Margaret A. Boden

Margaret A. Boden
University of Sussex

About

116
Publications
68,831
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5,129
Citations
Citations since 2016
1 Research Item
1866 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a set of five ethical principles, together with seven high-level messages, as a basis for responsible robotics. The Principles of Robotics were drafted in 2010 and published online in 2011. Since then the principles have influenced, and continue to influence, a number of initiatives in robot ethics but have not, to date, been fo...
Article
Human artists typically have a personal signature, by which their individual authorship can be recognized. Modernist artists tried to avoid such idiosyncracies, focussing on abstract structure instead-and welcomed computers, accordingly. But even those computer artists who have deliberately tried to lose their signature have not managed to do so. P...
Article
The problem addressed by Piaget in terms of equilibration is the development of harmonious novelties, wherein genuinely new structures are created out of older ones without any impairment of the overall integration of the system. He posited a continuity between biological and psychological systems, such that structurally similar answers exist for e...
Article
〉 Context • Radical Constructivism is an issue that deeply divides the cognitive science community: most researchers reject it, but an increasing number do not. 〉 Problem • Constructivists stress that our knowledge starts from experience. Some ("ontic" constructivists) deny the existence of a mind-independent world, while others ("radical" construc...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to consider the Turing test (TT) in relation to artistic creativity. Design/methodology/approach Considers the TT in the domain of art rather than the usual context. Examines the TT in music and gives examples that involve exploratory creativity. Findings The TT for computer art has been passed “behaviourally”...
Article
It’s sometimes said, and even more often assumed, that life is necessary for mind. If so, and if A-Life promises to throw light on the nature of life as such, then A-Life is in principle highly relevant to the philosophy of mind and cognitive science. However, very few philosophers have attempted to argue for the relation between life and mind. It’...
Chapter
Full-text available
Spaces exist in the mind as well as on land and sea. They cannot be seen, or traversed by ship or on foot, not even with seven-league boots. For they are abstract spaces, or styles of thinking. But although the geographer's methods of dealing with terrestrial space do not reliably apply to the conceptual realm, there are other methods with which to...
Article
Full-text available
Clarifying what creativity is the first step towards answering the question: could a computer be creative?Margaret Boden is Research Professor of Cognitive Science, in the Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Sussex. How to Cite This Article Link to This Abstract Blog This Article Copy and paste this link Highlight all http://dx.doi.org...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity isn't magical. It's an aspect of normal human intelligence, not a special faculty granted to a tiny elite. There are three forms: combinational, exploratory, and transformational. All three can be modeled by AI - in some cases, with impressive results. AI techniques underlie various types of computer art. Whether computers could "really"...
Article
Full-text available
There are various forms of what's sometimes called generative art, or computer art. This paper distinguishes the major categories and asks whether the appropriate aesthetic criteria—and the locus of creativity—are the same in each case.
Article
This is the author's reply to three very different reviews of Mind As Machine: A history of Cognitive Science (Vols 1–2). Two of the reviews, written by Paul Thagard and Jerry Feldman, engage with the book seriously. The third, by Noam Chomsky, does not. It is a sadly unscholarly piece, guaranteed to mislead its readers about both the tone and the...
Article
Father of artificial intelligence in Britain.
Article
Computer art is often seen as inauthentic, even strictly impossible, because it lacks certain essential features of genuine art. For instance, it's said that computers don't have emotions; that any work of art is a human communication rooted in human experience; that computer art isn't unique, because a program could churn out its products indefini...
Article
John Ziman-- the much-missed-- reminds us that 'no man is an island', and takes us to task for working from an individualistic theoretical base. That 'us' includes nearly all social scientists, and most Anglo-American philosophers too. For sure, it includes cognitive scientists, who theorize people in terms of concepts drawn from cybernetics and/or...
Article
Wonder is a root of the religious experience, and the desire to understand drives science. If wonder and understanding are fundamentally opposed, religion and science will be also. But only if wonder is limited to the contemplation of magic or mysteries is religion in principle opposed to science. The aim of science is to explain how something is p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss how a cognitive concept, causality, can be used for the conceptual underpinning of Virtual Reality Art installations. Causality plays an important role in our construction of reality and, as such, it makes sense to use it as ...
Conference Paper
This panel invites four speakers to discuss the history of creativity and cognition. Phil Husbands talks about the pioneering group that played an important role in the emergence of cybernetics in the UK - The Ratio Club; Margaret Boden describes the history of creativity research in AI; Catherine Mason presents her research into the role that inst...
Article
To recognize alien life, we would have to be clear about the defining criteria of "life". Metabolism - in other words, biochemical fine-tuning - is one of these criteria. Three senses of metabolism are distinguished. The weakest allows strong artificial life (A-life): virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodi...
Article
Where is philosophy at the year 2000 and where should it be going in the new millennium? Based on the Royal Institute of Philosophy Annual Lecture Series 1999–2000, this book is written by leading international philosophers and covers the broad range of philosophical enquiry including ethics, aesthetics, philosophy of mind and consciousness, philos...
Article
Full-text available
Indicative theories of perception encourage fine artists to look down their noses at the crafts, whose products are potentially useful. On this view, use - and action in general - is essentially distinct from information, although it can be guided by it. And information (largely drawn from memory) is the name of the art-game. By contrast, an enacti...
Article
Full-text available
Life is defined by Maturana and Varela as a type of self-organization: autopoiesis in the physical space. This resembles the concept of metabolism , which itself is typically included in definitions of life. Three senses of metabolism are distinguished. If life depends on either auto-poiesis or metabolism (in the third sense), then strong A-Life is...
Article
Full-text available
The question whether connectionism offers a new way of looking at the cognitive architecture, or if its main contribution is as an implementational account of the classical (symbol) view, has been extensively debated for the last decade. Of special interest in this debate has been to achieve tasks which easily can be explained within the symbolic f...
Article
Metabolism is a criterion of life. Three senses are distinguished. The weakest allows strong A-Life: virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodies, are classed as 'alive.' The second excludes strong A-Life but allows that some non-biochemical A-Life robots could be classed as alive. The third, which stresses th...
Article
Fodor and Pylyshyn argued that connectionist models could not be used to exhibit and explain a phenomenon that they termed systematicity, and which they explained by possession of composition syntax and semantics for mental representations and structure sensitivity of mental processes. This inability of connectionist models, they argued, was partic...
Article
Creativity is a fundamental feature of human intelligence, and a challenge for AI. AI techniques can be used to create new ideas in three ways: by producing novel combinations of familiar ideas; by exploring the potential of conceptual spaces; and by making transformations that enable the generation of previously impossible ideas. AI will have less...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial life (ALife) is the attempt to create artificial instances of life in a variety of media, but primarily within the digital computer. As such, the field brings together computationally-minded biologists and biologically-minded computer scientists. I argue that this new field is filled with interesting philosophical issues. However, there...
Chapter
Full-text available
Herb Simon’s paper, like his work over preceding decades, offers a rich source of ideas about creativity, and the computer modelling thereof. In this brief comment I want to focus on what he says about discovery being a social enterprise.
Article
Creativity involves coming up with something novel, something different. And this new idea, to be interesting, must be intelligible. No matter how different it is, one must be able to understand it in terms of what he knew before. As for agents, their potential uses include helping by suggesting, identifying, and even evaluating differences between...
Article
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 3.2 (1996) 135-136 The theoretical work of Wright, Sloman, and Beaudoin is a significant contribution to our understanding of the nature and function of emotions, and potentially also to therapeutic method. Their message that emotions, as controlling and scheduling mechanisms, are essential to any complex intell...
Article
The first 50 years of AI are reviewed, and current controversies outlined. Scientific disputes include disagreements over the best research methodology, including classical AI, connectionism, hybrid systems, and situated and evolutionary robotics. Philosophical disputes concern (for instance) whether computation is necessary and sufficient for ment...
Article
The reviewers of The Creative Mind (henceforth TCM) have raised a host of interesting points. Most fall into seven groups: the definition of creativity; the distinction between H-creativity and P-creativity; the role of the social context; the role of evaluation; the four Lovelace questions; specific computational mechanisms used for modelling crea...
Article
Devotees of the humanities expect to be surprised. An arresting metaphor or poetic image, an unpredicted twist of the plot, a novel style of music, painting, or dance...all these unexpected things amaze and delight us. Scientists, too, appreciate the shock of a new idea--the double helix, the jumping gene, or the benzene-ring. Indeed, unpredictabil...
Article
Karmiloff-Smith describes behavioral changes, attributed to representational redescription (RR), occuring in a fixed order. For example, the shape and size of parts of a drawing can be altered before the shape of the whole, and before any parts can be deleted, inserted, or re-oriented. A theory of RR should explain this sequencing (and might illumi...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI), at its inception, offered new concepts for formulating psychological theories and a new methodology for testing them. It also promised an `existence proof' that intelligence could be implemented in a physical system. These promises are still controversial, both in AI and in philosophy. Some researchers favour connectio...
Article
What is creativity? One new idea may be creative, whereas another is merely new: What's the difference? And how is creativity possible? These questions about human creativity can be answered, at least in outline, using computational concepts. There are two broad types of creativity, improbabilist and impossibilist. Improbabilist creativity involves...
Article
Creativity involves coming up with something novel, something different. And this new idea, in order to be interesting, must be intelligible. No matter how different it is, we must be able to understand it in terms of what we knew before. As for agents, their potential uses include helping us by suggesting, identifying, and even evaluating differen...
Article
Some readers may have seen the re-runs, on BBC-TV recently, of the ‘Face to Face’ interviews done by John Freeman in the 1960s. One of these was with the singer Adam Faith, then a startlingly beautiful young man with the grace to be amazed at being chosen to be sandwiched between Martin Luther King and (if I remember aright) J. K. Galbraith. The re...
Article
Argues that computers and creativity make interesting partners for psychological, technological, and educational projects. Computers can sometimes do creative things, and some can help humans to do so. Creativity can be scientifically understood with the help of computational concepts. A computational approach can give the psychologist a way of see...
Article
In commemorating Piaget we should not remember his psychology alone. He hoped for a biologically grounded epistemology, which would require interdisciplinary effort. This paper mentions some recent research in biology, embryology, and philosophy that is consonant with Piaget's epistemological aims. The authors do not cite Piaget as a prime intellec...
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Article
Some of the concerns people have about AI are: its misuses, effect on unemployment, and its potential for dehumanising. Contrary to what most people believe and fear, AI can lead to respect for the enormous power and complexity of the human mind. It is potentially very dangerous for users in the public domain to impute much more inferential power t...
Conference Paper
Progress in artificial intelligence (AI) is expected in a variety of areas over the next decade. This article discusses amongst others, robotics, low-level vision, natural language processing and knowledge-based ‘expert’ systems and their uses for education, science and technology. What should be closely and critically monitored is the ignorance an...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present a type inference method for Prolog programs. The new idea is to describe a superset of the success set by associating a type substitution (an assignment of sets of ground terms to variables) with each head of definite clause. ...
Book
Teachers of astronomy often misinterpret the reliability of Piaget's conclusions about concrete and abstract reasoning for young students. This misinterpretation can result in interesting material being excluded from teaching. The discussion here gives some references and broader conclusions evaluating Piaget's work and providing alternatives.
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the study of how to write programs enabling computers to do things that would require intelligence if done by people, and it could engage with social forecasting in two ways. First, it is part of the overall social‐technological context within which forecasters work. Commercial Al‐programs will affect markets and lif...
Article
Artificial intelligence provides a number of ideas about the description and explanation of action and perception that might be useful to ethologists seeeking a systematic comparison of the psychology of different species. For example, studies of planning, of movement perception, of different forms of computation and representation, and of “naive p...
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Article
The much-discussed issues of privacy, unemployment, leisure, centralization of political power, and military misuse of technology are raised by work in artificial intelligence no less than by applications exploiting the `brute force¿ of computers. But this paper focuses specifically on matters associated with the social use of intelligent machines...
Article
The truth can be dangerous. It is because they realise this that the Roman Catholic Church forbid cremation. Cremation is, of course, theologically permissible, and in times of epidemic the Church allows it. But in normal times it is forbidden — Why? The reason is that the Church fears the influence of the image associated with it. It is difficult...
Article
Intentionality is characteristic of many psychological phenomena. It is commonly held by philosophers that intentionality cannot be ascribed to purely physical systems. This view does not merely deny that psychological language can be reduced to physiological language. It also claims that the appropriateness of some psychological explanation exclud...
Article
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