Maren Carbon

Maren Carbon
Zucker Hillside Hospital · Psych Res

MD

About

80
Publications
8,909
Reads
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5,349
Citations
Citations since 2016
10 Research Items
2229 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - August 2011
NYU Langone Medical Center
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2001 - September 2011
The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2001 - August 2011
The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Although attenuated psychotic symptoms often occur for the first time during adolescence, studies focusing on adolescents are scarce. Attenuated psychotic symptoms form the criteria to identify individuals at increased clinical risk of developing psychosis. The study of individuals with these symptoms has led to the release of the DSM...
Article
Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating illness that often starts at an early age. Prevention of first and subsequent mood episodes, which are usually preceded by a period characterized by subthreshold symptoms is important. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics including severity and duration of subsyndromal symptoms acr...
Article
Objective: There is no standard method for assessing symptoms of the prodrome to bipolar disorder (BD), which has limited progress toward early identification and intervention. We aimed to validate the Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Scale-Abbreviated Screen for Patients (BPSS-AS-P), a brief self-report derived from the validated, clinician-rated Bipolar...
Article
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) risk with D2/serotonin receptor antagonists or D2 receptor partial agonists (second‐generation antipsychotics, SGAs) is considered significantly lower than with D2 antagonists (first‐generation antipsychotics, FGAs). As some reports questioned this notion, we meta‐analyzed randomized controlled studies (RCTs) to estimate the...
Article
Background: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) rates with second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment were estimated to be considerably lower than with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). As recent data have questioned this notion, we conducted a meta-analysis on contemporaneous TD prevalence. Methods: We conducted an electronic database search (Janua...
Article
Background: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) rates with second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment were estimated to be considerably lower compared with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). As recent data have questioned this notion, we conducted a meta-analysis on TD incidence during randomized controlled studies. Methods: We conducted an electroni...
Article
Objective: Comparison of tardive dyskinesia (TD) prevalence during contemporaneous treatment with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and/or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Data sources: PubMed/MEDLINE/Google Scholar search (January 1, 2000-September 30, 2015) without language restriction using (tardive dyskinesia OR tardive) AND (an...
Article
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Background: Although caregiver burden is relevant to the outcome for psychiatrically ill youth, most studies have focused on caregiver burden in the community or research settings. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the subjective caregiver strain (SCS) at the time of presentation of youth to a pediatric psychiatric emergency room (PPER), assessing...
Article
Importance Antipsychotics are used increasingly in youth for nonpsychotic and off-label indications, but cardiometabolic adverse effects and (especially) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk have raised additional concern.Objective To assess T2DM risk associated with antipsychotic treatment in youth.Data Sources Systematic literature search of P...
Article
Objectives: DSM-5 conceptualized attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) as self-contained rather than as a risk syndrome, including it under "Conditions for Further Study," but also as a codable/billable condition in the main section. Since many major mental disorders emerge during adolescence, we assessed the frequency and characteristics of APS in a...
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View largeDownload slide Although primary dystonia is defined by motor manifestations, non-motor involvement is increasingly recognized. Sako et al. use fMRI and DTI to study brain circuits associated with motion perception in patients with DYT1 dystonia. Results confirm that circuit abnormalities in primary dystonia are not limited to primary mot...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizoph...
Article
Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) effects in youth were monitored to quantify extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and to identify risk profiles for treatment-emergent EPS. Data were analyzed for the nonrandomized, prospective Second-generation Antipsychotic Treatment Indications, Effectiveness and Tolerability in Youth (SATIETY) inception cohort...
Article
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The search for clinical outcome predictors for schizophrenia is as old as the field of psychiatry. However, despite a wealth of large, longitudinal studies into prognostic factors, only very few clinically useful outcome predictors have been identified. The goal of future treatment is to either affect modifiable risk factors, or use nonmodifiable f...
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Since currently available antipsychotic medications predominantly treat hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thoughts and behavior, and related agitation/aggression, attention has traditionally been focused on managing positive symptoms. However, prominent negative symptoms and clinically relevant cognitive impairment affect approximately 40% an...
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Introduction: Schizophrenia is one of the most serious mental disorders. Its treatment remains challenging, as existing antipsychotic antidopaminergic medications improve only/predominantly positive symptoms, agitation and aggression but have limited/insignificant efficacy for negative and cognitive symptoms, which strongly affect functional outco...
Article
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Dystonia is a brain disorder characterized by abnormal involuntary movements without defining neuropathological changes. The disease is often inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. Individuals with dystonia, whether inherited or sporadic, exhibit striking phenotypic variability, with marked differences in the somatic d...
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Huhn and colleagues1 present impressive work examining the meta-analytic evidence for efficacy of psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for major psychiatric disorders. Performing a “meta-review” of 61 meta-analyses on 21 psychiatric disorders containing 852 trials and 137 126 participants, they present effect sizes for efficacy o...
Article
Objective: The use of early response/nonresponse (ER/ENR) to antipsychotics as a predictor for ultimate response/nonresponse (UR/UNR) may help decrease inefficacious treatment continuation. However, data have been limited to adults, and ER/ENR has only been determined using time-consuming psychopathology rating scales. In the current study, we ass...
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Background: Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods: A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific insti...
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For economic reasons, the generic substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a generic and...
Article
We aimed to review literature on the efficacy and tolerability of psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS). A rationale for pragmatic psychopharmacology in EOS, including dosing, switching and adverse effect monitoring and management, is provided. Three randomized controll...
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Objective: To identify brain regions with metabolic changes in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11-MD) relative to control subjects and to compare metabolic abnormalities in DYT11-MD with those found in other forms of hereditary dystonia and in posthypoxic myoclonus. Methods: [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET was performed in 6 subjects with DYT11-MD (...
Article
Cognitive and behavioral problems are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), with the prevalence of dementia in patients with PD conservatively estimated to range between 24% and 31%. Functional brain imaging with PET and fMRI has contributed greatly to the understanding of cognitive disturbances in PD and are reviewed in this chapter. T...
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Abnormalities in motor sequence learning have been observed in non-manifesting carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation. Indeed, motor sequence learning deficits in these subjects have been associated with increased cerebellar activation during task performance. In the current study, we determined whether similar changes are also present in clinicall...
Article
To identify metabolic brain networks that are associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We utilized [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and PET imaging to examine brain metabolism in 12 unmedicated patients with TS and 12 age-matched controls. We utilized a spatial covariance analysis to identify 2 disease-rela...
Article
Primary dystonia has traditionally been viewed as a basal ganglia disorder, but recent studies suggest that the cerebellum plays a crucial role in the disease. Primary dystonia is associated with several genotypes. Among those, DYT1 and DYT6 are inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance. Extensive structural and functional ima...
Article
Impaired cortical inhibiton and maladaptive cortical plasticity are functional hallmarks of sporadic focal dystonias. Whether or not these mechanisms translate to generalized dystonias and whether these features reflect state or trait characteristics are topics of research in hereditary dystonias. We present a series of studies using a multitracer...
Article
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Neurophysiological studies have provided evidence of primary motor cortex hyperexcitability in primary dystonia, but several functional imaging studies suggest otherwise. To address this issue, we measured sensorimotor activation at both the regional and network levels in carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation and in control subjects. We used (15)O...
Article
Impairment of sequence learning is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the time course of this cognitive abnormality is not known. We assessed longitudinal changes in sequence learning performance and associated task-related cerebral blood flow in 13 early stage PD patients who underwent H(2)(15)O PET at baseline and again 2 years later. Ten he...
Article
Full-text available
Dystonia is a brain disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions. It is typically inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. While lacking clear degenerative neuropathology, primary dystonia is thought to involve microstructural and functional changes in neuronal circuitry. In the current study, we u...
Article
Dystonia is a brain disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions. It is typically inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. While lacking clear degenerative neuropathology, primary dystonia is thought to involve microstructural and functional changes in neuronal circuitry. In the current study, we u...
Article
To determine whether changes in D(2) receptor availability are present in carriers of genetic mutations for primary dystonia. Manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 and DYT6 dystonia mutations were scanned with [(11)C] raclopride (RAC) and PET. Measures of D(2) receptor availability in the caudate nucleus and putamen were determined us...
Article
Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is a chronic movement disorder manifested clinically by focal or generalized sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. The most common inherited form of PTD is associated with the DYT1 mutation on chromosome 9q34. A less frequent form is linked to the DYT6 locus on chromosome 8q21-22. Both...
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Cognitive processing is associated with deactivation of the default mode network. The presence of dopaminoceptive neurons in proximity to the medial prefrontal node of this network suggests that this neurotransmitter may modulate deactivation in this region. We therefore used positron emission tomography to measure cerebral blood flow in 15 Parkins...
Article
Full-text available
Overactivity of subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons is a consistent feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is a target of therapy for this disorder. However, the relationship of STN firing rate to regional brain function is not known. We scanned 17 PD patients with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to measure resting glucose metabolism before the i...
Article
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We compared the metabolic and neurovascular effects of levodopa (LD) therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Eleven PD patients were scanned with both [15O]-H2O and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the unmedicated state and during intravenous LD infusion. Images were used to quantify LD-mediated changes in the expression of mo...
Article
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We have found that motor sequence learning and related brain activation is impaired in non-manifesting (nm) carriers of the DYT1 deletion for dystonia. In the present study we used a trial-and-error sequence-learning task in conjunction with an equiperformance study design to identify the neural substrates that support sequence learning in nmDYT1 m...
Article
Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) has been conceptualized as a disorder of the basal ganglia. However, recent data suggest a widespread pathology involving motor control pathways. In this report, we explored whether PTD is associated with abnormal anatomical connectivity within motor control pathways. We used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imagin...
Chapter
Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) has been generally conceptualized as a functional disorder of the basal ganglia and its output. Electrophysiologic studies have revealed abnormal input from the thalamus to the premotor cortex (PMC) attributable to alterations in the activity of pallidal projections to the ventral tier and intralaminar thalamic nuclei...
Article
Idiopathic torsion dystonia and Huntington’s disease represent autosomal dominant inherited hyperkinetic disorders that vary considerably with regard to pathologic mechanisms and clinical penetrance. To study these mechanisms, non-manifesting DYT1 mutation carriers (nmDYT1) and presymptomatic HD gene carriers (p-HD), as well as age-matched controls...
Article
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with increased excitatory activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We sought to inhibit STN output in hemiparkinsonian macaques by transfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). In total, 13 macaques were rendered hemiparkinsonian by right intrac...
Article
Limited data exist concerning the mechanisms that underlie the different motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and their course over time. Our aims were (1) to identify longitudinal changes in PD patients and (2) to determine the neural correlates of the changes in movement initiation and velocity that occur in the course the disease. Thirteen...
Article
The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to an abnormal spatial covariance pattern involving basal ganglia thalamocortical pathways. By contrast, little is known about the functional networks that underlie cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. To identify such patterns, we studied 15 non-demented PD patients using FDG...
Article
Sequence learning, a cognitive task linked to cortico-striatal function, is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). We chose this task as a behavioral paradigm to study the functional architecture of PD in treated and untreated conditions. In our studies, participants were scanned with H(2)(15)O while performing a kinematically controlled motor seque...
Article
Although second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are used increasingly in children and adolescents, data on the effectiveness and safety in pediatric populations are still sparse. Much of the safety information is derived from studies conducted in adults. This derivation is problematic because children and adolescents are exposed to SGAs during a p...
Article
Motor sequence learning is abnormal in presymptomatic Huntington's disease (p-HD). The neural substrates underlying this early manifestation of HD are poorly understood. To study the mechanism of this cognitive abnormality in p-HD, we used positron emission tomography to record brain activity during motor sequence learning in these subjects. Eleven...
Article
Full-text available
Functional neuroimaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provides a valuable technique for detecting regional changes in brain metabolic activity associated with human disease. These techniques have been applied in different dystonic disorders including primary generalized dystonia and do...
Article
We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography to determine a discrete cerebral pattern of abnormal glucose utilization in dopa-responsive dystonia. Network analysis demonstrated that dopa-responsive dystonia is associated with a specific pattern of regional metabolic covariation, characterized by increases in the dorsal midbra...
Article
Radiotracer imaging (RTI) of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is a widely used but controversial biomarker in Parkinson disease (PD). Here the authors review the concepts of biomarker development and the evidence to support the use of four radiotracers as biomarkers in PD: [18F]fluorodopa PET, (+)-[11C]dihydrotetrabenazine PET, [123I]beta-CIT...
Article
To determine whether reduced striatal D2 receptor binding reported in patients with idiopathic torsion dystonia is associated with the genotype, the authors used PET and [11C]-raclopride to assess non-manifesting carriers of the DYT1 mutation. D2 receptor binding was reduced by approximately 15% in caudate and putamen (p < 0.005). These results sug...
Article
Full-text available
In this brief article, we report preliminary results from an NIH-funded project to use functional brain imaging to study the natural history of neurodegeneration during the earliest clinical stages of PD. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure DAT binding (18F-FPCIT), resting glucose metabolism (18FFDG), and brain activation (H215O)...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that the DYT1 genotype is associated with a disorder of anatomical connectivity involving primarily the sensorimotor cortex. We used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to assess the microstructure of white matter pathways in mutation carriers and control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of axon...
Article
It is assumed widely that the clinical expression of Parkinson's Disease (PD), both motor and cognitive, is subtended by topographically distributed brain networks. However, little is known about the functional neuroanatomy of executive dysfunction in PD. Our objective was to validate further in a PD group the use of network analysis to assess the...
Article
Injury currents are a hallmark of acute lesions in polarized cells. Our objective was to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring human near-DC injury currents in vivo. Using diagnostic muscle biopsy as controlled paradigm, injury-related magnetic DC-fields were mapped for 60 min postsurgery over leg muscle lesions of 9 subjects. A 49-channe...
Article
The authors have previously used [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to identify a reproducible pattern of regional glucose metabolism that was expressed in both manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 primary dystonia mutation. To identify specific regions that discriminated subjects according to clinical penetrance and genotype. FDG PET...
Article
In this study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) the acquisition of sequential information is related to the integrity of dopaminergic input to the caudate nucleus; and (2) the integrity of dopaminergic input to the caudate nucleus correlates significantly with brain activation during sequence acquisition. Twelve early stage Parkinson's disease (PD...
Article
Cognitive deficits that occur even early in the course of Parkinson's disease have received increasing attention in current imaging research. The exact physio-pathological processes mediating the deficits and the complex relationship of cognitive signs and antiparkinsonian treatment are not well understood. A clearer understanding of these mechanis...
Article
Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown that nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation express an abnormal pattern of resting glucose metabolism. To determine whether motor behavior is impaired in these subjects, we compared movement and sequence learning in 12 clinically unaffected DYT1 carriers with 12 age-match...
Article
In a previous H(2) (15)O/PET study of motor sequence learning, we used principal components analysis (PCA) of region of interest (ROI) data to identify performance-related activation patterns in normal subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we determined whether these patterns predicted learning performance in su...