Marcus Specht

Marcus Specht
Delft University of Technology | TU · Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Sciences (EEMCS)

Professor

About

593
Publications
296,417
Reads
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8,954
Citations
Citations since 2016
82 Research Items
4527 Citations
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Introduction
Prof. Dr. Marcus Specht is Professor for Digital Education at the Technical University of Delft and Director of the Leiden-Delft-Erasmus Center for Education and Learning. He received his Diploma in Psychology in 1995 and a Dissertation from the University of Trier in 1998 on adaptive information technology. From 2001 he headed the department "Mobile Knowledge" at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT).
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - July 2015
Open Universiteit Nederland
Position
  • Chair Welten Institute, Professor Educational Technologies
September 2005 - present
Open Universiteit Nederland
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 1997 - September 2005
Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FIT
Position
  • Head of Mobile Knowledge
Education
October 1989 - May 2005
Universität Trier
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (593)
Conference Paper
Our life is surrounded by digital devices. Engineering education is one of the cornerstones in higher education for future generations and computational thinking (CT) is deemed as a core component in various engineering curricula. The Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), is the largest technical university in the Netherlands and computing; co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acquisition and internalisation of many fundamental skills rely on repeated authentic practice and teachers providing support during practice. Despite this well accepted norms in skills acquisition, much of our assumptions about learning skills, mostly from a cognitive perspective, remain nebulous. Besides splitting hairs to classify skills acquisi...
Chapter
It takes considerable time, experience, and direct assistance from teachers to become a skilled writer. Handwriting fluency is one of the predictors of writing quality among students. However, students do not receive enough teacher supervision as a beginner to develop handwriting fluency in a proper manner. The “Calligraphy tutor” presented in this...
Chapter
Full-text available
Collaboration is one of the four important 21st-century skills. With the pervasive use of sensors, interest on co-located collaboration (CC) has increased lately. Most related literature used the audio modality to detect indicators of collaboration (such as total speaking time and turn taking). CC takes place in physical spaces where group members...
Article
Full-text available
Collaboration is one of the important 21st-century skills. It can take place in remote or co-located settings. Co-located collaboration (CC) is a very complex process that involves subtle human interactions that can be described with indicators like eye gaze, speaking time, pitch, and social skills from different modalities. With the advent of sens...
Article
Full-text available
High-quality elaborative peer feedback is a blessing for both learners and teachers. However, learners can experience difficulties in giving high-quality feedback on complex skills using textual analytic rubrics. High-quality elaborative feedback can be strengthened by adding video-modeling examples with embedded self-explanation prompts, turning t...
Article
Full-text available
Learners in the process of developing complex skills need a rich mental model of what such skills entail. Textual analytics rubrics (TR) are a widely used instrument to support formative assessment of complex skills, supporting feedback, reflection, and thus mental model development of complex skills. However, the textual nature of a rubric limits...
Article
Full-text available
Collaboration is an important 21st Century skill. Co-located (or face-to-face) collaboration (CC) analytics gained momentum with the advent of sensor technology. Most of these works have used the audio modality to detect the quality of CC. The CC quality can be detected from simple indicators of collaboration such as total speaking time or complex...
Article
Full-text available
Personal data use is increasingly permeating our everyday life. Informed consent for personal data use is a central instrument for ensuring the protection of personal data. However, current informed consent practices often fail to actually inform data subjects about the use of personal data. This article presents the results of a requirements analy...
Article
Full-text available
Unequal stakeholder engagement is a common pitfall of adoption approaches of learning analytics in higher education leading to lower buy-in and flawed tools that fail to meet the needs of their target groups. With each design decision, we make assumptions on how learners will make sense of the visualisations, but we know very little about how stude...
Chapter
We developed the CPR Tutor, a real-time multimodal feedback system for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. The CPR Tutor detects mistakes using recurrent neural networks for real-time time-series classification. From a multimodal data stream consisting of kinematic and electromyographic data, the CPR Tutor system automatically detects the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning technologies to automatically mine latent patterns from educational data holds great potential to inform teaching and learning practices. However, the current AI technology mostly works as "black box"-only the inputs and the corresponding outputs are available, which largely impedes researcher...
Article
Background. Programming is a challenging and highly important topic for introducing learners to our digital world. Research has shown that motivation plays a key role in programming performance. Gamification using digital badges has the potential to influence motivation, provide social recognition and encourage learner participation. More research...
Chapter
Full-text available
Experts are imperative for supporting expertise development in apprentices but learning from them is difficult. In many cases, there are shortages of experts to train apprentices. To address this issue, we use wearable sensors and augmented reality to record expert performance for supporting the training of apprentices. In this context, we present...
Chapter
Full-text available
Collaboration is an important 21st century skill; it can take place in a remote or co-located setting. Co-located collaboration (CC) gives rise to subtle human interactions that can be described with multimodal indicators like gaze, speech and social skills. In this demo paper, we first give a brief overview of related work that has identified indi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Body-worn sensors can be used to capture, analyze, and replay human performance for training purposes. The key challenge to any such approach is to establish validity that the captured expert experience is actually suitable for training. In this paper, to evaluate this, we apply a questionnaire-based expert assessment and a complementary trainee kn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the past few years, massive online open courses (MOOCs) have been increasingly identified as technologies that could transform education, by providing free and high-quality content to anyone with an Internet connection. However, despite these potentials, MOOCs generally fail to keep their participants on board. One of the reasons for this phen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this demo paper, we introduce the Multimodal Pipeline, a prototypical approach for the collection, storing, annotation, processing and exploitation of multimodal data for supporting learning. At the current stage of development, the Multimodal Pipeline consists of two relevant prototypes: 1) Multimodal Learning Hub for the collection and storing...
Article
Full-text available
Gamification has recently been presented as a successful strategy to engage users, with potential for online education. However, while the number of publications on gamification has been increasing in recent years, a classification of its empirical effects is still missing. We present a systematic literature review conducted with the purpose of clo...
Article
Full-text available
Sensors can monitor physical attributes and record multimodal data in order to provide feedback. The application calligraphy trainer, exploits these affordances in the context of handwriting learning. It records the expert’s handwriting performance to compute an expert model. The application then uses the expert model to provide guidance and feedba...
Chapter
Modern technologies increasingly make use of personal data to provide better services. Technologies using biometric data for identity and authorship verification in the context of e-assessment are a case in point. Previous studies in e-health described a privacy paradox in relation to consent to personal data use: even when people consider protecti...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated to what extent multimodal data can be used to detect mistakes during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training. We complemented the Laerdal QCPR ResusciAnne manikin with the Multimodal Tutor for CPR, a multi-sensor system consisting of a Microsoft Kinect for tracking body position and a Myo armband for collecting electrom...
Article
Full-text available
Learners can experience difficulties to form a mental model of a complex skill and what its mastery implicates in terms of actual behavior. Text-based analytic rubrics can support training and formative assessment of complex skills. However, they lack (1) contextual information needed to convey real-world attributes (2) sensor-motoric information (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce the Multimodal Learning Analytics Pipeline, a generic approach for collecting and exploiting multimodal data to support learning activities across physical and digital spaces. The MMLA Pipeline facilitates researchers in setting up their multimodal experiments, reducing setup and configuration time required for collecting meaningful da...
Article
Full-text available
For learners, it can be difficult to imagine how to perform a complex skill based on textual information from solely a text-based analytic rubric. Rubrics lack (1) the contextual information needed to convey real-world attributes (2) the dynamic information (such as gesturing in the complex skill of presenting) (3) the procedural information requir...
Conference Paper
In the context of e-assessment, this study investigates students’ attitudes towards personal data sharing for identity and authorship verification purposes, with the aim of optimising informed consent practice.
Article
Full-text available
Goal achievement is a measure of success; this could be particularly true in Massive Online Open Courses (MOOC), which are approached by a massive audience with an enormous variety of needs. However, in MOOC one is unlikely to find solutions which allow students to pursue their individual goals and achieve them. Inspired by implementation intention...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces the Visual Inspection Tool (VIT) which supports researchers in the annotation of multimodal data as well as the processing and exploitation for learning purposes. While most of the existing Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA) solutions are tailor-made for specific learning tasks and sensors, the VIT addresses the data annotat...
Chapter
The chapter highlights the role of sensors for supporting seamless learning experiences. In the first part, the relation between sensor tracking of learning activities and research around real-time feedback in educational situations is introduced. The authors present an overview of the kinds of sensor data that have been used for educational purpos...
Poster
Full-text available
Background Learners can experience difficulties to imagine what it means to master a complex skill in terms of concrete behavior using solely a text-based analytic rubric (TR). The Viewbrics-project aims to foster learners’ mental models of complex skills through the process of Formative Assessment (FA) combined with ‘video enhanced rubrics with m...
Article
Full-text available
This PhD research project has multiple focus points. Using the help of Multimodal Learning Analytics with the help of sensors to understand how co-located collaboration takes place, identifying the indicators of collaboration (such as pointing at peer, looking at peer, making constructive interruptions, etc.) and designing a collaboration framework...
Article
Full-text available
The social and individual aspects of MOOCs are two sides of the same coin. However, while the majority of MOOC designs do not valorise the potential that a massive audience could bring in, several studies highlight the solo-mission mode of MOOC users' experience. Based on implementation intention, social presence, social influence and flow theory w...
Article
Full-text available
p> E‑Learning has become a common way to teach and learn. The number of technologies for a variety of educational purposes is already quite high and constantly rising. Scientific experiments and studies increasingly confirm the usefulness of various technologies for teaching purposes. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of formal training and suppo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Learners aiming to master a complex skill may benefit from the combination of abstract information found in a text-based analytical rubric and concrete information provided by a video modeling example. In this paper, we address the design dilemmas of combining video modeling examples and rubrics into a Video Enhanced Rubric. We propose a model to a...
Article
Full-text available
Multimodality in learning analytics and learning science is under the spotlight. The landscape of sensors and wearable trackers that can be used for learning support is evolving rapidly, as well as data collection and analysis methods. Multimodal data can now be collected and processed in real time at an unprecedented scale. With sensors, it is pos...
Article
Experts are imperative for training apprentices, but learning from experts is difficult. Experts often struggle to explicate and/or verbalize their knowledge or simply overlook important details due to internalization of their skills, which may make it more difficult for apprentices to learn from experts. In addition, the shortage of experts to sup...
Preprint
Full-text available
[Note that this is not the final version of the paper and final version will be available in 13th EC-TEL conference at Leeds, UK after September 6th, 2018 for download and reading. This is only a PREPRINT.] Collaboration is an important st century skill; it can take place in a remote or co-located setting. Co-located collaboration (CC) is a very co...
Article
Full-text available
Educational practitioners have stressed the relevance of providing learners with a set of 21th century skills that will allow them to face current life challenges. Among others this includes communication and social skills such as public speaking, argumentation, negotiation, etc. Besides the acquisition of knowledge and techniques, these skills hav...
Article
Augmented reality and sensor technologies have been analysed extensively in several domains including education and training. Although, varieties of use cases and applications exist, these studies were conducted in controlled laboratory environments. This paper reports on the first user study of augmented reality prototype developed to support stud...
Chapter
In den letzten zehn Jahren wurde mobile Technologie mehr und mehr zu einer Standardkomponente im Methodenkatalog des forschenden Lernens. Nichtsdestotrotz wurden oft der pädagogische Mehrwert und der sinnvolle Einsatz hinterfragt. In diesem Beitrag haben die Autoren 62 Systeme zur Unterstützung von mobilem forschendem Lernen sowie die Nutzung von m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Learning analytics can bridge the gap between learning sciences and data analytics, leveraging the expertise of both fields in exploring the vast amount of data generated in online learning environments. A typical learning analytics intervention is the learning dashboard, a visualisation tool built with the purpose of empowering teachers and learne...
Article
This article describes the theory-informed design of the "ELENA goes shopping" mobile game and reports on the evaluation of its effectiveness through a design research approach. The game aimed to foster young children's (aged 4-8) interest in a neighboring (geographically proximate) language and to familiarize them with its sounds, pronunciation an...
Chapter
Full-text available
Collaboration is an important 21st century skill; it can take place in a remote or co-located setting. Co-located collaboration (CC) is a very complex process which involves subtle human interactions that can be described with multimodal indicators (MI) like gaze, speech and social skills. In this paper, we first give an overview of related work th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gamification has gained great interest recently in several fields. However, while the literature reports that a gamification design relying on external motivation only can lead users to cognitive dissonance, most gamification approaches use points, badges and leaderboards as dominant game elements. We present our developed testable predictions with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gamification is well known as a design strategy used to generate a change in users’ behaviour, such as motivation. However, while in recent years interest in it has been growing, empirical evidence on the effects that the application of game elements can generate on users’ behaviour is still lacking. We present the results of a study as a step towa...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we present a conceptual reference framework for designing augmented reality applications for supporting training. The framework leverages the capabilities of modern augmented reality and wearable technology for capturing the expert’s performance in order to support expertise development. It has been designed in the context of Weara...
Article
In today's technological era, emerging educational technologies, such as digital badges, have shown the potential for fostering student learning. To examine the major considerations undergirding the design of digital badges used in an educational context, a conceptual literature review of multidisciplinary electronic databases oriented towards comp...
Article
Full-text available
Inquiry-based Learning is increasingly suggested as an efficient approach for fostering learners' curiosity and motivation. It helps learners to develop their ability to work on complex and unpredictable environments making them more critical thinkers and agentic learners. Although, mobile technology is a suitable support for this learning process,...
Conference Paper
DojoIBL1 is a cloud based platform that provides flexible support for collaborative inquiry-based learning processes. It expands the learning process beyond the classroom walls and brings it to an online setting. Such transition requires teachers and learners to have more means to track and to follow up their progress. Learning Analytics dashboards...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the design of a Multimodal Tutor, a prototypical adaptive feedback system based on multimodal capture of learning experiences. The system is designed for practice-based and workplace learning, i.e. those learning settings in which the trainees need to acquire some procedural knowledge for the execution of practical tasks. The f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) have increasingly become objects of research interest and studies in recent years. While MOOCs could be a means to address massive audiences, they suffer from high drop-out rates and low user engagement. Gamification is known as the application of game design elements in non-gaming scenarios to solve problems or...