Marcos Villacis

Marcos Villacis
Escuela Politécnica Nacional | EPN · Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental

PhD in Hydrology

About

88
Publications
47,009
Reads
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1,707
Citations
Citations since 2016
35 Research Items
1335 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
Currently I work as a full time professor at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Quito. My research activities are part of the assessment of impacts of climate variability and climate change on the availability of water resources in the ecosystems of the tropical region.
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
Escuela Politécnica Nacional
Position
  • Environmental Hydrology
January 2013 - present
Escuela Politécnica Nacional
Position
  • General Hydrology
October 2010 - present
Escuela Politécnica Nacional
Position
  • Water Resources Planning
Education
September 2004 - April 2008
Université de Montpellier
Field of study
  • Continental Water and Society
October 2002 - September 2003
Sorbonne Université
Field of study
  • Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Hydrochemistry and Geostatistique
September 1994 - August 2001
Escuela Politécnica Nacional
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
Full-text available
AguAndes is a research project designed to promote the integrated water resources management (IWRM) in Andean basins. Within the current political context of the water management reorganization in Ecuador, IWRM on the region of Quito constitute a pilot project characterized by: (a) strong socio-economic growth transforming agricultural lands to urb...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerated melting of glaciers is expected to have a negative effect on the water resources of mountain regions and their adjacent lowlands, with tropical mountain regions being among the most vulnerable. In order to quantify those impacts, it is necessary to understand the changing dynamics of glacial melting, but also to map how glacial meltwate...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and...
Article
Full-text available
Most Latin American glaciers are located in the tropical Andes. The melting processes of glacier “15” on Antisana volcano were studied to understand the relationship between glacier retreat and natural climate variability and/or global climate change. Glaciers on the Antisana volcano are crucial sources of water as they feed the headwater rivers wh...
Data
Full-text available
A Rutter-type canopy interception model is combined with a 1-D physically-based soil water flow model to compare deep percolation rates below distinct land covers. The joint model allows the quantification of both evaporation and transpiration rates as well as deep percolation from vegetation and soil characteristics. Experimental observations are...
Article
Full-text available
This study finds the relationship between increases in precipitable water vapor (PWV), and intense rainfall events in four different climatological regions of South America's equatorial northwest: the coast, Andes valley, high mountains, and Amazon. First, the PWV was derived from tropospheric zenith delay measured by Global Navigation Satellite Sy...
Article
Full-text available
In fields such as hydrology, meteorology, and civil engineering, the study of extreme precipitation events is useful to prevent rainfall related disasters. A widely-used practice to address such a problem is by using statistical inferences about precipitation intensity, duration and frequency (IDF). Despite of its great usefulness, the selection of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vegetation plays a key role in the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. It can influence soil water fluxes and transport which are critical for chemical weathering and soil development. In this study, we investigated soil water balance and solute fluxes in two soil profiles with different vegetation types (cushion-forming plants vs. tussock gras...
Article
Full-text available
Soil hydraulic properties control the provision of hydrological services. Vegetation and topography influence these properties by altering soil structure and porosity. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood for the high Andean region. In this study, we examined how vegetation and topographic attributes are related to soil hydraulic...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical glaciers are excellent indicators of climate variability due to their fast response to temperature and precipitation variations. At same time, they supply freshwater to downstream populations. In this study, a hydro-glaciological model was adapted to analyze the influence of meteorological forcing on melting and discharge variations at Gla...
Article
Full-text available
Study region The upper part of the Guayllabamba and Napo basins (78.2 ° W, 0.3 °S; 18,500 km²) in the equatorial Andes, which are vulnerable to stress on the ecosystem services. Study focus This paper analyses the diurnal cycle of precipitation over a transect from the Andes to the Amazon. The diurnal cycle is estimated as the diurnal distribution...
Article
Full-text available
The precipitation phase (PP) affects the hydrologic cycle which in turn affects the climate system. A lower ratio of snow to rain due to climate change affects timing and duration of the stream flow. Thus, more knowledge about the PP occurrence and drivers is necessary and especially important in cities dependent on water coming from glaciers, such...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring precipitation in mountainous areas using traditional tipping-bucket rain gauges (TPB) has become challenging in sites with strong variations of air temperature and wind speed (Ws). The drop size distributions (DSD), amount, and precipitation-type of a Parsivel OTT2 disdrometer installed at 4730 m above sea level (close to the 0 °C isothe...
Presentation
Full-text available
We compare the soil organic carbon content and stocks under two vegetation types in ecuadorian paramos. Results suggest that cushion plants increase soil organic carbon concentration, but decrease the stored stock due to a lowered soil bulk density
Article
Full-text available
Mountainous regions are a hotspot for water scarcity and anthropogenic pressure on water resources. Substantial uncertainty surrounds projections of future climate and water availability. Furthermore, quantitative and distributed data on water demand are generally scarce, dispersed, and highly heterogeneous. This forms a major bottleneck to study w...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Los cambios en el uso del suelo y cobertura de la tierra son las principales razones de la alteración hidrológica en los Andes tropicales. Sin embargo, cuantificar sus impactos resulta complicado debido a la diversidad extrema de condiciones meteorológicas, lo que se combina con el vacío de conocimiento acerca de los procesos hidrológicos a escala...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most difficult weather variables to predict is rain, particularly intense rain. The main limitation is the complexity of the fluid dynamic equations used by predictive models with increasing uncertainties over time, especially in the description of brief, local, and high intensity precipitation events. Although computational, instrumenta...
Poster
Full-text available
In high elevation tropical Andean ecosystems (páramos) little is still known about vegetation feedbacks on soil properties. At high elevation páramos (above 4100m), it is possible to find high diversity and co-dominance of plant species over short distances. In these landscapes, cushion plants and tussock grasses dominate alongside shrubs. These ve...
Article
Full-text available
Modern hydrology relies on multiple sources of information combined with climatological, hydrological and glaciological data. These data can be collected through various sources such as private initiatives by companies, research programs, and both national and international organisms. They also vary by types, e.g., in situ measurements, satellite,...
Article
Full-text available
The Galapagos Archipelago is a semiarid zone scarce of superficial water resources. Due to its geographic location and the presence of oceanic currents, these islands are covered by fog during seven months along the year which could represent a potential source of water supply. In this study, the feasibility of fog collection for domestic rural use...
Chapter
El mundo ha avanzado con la llegada de la ciencia y tecnología desde los diversos campos que la conforman con una visión de innovación involucrando a la sociedad y así satisfacer las necesidades que se han convertido en una problemática para el campo científico. El camino para llegar a un concepto de ciudades inteligentes, por ejemplo, puede conjug...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a hydrometeorological dataset from a network of paired instrumented catchments, obtained by participatory monitoring through a partnership of academic and non-governmental institutions. The network consists of 28 headwater catchments (o 20 km 2) covering three major biomes in 9 locations of the tropical Andes. The data consist...
Article
Full-text available
Current knowledge of caves and karst regions of Ecuador is scarce and broadly limited to discrete areas such as that of the Galápagos volcanokarst. In continental Ecuador, carbonate karst mostly outcrops in the Amazonian basin and accounts for 5–10% of the surface of the country. However, owing to the difficulties of access within the Amazonian rai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rain, and especially intense rain, is one of the most difficult natural phenomena to predict. One of the main limitations are the fluid dynamics equations used by climate models to describe extreme events satisfactorily. Recent literature proposes new relations, from complex systems and continuous phase transitions physics, which suggest the occurr...
Book
Full-text available
The Andean glaciers, due to their high variability to temperature and precipitation variations are of great interest for assessing climatic fluctuations. In this project, a hydro glaciological model was adapted to analyze the influence of meteorological conditions on the production of melting flow in glacier 12 of the Antisana volcano (4735-5705 ma...
Article
Full-text available
Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been retreating for the past several decades, leading to a temporary increase in dry season water supply downstream. Projected future glacier shrinkage, however, will lead to a long-term reduction in dry season river discharge from glacierized catchments. This glacier retreat is closely related to the observed in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In partial glacierized basins worldwide, the glacier recession driven by climatic factors has had a great impact on water availability for populations who depend directly on glacier melt water. Such is the case of Quito (2.2 million of habitants), the capital of Ecuador, which depends on a network of water intakes located at the Antisana massif (0...
Article
Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been retreating for the past several decades, leading to a temporary increase in dry season water supply downstream. Projected future glacier shrinkage, however, will lead to a long-term reduction in dry season river discharge from glacierized catchments. This glacier retreat is closely related to the observed in...
Article
With changes in climate looming, quantifying often-overlooked components of the canopy water budget, such as cloud water interception (CWI), is increasingly important. Commonly, CWI quantification requires detailed continuous measurements, which is extremely challenging, especially when throughfall is included. In this study, we propose a simplifie...
Article
La forte croissance socio-économique de Quito a conduit à d’importants projets de transferts interbassins, intensifiant la mobilisation des ressources d’altitude situées dans des zones écologiques sensibles et connaissant une fonte accélérée des glaciers. Afin d’étudier divers scénarios d’évolutions, nous proposons une modélisation du continuum cli...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in land use and land cover are major drivers of hydrological alteration in the tropical Andes. However, quantifying their impacts is fraught with difficulties because of the extreme diversity in meteorological boundary conditions, which contrasts strongly with the lack of knowledge about local hydrological processes. Although local studies...
Article
Full-text available
We present a basic ablation model combining a positive degree-day approach to calculate melting and a simple equation based on wind speed to compute sublimation. The model was calibrated at point scale (4900 m a.s.l.) on Antizana Glacier 15 (0.28 km2; 0°28' S, 78°09' W) with data from March 2002 to August 2003 and validated with data from January t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tropical Andean catchments deliver a large portfolio of ecosystem services, including an abundant supply of clean fresh water. At the same time, they are undergoing dramatic changes in land use as a result of local rural development, with potentially serious impact on the hydrological response. The severity of their degradation contrasts strongly w...
Article
The strong socio-economic growth of Quito has led to significant projects of inter-basin transfers, intensifying high-altitude resources mobilization in environmentally sensitive areas and with accelerated melting of glaciers. In order to study various future scenarios, we propose modelling of the climate/glacier/hydrology/water resources managemen...
Article
Full-text available
A Rutter-type canopy interception model is combined with a 1-D physically-based soil water flow model to compare deep percolation rates below distinct land covers. The joint model allows the quantification of both evaporation and transpiration rates as well as deep percolation from vegetation and soil characteristics. Experimental observations are...
Article
Tropical glaciers in the central Andes cover about 1920 square kilometers in Bolivia (20%), Peru (71%), Ecuador (4%), and Colombia-Venezuela (4%). They play a significant role in freshwater availability in highly populated regions and are key indicators of recent climate changes in poorly documented mountainous regions [Rabatel et al., 2013]. To s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conceptual models in volcanic island aquifers remain an issue in many regions of the world, as usually, little hydrogeological information is available about these areas. This research evaluates the influence of the geological evolution of San Cristóbal (558 km2, Galápagos archipelago) in its aquifers and springs using classical field geological me...
Article
This paper depicts opinions that condense the thinking of different sectors (i.e., academia, government, private sector, etc.) dealing in certain degree with the management of Ecuadorian water resources. Particularly, the manuscript echoes the main conclusions of a national Workshop that was held in Quito by mid 2014, about the sustainable use of w...
Article
Full-text available
A positive degree-day (PDD) model was tested on Antizana Glacier 15$alpha$ (0.28 km2; 0°28' S, 78°09' W) to assess to what extent this approach is suitable for studying glacier mass balance in the inner tropics. Cumulative positive temperatures were compared with field measurements of melting amount and with surface energy balance computations. A s...
Conference Paper
A positive degree-day (PDD) model was tested on Antizana Glacier 15alfa (0.28 km2; 0o28’S, 78o09’W) to assess to what extent this approach is adapted to study glacier mass balance in the inner tropics. Cumulative positive temperature amounts were compared with field measurements of melting and with surface energy balance omputations, showing a sign...
Data
Worldwide, the rapid shrinking of glaciers in re- sponse to ongoing climate change is modifying the glacial meltwater contribution to hydrosystems in glacierized catch- ments. Determining the influence of glacial runoff to streams is therefore of critical importance to evaluate potential im- pact of glacier retreat on water quality and aquatic biota...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, the rapid shrinking of glaciers in response to ongoing climate change is currently modifying the glacial meltwater contribution to hydrosystems in glacierized catchments. Assessing the contribution of glacier run-off to stream discharge is therefore of critical importance to evaluate potential impact of glacier retreat on water quality a...
Article
Worldwide, the rapid shrinking of glaciers in response to ongoing climate change is currently modifying the glacial meltwater contribution to hydrosystems in glacierized catchments. Assessing the contribution of glacier run-off to stream discharge is therefore of critical importance to evaluate potential impact of glacier retreat on water quality a...
Article
Full-text available
A positive degree day (PDD) model was tested against surface energy balance results on Antizana Glacier 15 (0.7 km2; 0o28'S, 78o09'W) to assess whether PDD models may reflect the local physical ablation processes in the tropical Andes. Modeling at one point shows that daily ablation processes are sometimes incorrectly reproduced by the PDD model be...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to provide the community with a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the l...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to determine the effects of climate change in the weather variability in the Metropolitan District of Quito and its surroundings in the last 30 years. For this purpose, using data from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología - INAMHI), two statistical treatments wer...