Marder Ofer

Marder Ofer
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev | bgu · Department of Bible, Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies

Doctor of Philosophy

About

91
Publications
31,084
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1,970
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
1386 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (91)
Chapter
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The microlithization process in Levant was initiated in the Upper Paleolithic and escalated in variability of morphotypes and technologies during the Epipaleolithic period. This process was accompanied by increased frequency of impact fracture damage on microlithic tools, often associated with their use in composite tools, and the possible introduc...
Chapter
Full-text available
The microlithization process in Levant was initiated in the Upper Paleolithic and escalated in variability of morphotypes and technologies during the Epipaleolithic period. This process was accompanied by increased frequency of impact fracture damage on microlithic tools, often associated with their use in composite tools, and the possible introduc...
Article
The mid-Middle Paleolithic (late Marine Isotope Stage 6 and Marine Isotope Stage 5) is the documented phase of the Levantine Middle Paleolithic (MP), especially concerning flint provisioning strategies. Our study of raw material exploitation at Nesher Ramla karst sinkhole (central Coastal Plain, Israel) provides an intriguing glimpse into the decis...
Article
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René Neuville (1899-1952) came to Palestine in 1926 to serve as the French vice-consul in Jerusalem. Although with a background in Egyptology, he soon became absorbed in prehistoric archaeology and started to excavate caves and rock-shelters in the Judean Desert, the most important of which are Um Qatafa, Erq el-Ahmar, and El-Khiam. Based on his re...
Article
Manot Cave is a unique relict karst cave located in the western Galilee, north-western Israel. The cave was inhabited from the Late Middle Paleolithic through the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) periods until its main entrance collapsed, ca. 30 ka. The cave consists of an elongated main hall and two side chambers. The topography of the main hall cons...
Chapter
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The Lithic Technologies of the Epipaleolithic Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev, Israel: Implications from Refitting Studies. In the course of intensive systematic surveys and excavations in the western Negev Desert, Israel, dozens of Upper Paleolithic (ca. 46-23 ka cal BP) and Epipaleolithic (23-11.5 ka cal BP) sites were investigated. Traditional lit...
Article
Manot Cave contains important human fossils and archaeological assemblages related to the origin and dispersal of anatomically modern humans and the Upper Paleolithic period. This record is divided between an elevated in situ occupation area and a connecting talus. We, thus, investigated the interplay between the accumulation of the sediments and t...
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In the early 1950s, Ibrahim, a trained archaeologist and a member of the Tamra tribe, excavated two Upper Paleolithic sites in the Judean Desert: El-Quseir and Masaraq a Na'aj. Later on, he transferred the exposed materials to the French archaeologist and diplomat René Neuville. Neuville, who died in 1952, did not have the time to visit the sites,...
Article
Situated at the crossroads of Africa and Eurasia, the Levant is a crucial region for understanding the origins and spread of Upper Paleolithic (UP) traditions associated with the spread of modern humans. Of the two local Early Upper Paleolithic technocomplexes, the Ahmarian and the Levantine Aurignacian, the latter appears to be unique in the endem...
Article
Recent examination of the lithic assemblage from the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (MPPNB, 10,100–9,250 BP cal.) layers of Yiftahel in the Lower Galilee, Israel, revealed a relatively large number of flint artifacts showing evidence of intentional heating. Heat treatment of siliceous raw materials is a worldwide phenomenon usually used during the...
Article
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A new Harifian occupation was documented on a terrace (536 m asl), overlooking Nahal Eshtamoa in the Yatir region, northern Negev, Israel. This site is the most northern Harifian habitation documented to date and, together with other Harifian sites known from this region (e.g. Ira 25 and Lehavim 4) expands our understanding of the Harifian settleme...
Article
For more than a century, prehistoric research has focused on cave sites and rock shelters, mostly because of good preservation of organic remains associated with stratified anthropogenic layers. Manot Cave in the Western Galilee, Israel offers the possibility of studying prehistoric assemblages in pristine condition because of the collapse of the c...
Article
A well-preserved sequence of Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) occupations has been revealed in the past decade in Manot Cave, the studies of which shed light on the cultural dynamics and subsistence patterns and paleoenvironment. Most intriguing is the series of overlying Levantine Aurignacian occupation layers, exposed near the entrance to the cave....
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The reasons and processes that led hunter-gatherers to transition into a sedentary and agricultural way of life are a fundamental unresolved question of human history. Here we present results of excavations of two single-occupation early Neolithic sites (dated to 7.9 and 7.4 ka) and two high-resolution archaeological surveys in northeast China, whi...
Article
A karst survey of the western upper Galilee in Israel shows that karst has been a dominant geomorphic factor throughout the Cenozoic. We discuss the geomorphic character of Manot Cave on the background of other karst features of the region, in order to decipher the preferences of the humans who favored this cave over others. Tens of caves distribut...
Article
d 13 C d 18 O Speleothems a b s t r a c t Early Ahmarian, Levantine Aurignacian and Post-Levantine Aurignacian archeological assemblages show that the karstic Manot Cave, located 5 km east of the Mediterranean coast in the Western Galilee region of Israel, was intensively occupied during the Early Upper Paleolithic. The coexistence of these rich ar...
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Der Mensch stammt aus Afrika – das ist Stand der Forschung. Doch wie die Ausbreitung im Einzelnen verlief und welche Rolle der Neandertaler bei der Entwicklung zum modernen »Homo sapiens« spielte, wird nach wie vor kontrovers diskutiert. Hier kommt den neuen Funden aus Manot Cave in Israel an der Nahtstelle zwischen Afrika und Eurasien eine Schlüss...
Article
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This study presents distinct and small task-specific sites associated with the Middle to Late Epipalaeolithic period exposed during a salvage project at the site of Ashalim at the fringe of the northwestern Negev desert dunefield (Israel). Six areas spanning the Geometric-Kebaran to Harifian periods were systematically collected upon a unique 4 m h...
Article
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This paper offers a reappraisal of the Levantine prehistoric chronological sequence constructed by Pyotr Petrovich Efimenko (1884–1969). As a young Russian prehistorian, Efimenko visited Palestine in 1913, collected material from several sites and, in 1915, published a synthesis in which he compared the prehistory of Europe with that of the Near Ea...
Chapter
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Manot Cave is situated within the Levantine Mediterranean region. The site has an extensive Upper Paleolithic sequence, also manifesting the presence of a Middle Paleolithic occupation. This study will present the Middle Paleolithic assemblage from the cave. One of the Levallois centripetal cores from the assemblage exhibits, what seems to be non-...
Article
Using a biographic-like approach, this article presents the initial results of the study of an elite Iron Age house at Tel ‘Eton, from its conception, through its birth and life, to its death and decomposition. Massive preparations preceded the construction of the house, and the latter incorporated continuous foundations, and quality building mater...
Article
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The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm t...
Article
La période comprise entre 60 000 et 50 000 ans BP est l’une des phases les plus importantes de l’évolution biologique humaine. Au cours de celle-ci, la partie occidentale de l’Eurasie (l’Europe et le Proche-Orient) a été peuplée par les Néandertaliens, tandis que la partie orientale (Asie centrale et Sibérie) l’a été par les Dénisoviens. Cependant,...
Chapter
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The use of bone fragments to retouch stone tools is presently recognised as a widespread phenomenon in the Palaeolithic of Europe, since Middle Pleistocene times. However, in the Palaeolithic record outside Europe, evidence for the use of retouchers is scarce. With the sole exception of the late Lower Palaeolithic site of Qesem Cave (Israel), virtu...
Article
Northeastern China is one of the centers of early development of agriculture and sedentary life, as well as of the subsequent development of social complexity and distinct cultural attributes. While the outlines of this trajectory are clear, its important details are still elusive. Like all other regions of northern China, there is little data on t...
Article
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The Upper Palaeolithic period in the Levant is divided into three chronological stages: Initial (IUP), Early (EUP) and Late (LUP). While the Initial stage is the interphase between the Middle and the Upper Paleolithic periods, it was during the EUP that modern human populations fully established themselves in the region. The EUP consists of two tec...
Article
The Early Upper Palaeolithic in the Levant plays an important role in understanding the emergence, dispersal, and adaptations of the first Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) populations in the Levant and Europe. The technical exploitation of osseous raw materials, represented by the new concepts applied to the antler working, is recognized as one of s...
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The excavations at Abu Ghosh revealed two phases dated to the PreGhassulian period, between the end of the sixth millennium and the midfifth millenium BCE. Three archaeologicalsedimentary layers were identified at the site: Layer I- Topsoil, Layer II-possibly EB I, and Layer III-PreGhassulian. The architecture of Layer III consisted of rectilinear...
Article
South-western Samaria is emerging as a major province of Paleolithic cave sites. Most recently discovered caves have been naturally filled with terra-rossa type colluvial deposits when the hillslopes above the caves were stripped from vegetation during late Quaternary times. Site formation processes differ significantly between caves with pit-like...
Article
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The archaeological record indicates that elephants must have played a significant role in early human diet and culture during Palaeolithic times in the Old World. However, the nature of interactions between early humans and elephants is still under discussion. Elephant remains are found in Palaeolithic sites, both open-air and cave sites, in Europe...
Article
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A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (bp), replacing all other forms of hominins. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here...
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Jordan River Dureijat (JRD), an Epipaleolithic site on the banks of the Jordan River south of its outlet from the Hula Valley, was discovered as a result of a drainage operation in the year 1999. The site, located 1.2 km north of the Benot Ya’aqov Bridge, is 14C dated to between 14,000 and 15,000 Cal BC. This paper presents the results of a survey...
Conference Paper
Nowadays Levantine Upper Palaeolithic archaeology is of great importance in understanding the emergence, dispersal, and adaptations of the first Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) populations. Nevertheless, research on this period in the studied region has been limited to specific data, for instance osseous industry suffers from a dearth of data. Thu...
Conference Paper
The Early Upper Palaeolithic of the Levant consists of two cultural entities, “Early Ahmarian” and “Levantine Aurignacian”, which are assumed to have coexisted at ca. 36/34,000 -28/27,000 Cal BP. The Early Ahmarian, distributed throughout the Levant, is conceived as local tradition whereas the Aurignacian, restricted to few cave sites in the Medite...
Article
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The multi-layered Lower Paleolithic Acheulian site of Revadim Quarry provides a rare opportunity to study patterns of continuity and change within the lithic assemblages of the Late Lower Paleolithic period in the Levant. This open-air site was excavated to a large extent (∼250 m2) and yielded a wealth of lithic and faunal remains. The rich lithic...
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Prehistory of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift (Ziway-Shala basin): Establishing the Late Stone Age sequence in Eastern Africa – Supported by the CFEE, ARCCH, MAEE, INRAP and the laboratory TRACES, this project, "Late Stone Age sequence in Ethiopia", is devoted to the collection of new data on the late prehistory of the Horn of Africa. To answer to...
Article
Our ongoing research has revealed that Manot Cave was intensively occupied during the Upper Palaeolithic period. Located within the Mediterranean woodland region and with its multi-layered units and thick archaeological accumulations, Manot Cave has the potential of refining the Levantine Upper Palaeolithic cultural sequence. This is especially tru...
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The project "Late Stone Age sequence in Ethiopia" is devoted to the collection of new data on the late prehistory of the Horn of Africa. The Ziway-Shala basin, in the Main Ethiopian Rift was selected for various reasons. Firstly, it is an ideal area to investigate whether and to what degree humans adapted to such lacustrine landscapes. In particula...
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Soutenue par le CFEE, le ARCCH, le MAEE, l’INRAP et le laboratoire TRACES, la mission «Late Stone Age sequence in Ethiopia » est dediee a la reunion de nouvelles donnees sur la prehistoire recente de la Corne de l’Afrique. Afin de repondre a cet objectif, plusieurs campagnes de terrain se sont deroulees depuis 2007 dans la region des lacs Ziway, Ab...
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Lower Paleolithic faunal and lithic assemblages serve as a major source of information on the behavior and capabilities of Early- and Middle Pleistocene hominins. The multi-layered Late Acheulian site of Revadim Quarry provides a rare opportunity to study hominin–elephant interactions during the Late Lower Paleolithic period in the Levant. A large...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An exceptionally large obsidian assemblage (ca. 3000 items) was found during the 1996-1997 excavations at the multi-layered Neolithic site of Hagoshrim, located at the northern part of the Hula basin, northern Israel. The assemblage is dominated by pressure produced bladelets and related debitage. On-site production of these pressure produced blade...
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A series of short successive occupations were revealed at the new Middle Paleolithic site of Emanuel Cave. A date of 191±1 Ka (U/Th) is suggested as a terminus post quem for the archaeological deposits. Despite the ephemeral nature of the site, the lithic assemblage displays two distinct facies; the lower layers with a predominantly laminar nature...
Article
Rantis Cave is a recently discovered filled cave in central Israel, displaying a rich faunal accumulation of micromammals, ungulates and carnivores. U–Th dating assigns the beginning of accumulation to ca. 140 ka. The accumulation is culturally assigned to the late half of the Middle Paleolithic (MP) period. Single-grain optically stimulated lumine...
Article
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The recognition of the dynamic role of site formation processes led archaeologists to recognize a behavioral dichotomy between [`]living floors' and palimpsests', Yet the archaeological proxies of [`]living floor' and [`]palimpsest' were never defined formally, and therefore have been used variably. We use archaeological criteria mentioned in the a...