Skills and Expertise
Research Items (15)
An assemblage of ancient Egyptian metalwork from the Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom periods, currently in the Egyptian Museum of Leipzig University (Germany), has been studied using a wide range of available archaeometallurgical methods. The 3rd millennium BC Egyptian copper metallurgy is known only superficially until now. The data are interpreted in the framework of the known and reconstructed distribution networks of ancient Egyptian society. The production technology of the objects has been examined. The lead isotope analyses have made it possible to discuss the origin of the ore used for the production of Old Kingdom metalwork for the first time. A rather surprising presence in the Early Dynastic assemblage of object similar in isotopic ratios to Anatolian Early Bronze Age metalwork is discussed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1XWHG_6yUMAj23
- Jul 2017
- Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology 7
The research of Old Kingdom copper metallurgy is hindered by several problems. The number of archaeometallurgical analytical methods available in Egypt is limited, and it is almost impossible to export samples, although only about 50 milligrams of material would suffice for reasonable results. Old Kingdom artefacts abroad are in many cases unique objects and not all of them can be subjected to methods that provide accurate results because samples are needed for this purpose. Non-destructive methods are preferred, but their results are less accurate. Additionally, a vast number of small metal artefacts from the Old Kingdom are completely corroded without any metal core preserved, which renders any analysis meaningless. The issues of more precise typological definition of Old Kingdom artefact classes and distinguishing between full-size tools and model tools have been addressed recently in the monograph “Old Kingdom Copper Tools and Model Tools” by Martin Odler. Based also on these results, two projects have recently been examining archaeometallurgical questions connected with the production of Old Kingdom copper alloy artefacts. In the Egyptian Museum of the Leipzig University, selected Old Kingdom artefacts from Giza have been sampled by drilling and sawing and the samples were submitted to a wide array of contemporary methods in the Czech Republic, examining the chemical composition (X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis), ore sources (lead isotope analysis), and technology (metallography, micro-hardness testing). Another set of artefacts from Giza, deposited in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, has been submitted to X-ray fluorescence to find out the chemical composition of the objects. Moreover, a previously unknown inscription has been discovered on a spouted bowl (ÄS 7441). The paper informs about the results of the analyses, answering the questions of the ore sources, chemical composition and technologies applied to produce the artefacts. We also address the question of the use of alloys in Old Kingdom Egypt anew, as it appears that arsenical copper was used more widely and in different contexts than was previously thought.
Transmutation detectors could be alternative to the traditional activation detector method for neutron fluence dosimetry at power nuclear reactors. This new method require an isotopically highly-sensitive, non-destructive in sense of compactness as well as isotopic content, precise and standardly used analytical method for trace concentration determination. The capability of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) for determination of trace concentrations of transmuted stable nuclides in the metallic foils of Ni, Au, Cu and Nb, which were irradiated for 21 days in the reactor core at the LVR-15 research reactor in Řež, is reported. The PGAA measurements of these activation foils were performed at the PGAA facility at Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII) in Garching.
- Jan 2015
Imported artefacts from the Late La Tene period also include mosaic glass vessels produced using millefiori, reticella and ribbon mosaic glass techniques. The artefacts are part of the assemblages from the oppida of Stradonice and Stare Hradisko and from the Jicina-Pazaha hillfort of the Puchov culture. Their origin can be traced to a Hellenistic workshop(s) in the eastern Mediterranean that was probably in operation in the second and first centuries BC. According to their chemical composition determined by means of SEM-EDS, NAA and LA-ICP-MS, the chemical type of glass of the mosaic vessels is the same as the glass used to make La Tene ring ornaments - soda-lime natron glass.
This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha−1) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordão, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods.
Princely burial mound no. 1 in Rovná (South Bohemia) was excavated in the years 2012–2013, after this extraordinary site from the Late Hallstatt period had been discovered and damaged by treasure hunters. The stone construction of the mound measured 25 m in diameter and the wood-lined burial chamber had a square ground plan of 6.2 x 6.1 m at ground level. Rovná 1 is one of the most richly equipped graves in Bohemia. Grave goods included 5 imported bronze vessels. Such a set of metal vessels is quite extraordinary and bears witness to intensive contacts with the West Hallstatt cultural circle in Baden-Württemberg. The origin of some of the vessels can even be traced to Italy. The bossed-rim basin (Perlrandbecken) of the Hundersingen type belongs to the period from the second half of the 6th to the first half of the 5th century BC. This perfectly matches the dating of the excavated grave from burial mound 1 in Rovná, which is based on the discovered fibulae with a decorated foot, and corresponds to Ha D3. Rovná 1 is also one of the earliest graves with two-wheeled chariots from Ha D in Bohemia. The research project considered a wide range of archaeological and paleo-ecological data. Various scientific analyses and measurements are currently available including geophysical measurements, petrographic analysis, pollen analysis, protein analysis, phosphate analysis, analysis of red coral, spectral analysis of amber, anthropological and zoological analyses of human and animal bones, use-wear analysis of antler artefacts and X-ray fluorescence analysis of bronze artefacts).
- Jun 2014
The capability of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) for neutron fluence dosimetry by means of transmutation detectors is reported. The metallic foils of Ni, Au, Cu and Nb and the small piece of Ge crystal, which were irradiated at the LVR-15 reactor at Řež for several days, were selected for analysis by PGAA technique. Concentrations of transmuted stable nuclides in these foils were measured using the PGAA facility installed at the research reactor FRM II in Garching.
- Aug 2011
a b s t r a c t Multipurpose research reactors such as LVR-15 iň Rež require monitoring of the neutron flux parameters (f, a) in each batch of samples analyzed when k 0 standardization in NAA is to be used. The above parameters may change quite unpredictably, because experiments in channels adjacent to those used for NAA require an adjustment of the reactor operation parameters and/or active core configuration. For frequent monitoring of the neutron flux parameters the bare multi-monitor method is very convenient. The well-known Au–Zr tri-isotopic monitor set that provides a good tool for determining f and a after long-time irradiation is not optimal in case of short-time irradiation because only a low activity of the 95 Zr radionuclide is formed. Therefore, several elements forming radionuclides with suitable half-lives and Q 0 and ¯ E r parameters in a wide range of values were tested, namely 198 Au, 56 Mn, 88 Rb, 128 I, 139 Ba, and 239 U. As a result, an optimal mixture was selected consisting of Au, Mn, and Rb to form a well suited monitor set for irradiation at a thermal neutron fluence rate of 3 Â 10 17 m À 2 s À 1 . The procedure of short-time INAA with the new monitor set for k 0 standardization was successfully validated using the synthetic reference material SMELS 1 and several matrix reference materials (RMs) representing matrices of sample types frequently analyzed in our laboratory. The results were obtained using the Kayzero for Windows program.
Several procedures for preparation of the 95mTc radiotracer following irradiation of a thin Mo target with deuterons were tested. The procedures consisting of alkaline-oxidative fusion of the irradiated target in a mixture of Na2O2 + NaOH and subsequent liquid–liquid extraction with 2-butanone, and acid decomposition of the target in a mixture of H2SO4 + HNO3 followed by extraction chromatography with PAN-Aliquat 336 composite material appeared suitable for the given purpose.
- Dec 2010
Cross-sections for the deuteron-induced reactions on natural molybdenum leading to (93m)Tc, (93m+g)Tc, (94)Tc, (94m)Tc, (95)Tc, (95m)Tc, (96m+g)Tc, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (101)Mo, (90m+g)Nb, (92m)Nb, (95)Nb and (89m+g)Zr were measured in the energy range 3.0-19.6 MeV on the cyclotron U-120 M in the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR. Special attention was paid to excitation functions and thick target yields for the formation of (95m)Tc, a suitable tracer for (99)Tc, of (96m+g)Tc, which might be used as a beam monitor, and of (99m)Tc and (99)Mo, the most widespread radionuclide generator pair in nuclear medicine. If appropriate, obtained data are compared with the heretofore published cross-sections.
The open settlement of Němčice in Moravia (Czech Republic) provides evidence of local glass-working, the earliest so far identified in La Tène Europe. By the LT C1 period at the latest the workshop produced artefacts usually classified as "Celtic glass". The assemblage of over 2000 objects includes not only hundreds of finished products such as glass bracelets, rings, spacers and beads, but also a considerable quantity of glass-working waste, semi-products and raw glass. A series of glass samples from Němčice and other European sites were submitted to SEM-EDS and NAA analyses. Their results confirmed the similar chemical composition of the glass-working component and finished products from the site to that of other La Tène glass assemblages. Comparison of chemical and archaeological data points to the significance and limits of the applied analytical methods for different aspects of pre-Roman glass research.
This work has studied elemental composition of raw copper contained in recently excavated hoards from Early Bronze Age in Southern Bohemia. The analyses were applied to hoards from Přídolí, Purkarec, Chvalšiny, Kladné - Záhorkov and two finds from Nová Ves near Křemže. In addition, also an older hoard found at Nové Vráto (in 1964) was analyzed. The hoards contained ingot torques, ribs and formless fragments of plane-convex ingots of raw copper. Together with torques from Nová Ves two spiral armrings were found; with pigs of Kladné an axe fragment and dagger blade; with fragments from Nová Ves an axe of Křtěnov type. Based on statistical evaluation of composition of ingot torques analyzed here and completed by approximately further 2700 analyses from Central Europe a hypothesis is presented that material of ingot torques could be prepared by smelting pure chalcopyrite ore. The high arsenic, antimony and silver contents were a result of intentional alloying of pure copper with tetrahedrite minerals. A quite atypical material is represented by ribs from Purkarec containing an alloy of copper with very high contents of lead.
- Jun 2006
Composition of more than 500 metallic artifacts was studied by means of INAA and XRF, including 404 objects of copper alloys. Analyses proved not only use of specialized bronze alloys in the imported Roman vessels, but also use of very pure brass with average content of 20% zinc in the production of decorative brooches, especially in the 1st century A.D. These artifacts were evidently made on the Bohemian territory, but raw brass was probably imported from the Roman provinces. Common products are mostly made of mixed materials possibly recycling old objects and using local raw materials.