Marcus Wigan

Marcus Wigan
Edinburgh Napier University · School of Computing

MA,DPhil(Nuclear Physics)(Oxon);MA(Asian Studies),MBA(Monash);MA(International Relations,MA(Applied and Professional Ethics),GrdDip[IP]Law(Melb); GradDipOrgPsych(VUT), MA (Musicology)

About

173
Publications
19,970
Reads
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1,474
Citations
Introduction
Current interests continue in eScholarship in Open Music and Digital Humanities, and in living computer museums and Professional and Personal Information and Computer Ethics, with tertiary studies in engineering fabrication as a counterpoint to purely academic studies.
Additional affiliations
February 2020 - present
University of Melbourne
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Digital Historical Musicology and recorded music repositories
August 2018 - present
University of Melbourne
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Working on proper archival holdings of early music, following my thesis on MIFOH and will be adding an extensive range of digitised music as a following stage in this archival work
September 2016 - December 2017
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Working with Prof Katina Michael in social impacts of technology in my areas of Big data and information ethics, surveillance, privacy , military applications of direct interface technologies, wearables and governance issues in these domains
Education
July 2013 - June 2016
Monash University (Australia)
Field of study
  • Musicology
July 2012 - December 2015
University of Melbourne
Field of study
  • Ethics
June 2010 - June 2012
University of Melbourne
Field of study
  • International Relations

Publications

Publications (173)
Preprint
p>Arguments about the appropriate valuation of life in public policy have generally moved from accounting resource costs to revealed preference valuations. In medical and public health, the valuation of the ‘quality” life experience over time (a very different concept) has focused on equivalents to an unconstrained life experience. The user perspec...
Article
Professional computer ethics has widened its scope over the last 20 years as a direct result of the massive growth in computer mediated services by government and industry, and concerns over how data and interaction processes are recorded. These shifts are explored in conjunction with the parallel decline in community trust of government. The growi...
Article
Preface to the special section of selected papers from the 8th Australasian Institute of Computer Ethics (AiCE) conference, held in Melbourne, 19-20th August, 2019.
Article
Full-text available
Professional computer ethics has widened its scope over the last 20 years as a direct result of the massive growth in computer mediated services by government and industry, and concerns over how data and interaction processes are recorded. These shifts are explored in conjunction with the parallel decline in community trust of government. The growi...
Chapter
Full-text available
There has been a steady shift from business oriented computing, developed or deployed in a reasonably closed environment, to a far more open environment where a complex network of developers, users and applications are involved. In the 20C environment is was reasonably clear who was responsible for the specification development and deployment of an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The changes in information technology are having a considerable impact on the manner that professionals gather, use and disseminate information. The electronic media are providing an increasing range of electronic publishing for and through data and communications networks, leading to a fundamental change in the nature of the librarian's task as vi...
Article
This article identifies key features of the sociotechnical contexts of computer law and security at the times of this journal's establishment in 1985, and of its 200th Issue in 2018. The infrastructural elements of devices, communications, data and actuator technologies are considered first. Social actors as individuals, and in groups, communities,...
Thesis
The Melbourne Festival of Organ and Harpsichord (MIFOH) and its successors ran from 1971 to 2010 under various other names. MIFOH is used as shorthand term covering the whole period including the names: Melbourne Autumn Festival of Organ and Harpsichord, Melbourne Autumn Festival and finally Spring Autumn Early Music Festival. It hosted ~1000 diffe...
Thesis
Full-text available
The Melbourne Festival of Organ and Harpsichord (MIFOH) and its successors ran from 1971 to 2010 under various other names. MIFOH is used as shorthand term covering the whole period including the names: Melbourne Autumn Festival of Organ and Harpsichord, Melbourne Autumn Festival and finally Spring Autumn Early Music Festival. It hosted ~1000 diffe...
Article
This study assesses the effectiveness of road network pavement maintenance using Markov Chain analysis based on historical costs and road roughness progression data. The analysis is based on a database developed by the State of Victoria, Australia, consisting of 2197 road sections. The analysis measures maintenance effectiveness using the criterion...
Technical Report
Full-text available
While there is increasingly wide acceptance that music listeners using hearing aids need far more attention that they have been getting in the past, the field is still very thinly populated, and some basic questions have not yet been addressed. This project addresses one of them. There is no suggestion that it does any more, but is designed to prov...
Article
Definitions are a key factor when discussing the ethics of brain implants in the military. There is a world of difference between a permanent embedded rewritable chip and an active RFID-managed interface to a nervous system.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Automated vehicles are part of a broader picture where the trade-offs between hardware, software and human interaction are blurred and it becomes much more difficult to distinguish between infrastructure, vehicle and person. We have chosen to express this as soft vehicles, soft infrastructure and soft transport. Governance will be increasingly be a...
Chapter
Uberveillance extends the responsibilities of faith-based organisations to the power imbalances now emerging. This is less a matter of governance and strategy, and more one of the core values of faith-based organisations. These might be regarded from an ethical or moral standpoint, but the approach taken is to focus on the constituencies of faith-b...
Research
Full-text available
Marcus Wigan, Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology and Monash University Sir Zelman Cowan School of Music Making music more open: copyright, conservation and access issues IP rights around music have come under increasing stress in the digital age. The demands of consumers for cheap, perpetual access to any and all...
Research
Full-text available
Smart Cities are driven by rapid changes in both information generation and access. These are driven initially by technology, but quickly demand adaptive governance and social science demands as a result. A strategy to address the skills required - and the associated disciplines engaged - is laid out. It includes Smart Cities educational agendas fr...
Article
Smart meters have become a matter of concern for many populations, although the technology is as always politically neutral. The focus on electricity rather than all metered services, water, gas, and electricity is one aspect of this public concern.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the returns to the investors and the state in private finance of road infrastructure. It uses an empirical case of the E4 Helsinki-Lahti road, which was built in 1995-1999 in Finland as the first real PPP-project. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis adopts an approach based on cash flow...
Article
Public-private-partnerships (PPP) include as many models as there are perhaps realized PPP-projects. Each project has its own unique features: technical, organizational, financial, etc. However, some topologies can be identified which certain types of PPP-projects share. Shadow toll roads are one particular such an example. In this paper, the finan...
Article
Businesses and governments exploit big data without regard for issues of legality, data quality, disparate data meanings, and process quality. This often results in poor decisions, with individuals bearing the greatest risk. The threats harbored by big data extend far beyond the individual, however, and call for new legal structures, business proce...
Conference Paper
The widespread Western community construction of age as a dependent state has been reflected in many of the studies of technology and the aged. The present paper considers the situation that would obtain if this was reversed, and genuine utilization of the skills and knowledge of the aged applied to their own situations, as appropriate enhancements...
Article
Uberveillance extends the responsibilities of faith-based organisations to the power imbalances now emerging. This is less a matter of governance and strategy, and more one of the core values of faithbased organisations. These might be regarded from an ethical or moral standpoint, but the approach taken is to focus on the constituencies of faith-ba...
Article
The aim of this paper is to compare the kinematic features of motorcycles with those of passenger cars in urban traffic. The hypothesis that motorcycles' capability to swerve in urban traffic contributes to their seemingly assertive behaviour is examined. Data for this study were collected in afternoon peak hours at Central London using video recor...
Conference Paper
Smart meters have become a matter of concern for many populations, although the technology is as always politically neutral. The focus on electricity rather than all metered services, water, gas and electricity is one aspect of this public concern. The heavy emphasis on Smart Grids, overall energy supply stability [1] and the extension of control i...
Article
Full-text available
A number of innovative modelling approaches for the analysis of urban freight demand and its impact upon the built environment and transport infrastructure have been proposed over the past several years. These range from new and more robust synthetic models to tour-based formulations based on truck survey data to agent-based microsimulation models....
Article
Checks and balances in government are always difficult to resolve, and as both societal and governmental complexity have increased, the degree to which expertise and policy reside within government has declined. The rise of evidence-based approaches to policy in most areas of government has raised the bar for those wishing to gain access and influe...
Thesis
Full-text available
I can make a genuine claim to have created and submitted the first ever word-processed Doctoral thesis, undoubtedly the first at Oxford, in 1967. I joined AERE Harwell as a bursaried PhD student (internal to the Department of Nuclear Physics at Oxford) in the August 1965 to work on polarized proton bean analysis of spin spin correlations in nuclear...
Article
A decade ago, technologies that could provide information about the location of a motor vehicle, or a computer or a person, were in their infancy. A wide range of tools, processes and systems are now in use and in prospect, which threaten to strip away another layer of the limited protections that individuals enjoy. An understanding of the landscap...
Article
This paper assesses and explores the existing potential for new approaches to software and data, such as the open source movement, to contribute to more open and contestable strategic land-use and transport planning processes. Issues with the current state of practice of modelling and analysis in such processes have been reviewed; developments for...
Article
Sustainable transport requires not only solid evidence to support policy and practice, but also to allow this to be examined with a high degree of transparency. Not all technical reports have the supporting evidence (or indeed models) made readily available, and even fewer provide enough material and methods to allow others to reproduce or evaluate...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report Assigned by the European Commission, 7th Framework Programme Documentation of the validation and evaluation results concerning the ideas, the pilots, the platform as well as the innovation process.
Presentation
Full-text available
Software is an integral part of many public processes designed to guide the evolution of our cities, such as decisions about transport infrastructure management and investments, and land use zoning. Much of the software used to predict and analyse scenarios is currently proprietary :- and this has several problems regarding transparency, accountabi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to estimate the Passenger Car Unit (PCU) values of motorcycles in two traffic environments: at the beginning of a green period and in a saturation flow. Motorcycles are able to undertake both lane-based and non-lane-based movements in mixed traffic. Hence their PCU values cannot be adequately measured simply by their headwa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtualisation (the replacement of physical representation by bits) in society is placing great pressures on individuals and society. The progressive loss of legal multiple identities raises major ethical and practical implications, and is being accelerated by virtualisation and shifts to anticipatory 'intelligence' styles of policing and enforceme...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid growth of databases, biometrics, and RFID has led to an environment where identity-related technologies are approaching a critical mass as a potential means of controlling the population. The essential aspects of these diverse technical advances are the links between identity and accelerating intensification of dataveillance capacities. D...
Conference Paper
The flow rate of a traffic stream is a variable of interest to transport engineers. It is usually expressed in terms of vehicles per lane per hour. In mixed traffic, different vehicle types cause different disturbances to the traffic. Expressing the flow rate by merely using vehicle counts could cause errors. Hence, the flow rate is usually convert...
Article
Transport is a series of movements between locations, and considerable efforts are spent to secure details of such movements for planning and modeling purposes. This paper considers the issues raised when such information is secured too well, as well as the accompanying implications for surveillance and privacy. Location is a critical aspect of bot...
Article
Full-text available
Route finding is a key aspect of travel of all kinds, but the costs of inaccurate information are highest for human powered transport (bicycles and pedestrians). Even in the Netherlands, with the extensive provisions for bicycles, management of routing information which caters specifically for bicycle rider needs has many failings. The present pape...
Article
Full-text available
Governance is a difficult topic to address in the often controversial area of transport and planning. Good governance allows issues associated with balancing different interests, objectives and pressures, to be addressed and solved - but its absence is a major barrier to this occurring. The Australasian Centre for the Governance and Management of U...
Article
Knowledge-based systems tools are increasingly available on microcomputer systems. The range and characteristics of some of these tools are briefly reviewed including PROLOG and LISP systems and Expert System Shells for both text-and rule-based approaches. While the tools available up to about 1984 were reasonably adequate for self and academic tea...
Article
This paper presents work, undertaken for the UK Department for Transport, to help determine how policy could affect motorcycle usage. There are two important choices that determine potential motorcycle use: the decision to own a motorcycle and, contingent on that, the decision to use a motorcycle for a particular trip. This research has addressed b...
Presentation
Full-text available
Illustrates a data-document- mapping- animation-collaboration Knowledge Repository with federated data support, built for an EU Project (ReOrient) and immediately used by a successor. Flexible enough to ingest 2300 papers from the European Transport Conference and set up a Journal in three days, and to be sue to generate efficient keywords to exten...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Web access has transformed the way in which information can be discovered and accessed, but the questions of quality and reliability remain. Changes in the mode of publication and the Open Access movement go only part of the way towards addressing these now more urgent issues. This paper explores the interactions between repositories, document and...
Chapter
In both Europe and North America the continued growth in both passenger and freight traffic promises growing competition for road space between these two forms of travel. Forecast traffic levels call into question the ability of current infrastructures to sustain the efficient movement of both goods and people over increasingly crowded roadways and...
Article
Full-text available
A knowledge base and project support for a major international railway project Making large scale freight data accessible, readily documented, findable, and explorable with tables, analyses, graphs and thematic mapping in a single data repository The first knowledge base loaded into the Napier Knowledge Base System [N_KB_S] The N_KB_S is an integra...
Article
In both Europe and North America the continued growth in both passenger and freight traffic promises growing competition for road space between these two forms of travel. Forecast traffic levels call into question the ability of current infrastructures to sustain the efficient movement of both goods and people over increasingly crowded roadways and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Presented at TRB 2007: It is surprisingly difficult to secure widespread and effective consultation with motorcycle riders and related professionals in Australia. Experience over the last eight years is reviewed, and a joint anonymous process using computer mediation in a single room with all the parties present to interact is specified. This proce...
Article
The transport sector is a natural focal point for surveillance measures to combat the threat of terrorism. It is also a complex environment that offers many examples of the social impacts of contemporary surveillance. Surveillance needs to be assessed against the standards used to justify other forms of security measures. The efficacy of many surve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is the submission version and date for the 2007 january TRB, and presents a knowledge management, knowledge base, and group support tool system (the REORIENT Knowledge Base or RKB ) developed by Napier University (UK) and Demis (NL) to provide both support during the REORIENT project and knowledge transfer capacities at the end. REORIENT...
Article
Opus is a project funded by the European Union Statistical Agency (Eurostat). The project is developing a methodology for the coherent and consistent integration of information from multiple sources about complex systems (based on Bayesian statistical models) and a series demonstration of this approach. Most, but not all, of these are transport app...
Article
Opus is a project funded by the European Union Statistical Agency (Eurostat). The project is developing a methodology for the coherent and consistent integration of information from multiple sources about complex systems (based on Bayesian statistical models) and a series demonstration of this approach. Most, but not all, of these are transport app...
Preprint
Full-text available
VicRoads commissioned a research investigation into the present and future roles of motorcycles (defined broadly) on the road system with a view to improving the road system and its management for motorcycle users (VicRoads R and D Project P901). This is addressed by examining the current context for motorcycle usage in Australia, and the implicati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
After many years of neglect, freight, freight operations, and commodity flow models are now attracting substantial attention, and there is a wide perception among transportation analysts that they all need a careful overhaul. In this paper the range of applications and issues associated with different forms of freight model are considered. Confusio...
Article
Full-text available
The Scottish Executive commissioned research from a team led by Transport Research Institute, Napier University on Accessibility and Transport using data from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) for 1999-2003. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the inter-linking of person and household characteristics with travel availability me...
Conference Paper
Frontal identification of motorcycles up the latter part of the last century was provided by a metallic plate, bolted on to the front mudguard. This was progressively dropped as a requirement worldwide, and has not formed part of legal requirements in all major countries for 15-20 years. More recently issues of speed enforcement and rising crashes...
Conference Paper
Frontal identification of motorcycles up the latter part of the last century was provided by a metallic plate, bolted on to the front mudguard. This was progressively dropped as a requirement worldwide, and has not formed part of legal requirements in all major countries for 15-20 years. More recently issues of speed enforcement and rising crashes...
Conference Paper
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) that lead to more efficient and effective road travel, offer the best potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the short term. However, for this potential to be realized, widespread adoption of ITS is needed. This requires a move from the predominantly supply side driven design of ITS products, to a mor...
Chapter
The paper discusses the slow uptake of the data archiving and publication agenda discussed since the last conference of this series. It identifies the currently high start up costs, as the main reason for this. One-off solutions, such as www-cta.ornl.gov/npts or sturm.math.fundp.ac.be/~test, are too complex and too expensive for small and medium si...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sound transport research and policy making depends upon the availability of appropriate, high quality and up to date information. Thus, the means by which transport related data are collected, stored, processed and made available for use are issues of central concern to the transport profession. In recent years there has been a significant expansio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Regulators in major urban capital cities are looking towards future freight viability strategies that will dampen the growth in urban demand for trucking and commercial vehicle use. To create these strategies it is necessary to know both the patterns of usage for the specific types of truck usage within, into and out of these major urban conurbatio...
Book
Full-text available
A multimedia and many-sided biography of a distinguished acoutical and electrical and mechanical engineer, extensively illustrated by period and recent photos, drawings and paintings in full colour, written by his three children with contributions towards the entries from (inter alia) the University of Greenwich, the British Broadcasting Corporatio...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present the results of a project undertaken to identify key areas in which shortcomings in the collection, processing and dissemination of travel behavioural data have held back needed research and, building on this, to define how best, in the light of current trends in data collection methods, these limitations can be a...
Article
The aim of this paper is to present the results of a project undertaken to identify key areas in which shortcomings in the collection, processing and dissemination of travel behavioural data have held back needed research and, building on this, to define how best, in the light of current trends in data collection methods, these limitations can be a...
Article
Full-text available
Report for VicRoads : cleared for release: the basis of a long practical program to try to find workable means of visual ID detection using the photo methods and devices of the time: although rear detections as already established for toll roads, this did not fit the operational procedures of the Police at the time.Oxford Systematics was commission...
Article
Full-text available
Report for Vicroads: now cleared for release: provided in 2002 an assessment of the noncontact, non visual t4chqueis for frontal motorcycle Id, and the likely time horizon for their availability: this is now the case (RFID, as well as non visual ANPR tec etc) . Vehicle identification is valuable for a range of official and personal purposes: regist...
Article
Motorcycles usually are treated solely on the basis of their safety characteristics and very rarely as a mode of transportation with benefits and costs, placing safety issues in a full transportation context. The standard transportation issues of traffic flow effects, driving cycles, rider mode choice behaviors, and economic evaluation have largely...
Article
Metadata-information about data sets-allow clear understanding of exactly what the elements and structure of a given data set entail. Metadata in conjunction with XML-based specifications, schemas, and tools allow a high level of automated and validated interworking between different types and sources of data. This is an issue of emerging importanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Freight modelling and analysis has recently risen in importance. However although the concentration to date on specifically 'freight' vehicles and lorries has begun to cover the bulk of commodity tonnage flows, it has not properly addressed the mix of commercial, service and light goods movements that make up the bulk of the vehicle movements invol...
Article
Vulnerable road users have steadily attracted increased importance in transport and planning. The behaviour of pedestrian movements (especially in the areas off but adjacent to roads) requires improved tools to address the issues now being raised. Such behaviour and interactions can now be modelled by using a combination of massively parallel proce...
Article
Full-text available
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/millennium/00141.pdf The exciting opportunities technology is providing researchers in the field of urban transportation data come with equal challenges. These challenges include data privacy and confidentiality, fluctuating priorities on data needs, and problems for data collection budgets given the imminent ne...
Thesis
Full-text available
Supervision of graduate students has been well-studied from many different angles, but the power relationships have been the subject of only a few investigations. This thesis reports on a survey of the power relationship perceptions of Victoria University graduate students and supervising staff. A US instrument (Aguinis, Nesler, Quigley, Lee & Tede...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pedestrian and bicycle accidents and injuries are important to children of school age, and should form a key part of educational strategies to involve children in understanding their risks. The transport context of Victorian pedestrian accidents is summarised in this paper. A competition using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and an accident da...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Building road transport networks for modelling purposes has been a time consuming and error prone task for many years. The rapid development of digital road networks has now provided a reliable and rapid mean of building such networks flexibly and accurately, in a form that can always be integrated smoothly into mapping forms of presentation. A key...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating off-road trail usage by nonmotorized modes is of increasing interest to the transportation community due to the rising importance of both recreational and nonmotorized travel. Demand patterns for two substantial off-road trails in Melbourne, Australia, were examined using survey and modeling methods to establish the potential for higher...
Article
Data on freight vehicle and commodity flows in Ausralia are poorly covered by official statistics, yet for many strategic purposes the analyst requires a nationwide picture of commodity flows. FreightInfo satisfies this requirement. FreightInfo is a database based on a comb ination of assembly techniques: the expert development of secondary data fr...