Marek Malik

Marek Malik
Imperial College London | Imperial · National Heart and Lung Institute

PhD, MD, DSc, DSc(Med)

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830
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Publications

Publications (830)
Article
Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Public grant(s) – EU funding. Main funding source(s): European Community’s 7th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 Background The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is an established therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high-risk heart failure patients. However, impro...
Article
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Fragmented QRS (fQRS) is an electrocardiographic (ECG) marker of myocardial conduction abnormality, characterized by additional notches in the QRS complex. The presence of fQRS has been associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and arrhythmia in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, current binary visual analysis is prone to...
Article
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Increases in beat-to-beat variability of electrocardiographic QT interval duration have repeatedly been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and complications. The measurements of QT variability are frequently normalized for the underlying RR interval variability. Such normalization supports the concept of the so-called immediate...
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Aims Fragmented QRS complex with visible notching on standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is understood to represent depolarization abnormalities and to signify risk of cardiac events. Depolarization abnormalities with similar prognostic implications likely exist beyond visual recognition but no technology is presently suitable for quantificati...
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While it is now well-understood that the extent of QT interval changes due to underlying heart rate differences (i.e., the QT/RR adaptation) needs to be distinguished from the speed with which the QT interval reacts to heart rate changes (i.e., the so-called QT/RR hysteresis), gaps still exist in the physiologic understanding of QT/RR hysteresis pr...
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Aim The association of standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) markers with benefits of the primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has not been determined in the contemporary era. We analysed traditional and novel ECG variables in a large prospective, controlled primary prophylactic ICD population to assess the predictiv...
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Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in hemodialysis patients and contributes to increased mortality. We aimed to examine heart rate variability triangular index (HRVI) in hemodialysis patients with AF as it has recently been reported to predict mortality in AF patients without kidney disease. Methods: A total of 88 patients on hemodialys...
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Monitoring of QTc interval is mandated in different clinical conditions. Nevertheless, intra-subject variability of QTc intervals reduces the clinical utility of QTc monitoring strategies. Since this variability is partly related to QT heart rate correction, 10 different heart rate corrections (Bazett, Fridericia, Dmitrienko, Framingham, Schlamowit...
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Background: In hemodialysis patients, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) contributes to high cardiovascular mortality. We examined cardiovascular mortality prediction by the recently proposed Peguero-Lo Presti voltage since it identifies more patients with electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH than Cornell or Sokolow-Lyon voltages. Methods: A total of...
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The development of pathological Q waves has long been correlated with worsened outcome in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this study, we investigated long-term mortality of STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and compared predictive values of Q waves and of Selvester score for inf...
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Abstract The normal physiologic range of QRS complex duration spans between 80 and 125 ms with known differences between females and males which cannot be explained by the anatomical variations of heart sizes. To investigate the reasons for the sex differences as well as for the wide range of normal values, a technology is proposed based on the sin...
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Introduction: Reperfusion therapy by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is generally indicated in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). Prior to hospital admission, full ST-segment resolution (fSTR) may occur. Optimal management of such patients with transient STEMI (TSTEMI) is p...
Article
Objective: Higher resting heart rate (rHR) and lower heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in people with and without diabetes. It is unknown whether temporal changes in rHR and HRV may contribute to this risk. We investigated associations between 5-year changes in r...
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Background: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden cardiac death. ICD implantation decisions are currently based on reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF≤35%). However, in some patients, the non-arrhythmic death risk predominates thus diminishing ICD-therapy benefits. Based on previous observations, we tested the...
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QT interval variability, mostly expressed by QT variability index (QTVi), has repeatedly been used in risk diagnostics. Physiologic correlates of QT variability expressions have been little researched especially when measured in short 10-second electrocardiograms (ECGs). This study investigated different QT variability indices, including QTVi and t...
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The electrocardiographic (ECG) assessment of the T peak–T end (Tpe) intervals has been used in many clinical studies, but several related physiological aspects have not been reported. Specifically, the sources of the Tpe differences between different ECG leads have not been systematically researched, the relationship of Tpe duration to underlying h...
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Background Bazett formula is frequently used in paediatric screening for the long QT syndrome (LQTS) and proposals exist that using standing rather than supine electrocardiograms (ECG) improves the sensitivity of LQTS diagnosis. Nevertheless, compared to adults, children have higher heart rates (especially during postural provocations) and Bazett c...
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Aims Present society is constantly ageing and elderly frequently suffer from conditions that are difficult and/or costly to treat if detected late. Effective screening of the elderly is therefore needed so that those requiring detailed clinical work-up are identified early. We present a prospective validation of a screening strategy based on a Poly...
Article
Background Short‐term variability of the QT interval (STVQT) has been proposed as a novel electrophysiological marker for the prediction of imminent ventricular arrhythmias in animal models. Our aim is to study whether STVQT can predict imminent ventricular arrhythmias in patients. Methods and Results In 2331 patients with primary prophylactic impl...
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Previous reports suggested the existence of direct somatic motor control over heart rate (fH) responses during diving in some marine mammals, as the result of a cognitive and/or learning process rather than being a reflexive response. This would be beneficial for O2 storage management, but would also allow ventilation-perfusion matching for selecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Bazett formula is frequently used in paediatric screening for the long QT syndrome (LQTS) and proposals exist that using standing rather than supine electrocardiograms (ECG) improves the sensitivity of LQTS diagnosis. Nevertheless, compared to adults, children have higher heart rates (especially during postural provocations) and Bazett c...
Article
This commentary refers to 'Clinical effectiveness of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: results of the EU-CERT-ICD controlled multicentre cohort study', by M. Zabel et al., doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa226. We thank Disertori et al. 1 for their Discussion Forum comments regarding our European Heart Journal 2020 2 publication....
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Aims The EUropean Comparative Effectiveness Research to Assess the Use of Primary ProphylacTic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (EU-CERT-ICD), a prospective investigator-initiated, controlled cohort study, was conducted in 44 centres and 15 European countries. It aimed to assess current clinical effectiveness of primary prevention ICD thera...
Article
Background Myocardial scarring from infarction or non-ischemic fibrosis forms an arrhythmogenic substrate. The Selvester QRS-score has been developed to estimate myocardial scar from the 12-lead ECG. Objective We aimed to assess the value of an automated version of the Selvester QRS-score for prediction of ICD therapy and death in patients undergo...
Article
Background Abnormal 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) can predict cardiovascular events, including sudden cardiac death. We tested the hypothesis that ECG provides useful information on guiding implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy into individuals with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods Retrospective data of...
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On standard electrocardiogram (ECG) PQ interval is known to be moderately heart rate dependent, but no physiologic details of this dependency have been established. At the same time, PQ dynamics is a clear candidate for non-invasive assessment of atrial abnormalities including the risk of atrial fibrillation. We studied PQ heart rate dependency in...
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Background Excess mortality in hemodialysis patients is mostly of cardiovascular origin. We examined the association of heart rate turbulence (HRT), a marker of baroreflex sensitivity, with cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.MethodsA population of 290 prevalent hemodialysis patients was followed up for a median of 3 years. HRT catego...
Chapter
Sex differences are known in several facets of cardiac electrophysiology, mostly concerning myocardial repolarization. This chapter describes investigations in which heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) responses to postural provocations were compared in two independent groups of healthy females and males. Two different postural provocative...
Chapter
Physiological data in healthy subjects show that QRS duration is shorter in females compared to males. QRS duration is also shorter in subjects of African origin compared to Caucasians. The same sex difference is present in both race strata, thus QRS duration progressively increases from African females to Caucasian females, to African men, and to...
Chapter
The chapter presents the methodology of QT interval measurement and of the heart rate correction of the QT interval. It stresses the importance of incorporating the QT/RR hysteresis correction into the analysis of heart rate underlying individual QT values. Based on the analysis of ECG data obtained in 335 healthy females and 416 healthy males, the...
Chapter
Terminological distinction between “sex” and “gender”: while sex is a biological term distinguishing females and males by their biological and chromosomal characteristics, gender is a term related to societal and socioeconomic differences between positions and roles usually ascribed to female and male behavior.
Chapter
Three different T-wave morphological indices that were previously found to be predictive of the risk of cardiovascular complications are considered; namely the spatial angle between the QRS complex and T-wave vectorcardiographic loops, the T-wave morphology dispersions (TMDs) that expresses the spread of vectorcardiographic projections into differe...
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To facilitate the precision of clinical electrocardiographic studies of J-to-Tpeak (JTp) and Tpeak-to-Tend (Tpe) intervals, the study investigated their differences between healthy females and males, and between subjects of African and Caucasian origin. In 523 healthy subjects (254 females; 236 subjects of African origin), repeated Holter recording...
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Pharmaceuticals that prolong ventricular repolarization may be proarrhythmic in susceptible patients. While this fact is well recognized, schemes for sequential QTc interval monitoring in patients receiving QT‐prolonging drugs are frequently overlooked or, if implemented, underutilized in clinical practice. There are several reasons for this gap in...
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Drug-induced changes of the J to T peak (JTp) and J to the median of area under the T wave (JT50) were reported to differentiate QT prolonging drugs that are predominant blockers of the delayed potassium rectifier current from those with multiple ion channel effects. Studies of drug-induced JTp/JT50 interval changes might therefore facilitate cardi...
Article
Full-text available
Sex differences are known in several facets of cardiac electrophysiology, mostly concerning myocardial repolarisation. In this study, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) responses to postural provocations were compared in 175 and 176 healthy females and males, respectively (aged 33.1 ± 9.1 years). Two different postural provocative tests wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND. The clinical effectiveness of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is under debate. It is urgently needed to better identify patients who benefit from prophylactic ICD therapy. The EUropean Comparative Effectiveness Research to Assess the Use of Primary ProphylacTic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillat...
Article
OBJECTIVE Diabetes increases the risk of all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The exact mechanisms leading to sudden death in diabetes are not well known. We compared the incidence of appropriate shocks and mortality in patients with versus without diabetes with a prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) included in...
Article
Background: The clinical effectiveness of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is under debate. It is urgently needed to better identify patients who benefit from prophylactic ICD therapy. The EUropean Comparative Effectiveness Research to Assess the Use of Primary ProphylacTic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrilla...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A small proportion of patients undergoing primary prophylactic implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) experiences malignant arrhythmias. We postulated that periodic repolarisation dynamics, a novel marker of sympathetic-activity-associated repolarisation instability, could be used to identify electrically vulner...
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Accurate evaluation of the appearance of QTc sex differences during childhood and adolescence is intricate. Inter-subject differences of individual QT/RR patterns make generic heart rate corrections inaccurate because of fast resting heart rates in children. The study investigated 527 healthy children and adolescents aged 4–19 years (268 females, 5...
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Electrocardiogram (ECG) studies of drug-induced prolongation of the interval between the J point and the peak of the T wave (JTp interval) distinguished QT prolonging drugs that predominantly block the delayed potassium rectifier current from those affecting multiple cardiac repolarisation ion channel currents. Since the peak of the T wave depends...
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The accuracy of studies of drug-induced QTc changes depends, among others, on the accuracy of heart rate correction of QT interval. It has been recognized that when a drug leads to substantial heart rate changes, fixed universal corrections cannot be used and that alternative methods such as subject-specific corrections established for each study p...
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Objective: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but the temporality of this association remains unclear in individuals without diabetes. We investigated the association of autonomic function with 5-year changes in glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes. Research design and methods: Anal...
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This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use.
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Non-invasive risk stratification of cardiac patients has been the subject of numerous studies. Most of these investigations either researched unique risk predictors or compared the predictive power of different predictors. Fewer studies suggested a combination of a small number of non-invasive indices to increase the accuracy of high-risk group sel...
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Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is the leading cause of cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. This review discusses potential underlying arrhythmic mechanisms of SCD in the dialysis population. It examines recent evidence from studies using implantable loop recorders and from electrophysiological studies in experimental animal models of chronic kid...
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Background: Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of death in hemodialysis (HD) patients but accurate risk prediction is lacking. The spatial QRS – T angle is a promising electrophysiological marker for sudden cardiac death risk stratification. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of spatial QRS-T angle derived from stan...