Marcus Selart

Marcus Selart
NHH Norwegian School of Economics | NHH · Department of Strategy and Management

Professor at Norwegian School of Economics
Decision Making, Behavioral Management Science, Economics, Behavioral Economics, Psychology

About

101
Publications
197,363
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Introduction
My research areas include decision making in organizational contexts, political behavior and trust in organizations, uncertainty management, the business ethics of decision making, and the economic psychology of values, choices, and risks. My expertise spans experimental and applied research methods,field research, theory development, and development of decision analytic tools.
Education
September 1990 - November 1994
University of Gothenburg
Field of study
  • Economic decision making

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Across two studies the hypotheses were tested that stressful situations affect both leadership ethical acting and leaders’ recognition of ethical dilemmas. In the studies, decision makers recruited from 3 sites of a Swedish multinational civil engineering company provided personal data on stressful situations, made ethical decisions, and answered t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The study aims at clarifying whether locus of control may act as a bias in organisational decision-making or not. Design/methodology/approach – Altogether 44 managers working at Skanska (a Swedish multinational construction company) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a booklet including a locus of control test and a co...
Article
Full-text available
This article evaluates the effects of two types of rewards (performance-contingent versus engagement-contingent) on self-regulation, intrinsic motivation and creativity. Forty-two under-graduate students were randomly assigned to three conditions; i.e. a performance-contingent reward group, an engagement-contingent reward group and a control group....
Book
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This book is concerned with helping you improve your approach to decision-making. The author examines judgement in a selection of managerial contexts and provides important understanding that can help you make better leadership decisions. This book also pinpoints the in-house politics of organisational decision-making. Drawing on the very latest re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the relationships between organizational change and trust in management. It is argued that organizational change represents a critical episode for the production and destruction of trust in management. Although trust in management is seen as a semi stable psychological state, changes in organizations make trust issues salien...
Chapter
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The theme of this entry is how ethical decision making is influenced by leadership stress. From a traditional point of view, stress is seen as a potential threat to leaders’ ethical decisions (Selart and Johansen 2011). There is substantial evidence suggesting that stress has a negative impact on leaders’ cognition and information processing, leadi...
Preprint
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In this paper, we uncover the relationships among social trust, corruption and the duration of economic crises. Our theoretical foundation is based on a collection of studies from different academic fields, especially political science, sociology and economics. We corroborate our arguments with both descriptive analysis and regression analysis of s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mindfulness has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the field of management. However, even though mindfulness – broadly viewed as a state of active awareness – has been described mainly at the individual level, it may also have important effects at aggregated levels. In this article, we adopt a team-based conceptualization of mindfulness...
Preprint
Full-text available
The central idea of this study is to focus on the sensitivity-to-framing and thus build on the older research tradition that has studied the concept of field dependence-independence. It is assumed that the extent to which individuals are susceptible to figure-embedded framing has a bearing on their sensitivity to framing in other more specialized f...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the field of management. However, even though mindfulness – broadly viewed as a state of active awareness – has been described mainly at the individual level, it may also have important effects at aggregated levels. In this article, we adopt a team‐based conceptualization of mindfulness...
Preprint
Firm leaders’ inclination to adapt their business model is sensitive to how risk is framed (as an external threat or an opportunity) in the macro-economic environment. We apply threat-rigidity theory to examine the relationship between risk framing and business model adaptation. We also investigate if emotionality has explanatory value for how mana...
Article
Firm leaders’ inclination to adapt their business model is sensitive to how risk is framed (as an external threat or an opportunity) in the macro-economic environment. We apply threat-rigidity theory to examine the relationship between risk framing and business model adaptation. We also investigate if emotionality has explanatory value for how mana...
Article
Mindfulness has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the field of management. However, even thoughmindfulness–broadly viewed as a state of active awareness–has been described mainly at the individual level, itmay also have important effects at aggregated levels. In this article, we adopt a team-based conceptualization ofmindfulness, and d...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper details an experimental study ( n =197) that explores how different types of managerial change justifications affect employees’ reactions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of managerial justification of a controversial decision in referential terms, ideological terms or a combination of the two. Design/methodol...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which psychological empowerment and felt obligation can explain variations in personal initiative. Design/methodology/approach Employees from a Swedish organization participated in a web-based survey. Findings Psychological empowerment is important for enhancing proactive behavior...
Article
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The effect of leadership behavior on work performance is highly context sensitive. We address this notion by investigating leadership behavior in one important but understudied organizational context—namely, professional service firms (PSFs). We examine how partners’ leadership behavior in a PSF relates to employee self-leadership, creative climate...
Article
Cultural intelligence (CQ), the capability by which expatriates, managers, and others involved in cross-cultural interactions function effectively in a globalized world, was introduced in 2002 and has garnered wide attention recently. In this paper, we present a detailed and up-to-date review of 142 empirical articles in the CQ research field. We f...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the precise role of intrinsic motivation and autonomy in relation to intellectual stimulation in creating a creative climate in a professional services firm. The intention is to discover whether theories that stress the primacy of the need for intrinsic motivation and autonomy over other manageri...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested a model of the relationship between work performance, employee personality, and perceived career development. The model hypothesized that employee personality (extraversion) modifies the relationship between work characteristics (task, diversity, work feedback) and perceived career development. Results revealed that work character...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we argue that trust can be better understood in relation to people’s attempts to deal with vulnerability in social interactions. Different situations afford different forms of adaptation that correspond to different forms of trust. We describe three forms of trust: trust as a decision, trust as a performance and trust as an uncontr...
Article
Full-text available
By adopting social exchange theory and the affect-infusion-model, the hypothesis is made that emotional intelligence (EI) will have an impact on three perceptions of trustworthiness – ability, integrity and benevolence – at the beginning of a relationship. It was also hypothesized that additional information would gradually displace EI in forming t...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the impact of different emotions on trust decisions taking into account the experience of betrayal. Thus, an experiment was created that included one betrayal group and one control group. Participants in the betrayal group experienced more intense feelings governed by negative emotions than participants in the control grou...
Article
Full-text available
In two experimental studies we explore to what extent the general effects of positive and negative framing also apply to positive and negative persuasion. Our results reveal that negative persuasion induces substantially higher levels of skepticism and awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in positiv...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore how and under what conditions two different leadership roles are able to facilitate an organizational climate that supports creativity. The study was conducted in a leading professional service firm. The introduced hypotheses were tested by means of a structural equation model. Findings indicate that the lea...
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to delineate the interaction between trust, emotion, and ethical decision making. The authors first propose that trust can either incite an individual toward ethical decisions or drag him or her away from ethical decisions, depending on different situations. The authors then postulate that the feeling of guilt is central in unde...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we seek to disentangle goals and trust, and argue that people’s goals while interacting with other people is likely to influence the experience of trust. This again builds on the assumptions that trust is not merely a basis for decisions but a factor that influences (often favorably) other valued outcomes. Our experience of trust help...
Conference Paper
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In this article we argue that the experience and effects of trust are influenced by how people construe trust in specific situations – people are not merely passive receptacles of information but bring their own understanding of trust to social situations (Bandura, 1989). Drawing on the literature on conceptual metaphors we describe these as three...
Article
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Whereas there is extensive documentation that attribute framing influences the content of people’s thought, we generally know less about how it affects the processes assumed to precede those thoughts. While existing explanations for attribute framing effects rely completely on valence-based associative processing, the results obtained in the presen...
Article
Full-text available
Crisis prevention plans are usually evaluated based on their effects in terms of preventing or limiting organizational crisis. In this survey-based study, the focus was instead on how such plans influence employees’ reactions in terms of risk perception and well-being. Five different organizations were addressed in the study. Hypothesis 1 tested th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to expand our understanding of initial trust by looking at how variation in risk influences the nature of trust and the process of initial trust formation. Four hypotheses were tested in two experiments involving participants with and without work experience. A first hypothesis suggested a positive relationship between a general p...
Chapter
Employee commitment and participation in organizational decision-making and problem solving are two of the more heavily-researched areas in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. This chapter takes stock of the research-based knowledge on participation and commitment prior to, during, and after organizational change. Based on this r...
Chapter
Employee commitment and participation in organizational decision-making and problem solving are two of the more heavily-researched areas in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. This chapter takes stock of the research-based knowledge on participation and commitment prior to, during, and after organizational change. Based on this r...
Chapter
Full-text available
Employee commitment and participation in organizational decision-making and problem solving are two of the more heavily-researched areas in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. This chapter takes stock of the research-based knowledge on participation and commitment prior to, during, and after organizational change. Based on this r...
Book
This handbook is the first in the eight volume series published by Wiley Blackwell covering the domain of I/O Psychology (Business Psychology). The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Leadership, Change, and Organizational Development uses a psychological perspective, and a uniquely global focus, to review the latest literature and resear...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals as well as organizations often need to work together to achieve economies of scale and scope. However, collaboration can be a challenge, and one example in which the potential benefit of cooperation has been difficult to realize are joint operations within the Norwegian farming industry. Thus, the purpose of this article is to illuminat...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have recognized that interpersonal trust consists of different dimensions. These dimensions suggest that trust can be rational, cognitive, or affective. Affect, which includes moods and emotions, is likely to have a direct impact on the affective dimension. On the other hand, there are also studies showing that affect indirectly influen...
Book
This book presents current research from across the globe in the study of the psychology of decision-making. Topics discussed include the point of view of neuroscience in decision-making; behavioral economics and decision-making in organizations; affective and cognitive approaches to assessing decision-making in overweight and obesity; multi-criter...
Article
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The universality versus culture specificity of quantitative evaluations (negative-positive) of 40 events in world history was addressed using World History Survey data collected from 5,800 university students in 30 countries/societies. Multidimensional scaling using generalized procrustean analysis indicated poor fit of data from the 30 countries t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Researchers have recognized that interpersonal trust consists of different dimensions. These dimensions suggest that trust can be rational, cognitive, or affective. Affect, which includes moods and emotions, is likely to have a direct impact on the affective dimension. On the other hand, there are also studies showing that affect indirectly influen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Organizational culture is the sum of the values and norms in a corporation. The integration perspective implies that an organizational culture is a unifying and inclusive force. The differentiation perspective involves a focus on cultural differences and the existence of subcultures, while the fragmentation perspective is characterized by the actor...
Article
Full-text available
In a couple of classical studies, Keeney proposed two sets of variables labelled as value‐focused thinking (VFT) and alternative‐focused thinking (AFT). Value‐focused thinking (VFT), he argued, is a creative method that centres on the different decision objectives and how as many alternatives as possible may be generated from them. Alternative‐focu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article investigates the impact of different emotions on trust decisions taking the experience of betrayal into account. Thus, an experiment was created which included one betrayal group and one control group. Participants in the betrayal group experienced more intense feelings governed by negative emotions than participants in the control gro...
Article
Individuals that usually work independently may find it challenging to form projects where team members are highly interdependent. The purpose of this paper is to explore conflict and cooperation processes when these individuals engage in joint operations. We made extensive interviews and gathered data in twelve joint operations in the dairy farmin...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational learning can be described as a transfer of individuals' cognitive mental models to shared mental models. Employees seeking the same colleagues for advice are structurally equivalent, and the aim of the paper is to study if the concept can act as a way to organizational learning. It is argued that the mimicking of colleagues' advice s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Some scientific quarters have long regarded habits as barriers to creativity together with certain perceptions and emotions (Khare, 1996). For instance, it has often been argued that although everyday thinking can be useful when we need to solve problems similar to those that we have been confronted with before, they nevertheless otten misguide us...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research on human decision making is at the present time undergoing rapid changes. From previously being much focused on models and approaches with an origin in economy, much of the present day research finds its inspiration from disciplinary approaches concerned with incorporating more of the context that the decision making takes place in. This c...
Book
Full-text available
This volume presents research that integrates decision making and creativity within the social contexts in which these processes occur. The volume is an essential addition to and expansion of recent approaches to decision making. Such approaches attempt to incorporate more of the psychological and socio-cultural context in which human decision maki...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter makes it clear that a significant element of both leadership and decision making is the development aspect. Leaders develop in their decision making by being confronted with difficult decision situations. However, they also develop through various forms of systemized training and education. Different leaders tend to develop in differen...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter it is pointed out that leaders who make decisions normally rely on both their intuition and their analytical thinking. Modern research shows that intuitive thinking has the potential to support the analytical, if used properly. Leaders must therefore be aware of the possibilities and limitations of intuition. Fresh thinking and inno...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter illustrates that in order to reach a decision a leader must decide which persons should be involved in the process and when. A relatively common method of involving others is delegating the decision to a group. A main objective of this is often to generate as many innovative ideas as possible, and different techniques can be employed f...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter includes a discussion of leadership decisions and stress. Many leaders are daily exposed to stress when they must make decisions, and there are often social reasons for this. Social standards suggest that a leader must be proactive and make decisions and not flee the situation. Conflict often creates stress in decision-making situation...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter it is demonstrated that the way in which leaders implement a decision largely depends on the nature of it, that is, whether it is strategic or not. Leaders must be as open as possible and not withhold information from the persons involved in the process. Therefore, they should distribute as much relevant information as possible to m...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, it is demonstrated that the concepts of leadership and organization are closely linked. A leader should initially get to know the organizational culture as well as possible. Such a culture can for example be authoritarian and conformist or innovative and progressive in nature. The assumption is that leaders are influenced by their...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Established theories on trust-development explain trust as a product of information, portraying individuals as passive receptacles of trust-related information. These theories tend to portray the development of trust as a decision problem while ignoring the goals of the trustor. In this paper we suggest an alternative perspective of trust and trust...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
By adopting social exchange theory and the affect-infusion-model, we hypothesized that emotional intelligence (EI) would have an impact on three perceptions of trustworthiness – ability, integrity and benevolence – at the beginning of a relationship. We also hypothesized that additional information would gradually displace EI in forming the above p...
Article
Full-text available
One hundred and ninety participants (95 undergraduates and 95 employees) responded to a factorial survey in which a number of case-based organizational allocation tasks were described. Participants were asked to imagine themselves as employees in fictitious organizations and chose among three allocations of employee-development schemes invested by...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that the design of decisions is a process that in many ways is shaped by social factors such as identities, values, and influences. To be able to understand how these factors impact organizational decisions, the focus must be set on the management level. It is the management that shoulders the chief responsibility for designing collect...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that the design of decisions is a process that in many ways is shaped by social factors such as identities, values, and influences. To be able to understand how these factors impact organizational decisions, the focus must be set on the management level. It is the management that shoulders the chief responsibility for designing collect...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how IT managers' decision styles affect their evaluation of information technology. Design/methodology/approach – Four different decision styles were assessed in a leadership test directed towards IT managers. Each style included two dimensions: confidence judgment ability and decision heuristic usa...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated how planning affects intention-behavior consistency. In Study 1 an experimental group and control group which each consisted of 14 undergraduates were requested in computerized interviews to indicate which activities they intended to perform on the following day. Subjects in the experimental group were also requested in a s...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that the design of decisions is a process that in many ways is shaped by social factors such as identities, values, and influences. To be able to understand how these factors impact organizational decisions, the focus must be set on the management level. It is the management that shoulders the chief responsibility for designing collect...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the influence of information search constraints both on the information search pattern and on the perceived inner states during the decision making process. We arranged the following three information search constraints con-ditions: (1) An upper-limited-search (UL) condition in which a decision maker could not examine the...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study it was shown that decision heuristics and confidence judgements play important roles in the building of preferences. Based on a dual-process account of thinking, the study compared people who did well versus poorly on a series of decision heuristics and overconfidence judgement tasks. The two groups were found to differ with re...
Article
Full-text available
An important problem for decision-makers in society deals with the efficient and equitable allocation of scarce resources to individuals and groups. The significance of this problem is rapidly growing since there is a rising demand for scarce resources all over the world. Such resource dilemmas belong to a conceptually broader class of situations k...
Article
Full-text available
A path model of organizational creativity was presented; it conceptualized the influences of information sharing, learning culture, motivation, and networking on creative climate. A structural equation model was fitted to data from the pharmaceutical industry to test the proposed model. The model accounted for 86% of the variance in the creative cl...
Chapter
Full-text available
Trust has a great potential for furthering our understanding of organizational change and learning. This potential however remains largely untapped. It is argued that two reasons as for why this potential remains unrealized are: (i) A narrow conceptualization of change as implementation and (ii) an emphasis on direct and aggregated effects of indiv...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how different forms of performance evaluation relate to aspects of the creative climate in a major pharmaceutical company. The study was based on a large employee-attitude survey that was distributed to all company employees. The study analyses survey results from 5,333 employees at five R&D sites. The results indicate that mana...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research on human decision making is at the present time undergoing rapid changes. From previously being much focused on models and approaches with an origin in economy, much of the present day research finds its inspiration from disciplinary approaches concerned with incorporating more of the context that the decision making takes place in. This c...
Chapter
Full-text available
Some scientific quarters have long regarded habits as barriers to creativity together with certain perceptions and emotions (Khare, 1996). For instance, it has often been argued that although everyday thinking can be useful when we need to solve problems similar to those that we have been confronted with before, they nevertheless often misguide us...
Book
Decision making is a complex phenomenon which normally is deeply integrated into social life. At the same time the decision making process often gives the decision maker an opportunity for conscious planning and for taking a reflective stance with respect to the action considered. This suggests that decision making allows creative solutions with a...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study it was shown that both decision heuristics and social value orientation play important roles in the building of preferences. This was revealed in decision tasks in which participants were deciding about candidates for a job position. An eye-tracking equipment was applied in order to register participants´ information acquisitio...
Article
Full-text available
In an experiment, it was found that information acquisition format of the presented information affected both the nature of the preferences as well as the duration of depth of search and response latency. It was also found that participants attended more to negative than to positive information independent of whether their task was to select or rej...
Article
Full-text available
The representation and use of spatial information in large-scale environments are discussed in this chapter. In the chapter there are 2 primary uses of such information: first to make possible informed choices of destinations and routes, and second to help a traveller to navigate. The primary methods and ways of studying these 2 uses are then prese...
Article
Two experiments with undergraduates as subjects tested explanations of how a prior temporary income change influences choices between buying and deferred buying. In Experiment 1 predictions from the behavioral life-cycle theory (Shefrin & Thaler, 1988), the renewable resources model (Linville & Fischer, 1991) and the loss-sensitivity principle (Gar...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses different perspectives and trends in social decision making, especially the actual processes used by humans when they make decisions in their everyday lives or in business situations. The chapter uses cognitive psychological techniques to break down these processes and set them in their social context. Most of our decisions a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mental accounting is a concept associated with the work of Richard Thaler. According to Thaler, people think of value in relative rather than absolute terms. They derive pleasure not just from an object’s value, but also the quality of the deal – its transaction utility (Thaler, 1985). In addition, humans often fail to fully consider opportunity co...
Article
Full-text available
An operational model of household activity scheduling is proposed. The model is based on a theory entailing behavioral principles of how persons acquire, represent, and use information from and about the environment. Choices of destinations and departure times are consequences of the scheduling of a set of activities to be executed in a given time...
Article
Full-text available
When a prominent attribute looms larger in one response procedure than in another, a violation of procedure invariance occurs. A hypothesis based on com-patibility between the structure of the input information and the required output was tested as an explanation of this phenomenon. It was also compared with other existing hypotheses in the field....
Article
Full-text available
Research on preference reversals has demonstrated a disproportionate influence of outcome probability on choices between monetary gambles. The aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this is a prominence effect originally demonstrated for riskless choice. Another aim was to test the structure compatibility hypothesis as an explanation of the eff...
Article
Selart, M., & Boe, O. Insights in the habitual nature of creative decision making. Göteborg Psychological Reports, 1998, 28, No 4. A questionnaire study was conducted in order to test the idea that creative decision making may be looked upon as a conscious and controlled habit which appears in everyday life. The results of the questionnaire reveale...