article
KEY FINDINGS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010 The overall age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults aged 18 and over was 28.6% in 2009-2010; there was no significant change from 2007-2008 (29.7%). Among adults with hypertension in 2009-2010, 81.9% were aware of their hypertension. Among adul...
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Before estimating smoothed percentiles of weight-for-height and BMI-for-age to construct the WHO growth charts, WHO excluded observations that were considered to represent unhealthy weights for height. The objective was to estimate the effects of similar data trimming on empirical percentiles from the CDC growth-chart data set relative to the smoot...
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KEY FINDINGS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010 More than one-third of older adults aged 65 and over were obese in 2007-2010. Obesity prevalence was higher among those aged 65‒74 compared with those aged 75 and over in both men and women. The prevalence of obesity in women aged 65-74 was higher than in women...
Article
Objectives - Precise, reliable blood pressure (BP) measurement, whether in clinical practice or in epidemiological research, is essential for diagnosis and data interpretation. The study objectives were to compare differences in the prevalence and control of hypertension among adults aged 18 years and older using two standard devices: the mercury s...
Article
For more than 20 years, primary prevention of coronary heart disease has included strategies intended to improve overall serum lipid concentrations among youths. To examine trends in lipid concentrations among youths from 1988-1994 through 2007-2010. Cross-sectional analysis of serum lipid concentrations among 16,116 youths aged 6 to 19 years who p...
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Background: Data collection for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) comprises three levels: a household screener, an interview, and a physical examination. The primary objective of the screener is to determine whether any household members are eligible for the interview an dexamination. Eligibility is determined by preset...
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To carry out the first large-scale population study of the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the US, which is needed for public health planning purposes because of recent improvements in medical therapy and diagnostic testing for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The national prevalence of HLA-B27 was determined as part of the 2009 US National Health and Nutriti...
Article
High levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") are risk factors for coronary heart disease (1–5). To identify persons who may be at risk for developing coronary heart disease, adults are advised to have their cholesterol checked at least once every 5 years (i.e., to be screened...
Article
Approximately 16% of children and adolescents’ total caloric intakes came from added sugars. Boys consumed more added sugars than girls. Preschool-aged children consumed the fewest calories from added sugars. Although girls consumed a smaller absolute amount of calories from added sugars than boys, their intakes were not that different from boys wh...
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Between 1980 and 1999, the prevalence of adult obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) increased in the United States and the distribution of BMI changed. More recent data suggested a slowing or leveling off of these trends. To estimate the prevalence of adult obesity from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and comp...
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The prevalence of childhood obesity increased in the 1980s and 1990s but there were no significant changes in prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 in the United States. To present the most recent estimates of obesity prevalence in US children and adolescents for 2009-2010 and to investigate trends in obesity prevalence and body mass index (BM...
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The most recent national data on obesity prevalence among U.S. adults, adolescents, and children show that more than one-third of adults and almost 17% of children and adolescents were obese in 2009–2010. Differences in prevalence between men and women diminished between 1999–2000 and 2009–2010, with the prevalence of obesity among men reaching the...
Chapter
Published reports based on different definitions indicate that in Canada, Mexico and the United States childhood overweight and obesity have increased dramatically since 1980, with the US leading the way. The prevalence of overweight, using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definitions (Cole et al. 2000) in 7–13 year old girls doubled in...
Article
In 2007–2008, among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years, 77.7% of boys and 67.4% of girls reported daily consumption of milk. Fewer than 10% of children and adolescents reported never consuming milk over the preceding 30 days. Among children and adolescents who reported milk consumption, two-percent milk was reported as the usual type of milk...
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BMI is one factor that is used to determine a child's eligibility for lipid screening and treatment. BMI, which is an indirect measure of body fat, may inadequately represent the biological effect of body fat percentage on lipid concentrations. We examined the relation between directly measured body fat percentage and lipid concentrations in a repr...
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Los Angeles County has the largest population of any county in the nation. Population-based estimates of health conditions for Los Angeles County are based primarily on telephone surveys, which are known to underestimate conditions of public health importance. This report presents the prevalence of selected health conditions for civilian noninstitu...
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One-half of the U.S. population consumes sugar drinks on any given day, and 25% consumes at least 200 kcal (more than one 12-oz can of cola). Sugar-drink consumption differs by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and income. For example, males consume more than females, and teenagers and young adults consume more than other age groups. Among adults, non-...
Article
This study assesses (1) the prevalence of ever having a blood test for cholesterol, (2) current practices of following advice from a health care professional to manage high cholesterol, and (3) the association between total serum cholesterol level and following the advice. A total of 17,260 adults aged 20 and older participated in the interview and...
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Obesity is a public health challenge throughout the world. Ongoing monitoring of trends in obesity is important to assess interventions aimed at preventing or reducing the burden of obesity. Since the 1960s, measured height and weight have been collected in the United States as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)....
Article
In the United States, the prevalence of obesity among 2-19 year old children and adolescents tripled between 1980 and 1999. Between 1999 and 2008, however, the rate of increase slowed and the prevalence did not increase significantly. This chapter presents a review of published results on the obesity prevalence and trends between 1999-2000 and 2007...
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Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. Among men, obesity prevalence is generally similar at all income levels, however, among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men those with higher income are more likely to be obese than those with low income. Higher income women are less likely to be obese than low incom...
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Among non-Hispanic white children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity increases as income decreases, yet the majority of non-Hispanic white children and adolescents who are obese do not live below 130% of the poverty level. In fact, overall, the majority of obese children do not live below 130% of the poverty level. All boys and girls and no...
Article
To evaluate the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment on serum inflammatory markers using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004). A total of 9,128 individuals aged 40 and older participated in the NHANES. The inflammatory markers studied were white blood cell counts (WBC), high sensitiv...
Article
In Reply: In response to Dr Main and colleagues, we provide a Table that shows the age-standardized prevalence of grade 2 obesity (BMI of 35-<40), grade 3 obesity (BMI of ≥40), and grades 2 and 3 obesity (BMI of ≥35) among adults over the survey periods covered by our article. There were no statistically significant increases over the period 1999 t...
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Biological variation consists of within-person (WP) and between-person (BP) variation. These components of biological variation are used to set analytical goals for imprecision and bias, evaluate serial changes for individual analytes, and assess the clinical utility of population-based reference intervals. Estimates of WP coefficients of variation...
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The prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents in the United States appeared to plateau between 1999 and 2006. To provide the most recent estimates of high BMI among children and adolescents and high weight for recumbent length among infants and toddlers and to analyze trends in prevalence between 1999 and 2008. The Nat...
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The prevalence of obesity increased in the United States between 1976-1980 and 1988-1994 and again between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000. To examine trends in obesity from 1999 through 2008 and the current prevalence of obesity and overweight for 2007-2008. Analysis of height and weight measurements from 5555 adult men and women aged 20 years or older ob...