Marek Šmejkal

Marek Šmejkal
Institute of Hydrobiology CAS · Fish and Zooplankton Ecology

PhD.

About

70
Publications
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483
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Introduction
I am interested in behavioural ecology of fish and individual differences in reproductive timing strategies. I also investigate the effects of anthropogenic changes of the environment on the reproductive success of rheophilic fish species. Finally, I started research line on the impact of invasive fish species on native fishes and the overall impact on the ecosystem.

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Full-text available
Gillnetting is a technique commonly used in relative abundance and biomass estimates of fish. However, due to its passive nature, the direct recalculation of the catch to reservoir volume or area is not trivial. This issue is often solved by using hydroacoustics, which provides information about fish density, though without the ability to distingui...
Article
Full-text available
It is difficult to understand the composition and diversity of biological communities in complex and heterogeneous environments using traditional sampling methods. Recently, developments in environmental DNA metabarcoding have emerged as a powerful, non-invasive method for comprehensive community characterization and biodiversity monitoring in diff...
Article
Internal seiches are common in stratified lakes, with significant effects on stratification patterns, hydrodynamics and vertical nutrient transport. In particular, seiches can change the vertical distribution of the thermocline and the cold hypolimnetic and warm epilimnetic water masses by several metres on a timescale of a few hours, leading to ra...
Article
Animal behaviour interacts with various relationships within biota, and its variation among individuals may cause bias in behavioural research because of its impact on sampling efficiency. In this study, we simultaneously recorded fish behaviour during the reproductive season by passive telemetry and sampled a fish population using an active sampli...
Article
Full-text available
Many fish species exhibit female-biased size dimorphism that may lead to spatial segregation of sexes. We selected two common European percids (Percidae, European perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua) differing in total body size, reproduction mode, habitat use and diurnal activity, to test whether they display size dimorphism and...
Article
Full-text available
Climate is a major driver of species distribution and biological invasions worldwide. In this study, we combined the catches of a widespread and invasive species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), with climate data to assess the importance of climate variables on the ability of the species to maintain self-sustaining populations in European lakes....
Article
Full-text available
Many endangered fish species in the wild are artificially bred, and their populations are strengthened by the stocking of aquaculture-raised juveniles. Because fish from aquaculture are generally not well prepared for the challenging life in the wild, we tested whether training for selected challenges could improve fish survival after stocking. We...
Article
Full-text available
Fish communities differ significantly between the littoral and the pelagic habitats. This paper attempts to define the shift in communities between the two habitats based on the European standard gillnet catch. We sampled the benthic and pelagic habitats from shore to shore in Lake Most and Římov Reservoir (Czech Republic). The 3 m deep pelagic net...
Article
Full-text available
Structural complexity is known to influence prey behaviour, mortality and population structure, but the effects on predators have received less attention. We tested whether contrasting structural complexity in two newly colonised lakes (low structural complexity lake—LSC; high structural complexity—HSC) was associated with contrasting behaviour in...
Article
The hydropeaking regime below hydropower facilities represents a serious threat to riverine fauna and may cause declines in populations living under its influence. However, the knowledge on direct fish responses to the threat of hydropeaking is limited. Here, we aimed to test whether the hydropeaking generated 12 km upstream may have a negative eff...
Preprint
Full-text available
Internal seiches are common in stratified lakes, with significant effects on stratification patterns, hydrodynamics and vertical nutrient transport. In particular, seiche can change the vertical distribution of the thermocline and the cold hypolimnetic and warm epilimnetic water masses by several meters on a timescale of a few hours. The results ar...
Article
Obtaining a representative sample is fundamental to the assessment of fish communities. In this study we used data from 99 different surveys of 29 artificial lakes in the Czech Republic to evaluate the precision of fish community indicator estimates based on reduced gillnet scenarios derived from triplet gillnets installed in each particular locali...
Article
Full-text available
Movement ecology is increasingly relying on experimental approaches and hypothesis testing to reveal how, when, where, why, and which animals move. Movement of megafauna is inherently interesting but many of the fundamental questions of movement ecology can be efficiently tested in study systems with high degrees of control. Lakes can be seen as mi...
Technical Report
Publication summarises recent issues concerning spawning grounds of rheophilic fish species in Czech rivers. Practical solutions for river managements authorities are offered. It is essential to start dealing with causes of decrease in rheophilic species including support of natural population recruitment using technical solutions on the spawning g...
Article
Information about fish distribution and abundance in the upper part of the water column are often fundamental for both research and management. However, this information is extremely hard to obtain using conventional hydroacoustic methods. For this reason, the mobile hydroacoustic upward-looking system (38 kHz split-beam echosounder) in combination...
Preprint
Full-text available
Structural complexity is known to influence prey behaviour, mortality and population structure, but the effects on predators has received less attention. We tested whether contrasting structural complexity in two newly colonised lakes (low structural complexity lake – LSC; high structural complexity - HSC) was associated with contrasting behaviour...
Article
Human‐induced changes in the hydrological regimes of lotic waters such as hydropeaking have significant negative impacts on riverine life. However, the impacts of dynamic changes in water flow on adhesive fish eggs are not very well known. We focused on the effects of hydropeaking on the spawning ground of a rheophilic cyprinid fish, the asp (Leuci...
Article
Full-text available
High reproductive performance is the key attribute of male fitness, especially due to the high reproductive skew among the males of most animal species. Males of long-lived iteroparous species have opportunities to improve upon their previous reproductive attempts with increasing age. We collected individual-specific reproductive behaviour and age...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing digital revolution in the age of big data is opening new research opportunities. Culturomics and iEcology, two emerging research areas based on the analysis of online data resources, can provide novel scientific insights and inform conservation and management efforts. To date, culturomics and iEcology have been applied primarily in the...
Article
Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of cladocerans in lakes could be caused by abiotic (wind, water currents) and biotic factors (reproduction, food resources, predation). Diel horizontal and vertical distribution of cladoceran assemblages was studied in two deep lakes (Milada and Most Lakes, Czech Republic) in early (June) and l...
Article
Fish otoliths are conservative structures that are widely used on fishery science for multiple purposes. Despite its relevance in the research field, little is known about the ontogeny and inter-population effects on the otolith of freshwater fish. In this study we used otoliths from 1800 European perch (Perca fluviatilis) individuals from 9 differ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Během technických zásahů byla zaznamenána průměrná mortalita u ryb 31 % a u zoobentosu 95 %. Pravděpodobnost úhynu vranek během pojezdu klesala s velikostí jedince, naopak u pstruhů nebyla závislá na velikosti jedince. Střední hodnota pohybů (bez ohledu na směr pohybu) u vranek a pstruhů byla během experimentu 10 m. U vranky pruhoploutvé a pstruha...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife monitoring using passive telemetry has become a robust method for investigating animal migration. With increased use, this method progressively pollutes the environment with technological waste represented by so called ghost tags (PIT tags ending in the environment due to reproductive expulsions, shedding or animal mortality). However, the...
Article
Full-text available
Fish respond to predation threat by size/cohort-dependent presence in particular habitats and this may contribute to sexual segregation between habitats in species with sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The present study examines the validity of the “predation risk hypothesis” and importance of SSD on habitat (pelagic/inshore) segregation and dietary d...
Article
Artificial enhancement of fish populations by stocking is widespread practice. Yet, very little is known about short-term dispersal, capture efficiency and the effect of fish size and habitat suitability. Asp (Leuciscus aspius Linnaeus, 1758) was chosen as a model species, because of its protection in the Svihov Reservoir and common stocking to inc...
Article
The estimation of age-and sex-specific mortalities is essential for constructing fish life tables and subsequent population modelling. However, the ecological data behind these parameter estimates acquired in nature may be systematically biased by the methodology of the study. To demonstrate mark retention bias by the widely used passive integrated...
Article
Full-text available
Tracking individual animals with small-sized passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags) has become a popular and widespread method, one which can be used for investigating life history traits, including dispersal patterns of small protected animals such as newts. In this study, we tested the applicability of PIT tag usage for individual marking...
Article
Catfish have spread across Europe and several countries out of this region within the last decades. Basic knowledge of this apex predator has revealed concerns of invasive behaviour and questions regarding its utilization as a biomanipulation species. However, a method enabling its regulation to a required level has not yet been developed. We simul...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ačkoliv jsou malé vodní toky každoročně vystaveny celé řadě technických úprav, informace o dopadu použité těžké techniky na vodní toky jsou velmi kusé. Cílem studie bylo zhodnotit míru mortality vranky pruhoploutvé a pstruha obecného během těchto úprav, zároveň získat informace o jejich pohybech, dále posoudit vliv zásahů na společenstva zoobentosu...
Article
Full-text available
Animals that do not provide parental care have to secure the survival of their offspring by ensuring a safe reproductive environment or smart timing tactics. Nocturnal spawning behaviour of many fish species is an example of the latter behaviour in the animal kingdom and is hypothesized to provide a survival advantage to the eggs spawned during the...
Article
Full-text available
The higher proportion of males of the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus in samples from two activity selective passive fishing gears compared with one activity non‐selective fishing gear in three Dutch lakes is related to higher male locomotory activity and is a sex‐dependent trait. This difference in activity reflects the different ecolog...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the change in benthic fish communities in three artificial lakes of the Biesbosch area in the Netherlands between two time periods: before and after the invasion of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Native ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua), the dominant species in benthic gillnet and littoral beach seining catches before the invasion,...
Article
Sampling of benthic fish is complicated, especially in deep inland water bodies with a structured bottom. The catches were compared of rapidly spreading round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) using small fykes nets and benthic gillnets in three artificial lakes in The Netherlands over a two year period. Round gobies were captured at all depth layers i...
Article
Differential use of habitat and prey resources is an important mechanism that may allow coexistence of sympatric species. Unlike interactions between smaller cyprinid and percid fishes, the resource use by coexisting predatory asp (Leuciscus aspius) and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is relatively unknown. Here, gut content and stable isotope analys...
Article
Full-text available
The perception of danger represents an essential ability of prey for gaining an informational advantage over their natural enemies. Especially in complex environments or at night, animals strongly rely on chemoreception to avoid predators. The ability to recognize danger by chemical cues and subsequent adaptive responses to predation threats should...
Article
Full-text available
In polygynandrous mating systems, in which females limit reproductive success, males can increase their success by investing in courtship. Earlier arrival at the spawning ground compared to when females arrive may increase their opportunities in competitive mating systems. In this study, we used passive telemetry to test whether a male minnow known...
Article
Full-text available
Predator-prey relationships are often perceived simply as a situation in which a predator enhances its own fitness while reducing the fitness of its prey. However, this relationship may become reversed when the prey feeds on the juvenile predator stages. We investigated this phenomenon in a model asp (Leuciscus aspius; predator)-bleak (Alburnus alb...
Article
Full-text available
Apex predators play a key role in ecosystem stability across environments but their numbers in general are decreasing. By contrast, European catfish (Silurus glanis), the European freshwater apex predator, is on the increase. However, studies concerning apex predators in freshwaters are scarce in comparison to those in terrestrial and marine ecosys...
Article
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Generalist fishes commonly show intraspecific niche segregation along the littoral–pelagic resource axis in lakes. Recent studies have shown that the deep, cold and seemingly unproductive profundal zone can also offer underutilised resources and facilitate specialised individuals, and can contribute to lake food webs via methane-derived carbon path...
Article
Monitoring of biota in heterogeneous ecosystems requires sampling in different habitats and across environmental gradients. The resulting multivariate community data are typically aggregated into one or several indicator values for the entire ecosystem, but the relationship between the robustness of such indicators and sampling effort, including th...
Article
Full-text available
Generalist species commonly have a fundamental role in ecosystems as they can integrate spatially distinct habitats and food-web compartments, as well as control the composition, abundance and behavior of organisms at different trophic levels. Generalist populations typically consist of specialized individuals, but the potential for and hence degre...
Data
Relative abundances (%) of the generalist species caught with survey gillnets from macrophyte-rich Milada and macrophyte-poor Most in 2013 and 2014. (PDF)
Data
Means (SD) and ranges of standard length (mm) and wet mass (g) of perch, roach and rudd sampled from macrophyte-rich Milada and macrophyte-poor Most in 2013–2014. (PDF)
Data
Relative proportions of main prey items in the gut contents of perch, roach and rudd caught from macrophyte-rich Milada and macrophyte-poor Most in 2013–2014. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
So far, perch egg strands have been considered unpalatable biological material. However, we repeatedly found egg strands of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in the diet of European catfish (Silurus glanis) caught by longlines in Milada and Most Lakes, Czech Republic. The finding proves that perch egg strands compose a standard food source for thi...
Article
Full-text available
We explored whether fin clips and scales can be used as potential non-lethal alternatives to muscle tissue for examining the isotopic composition of asp Leuciscus aspius, a locally threatened freshwater species. Dorsal fin clips, scales and muscle plugs were collected from two asp populations and subsequently analysed for nitrogen and carbon stable...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of ecological quality in freshwater ecosystems is a key issue in many countries, but conditions for the development of assessment methodologies are often country-specific. This study proposes a simple methodology for the assessment of the ecological potential of reservoirs based on fish communities using a dataset covering major envi...
Article
Full-text available
The number of herbivores in populations of ectothermic vertebrates decreases with increasing latitude. At higher latitudes, fish consuming plant matter are exclusively omnivorous. We assess whether omnivorous fish readily shift to herbivory or whether animal prey is typically preferred. We address temperature as the key factor causing their absence...
Article
Ecological quality assessment of non-natural water bodies is, in contrast to natural systems, less developed and requires determining biological indicators that reliably reflect environmental conditions and anthropogenic pressures. This study was motivated to propose fish indicators appropriate for assessment of reservoir ecosystems in central Euro...
Article
Full-text available
Data from nine reservoirs in the Czech Republic were used to investigate density and size distribution patterns for dominant fish species of the juvenile pelagic community at night. Clear trends of increasing density along the longitudinal gradient for bream, roach, bleak, and pikeperch were observed in long (>5 km) reservoirs but were absent in sh...