Marcos Longo

Marcos Longo
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | LBL · Climate and Ecosystem Sciences

PhD

About

112
Publications
37,344
Reads
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3,913
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
3014 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - March 2014
Harvard University
Position
  • PhD Student
March 2001 - March 2003
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Master’s Degree

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forest dynamics play crucial roles in the global carbon, water, and energy cycles. Dynamic global vegetation models are the primary tools to simulate terrestrial ecosystem dynamics and their response to climate change. However, realistically simulating the dynamics of competition and coexistence of differing plant functional traits within...
Article
Full-text available
Hurricanes are expected to intensify throughout the 21st century, yet the impact of frequent major hurricanes on tropical ecosystems remains unknown. To investigate tropical forest damage and recovery under different hurricane regimes, we generate a suite of scenarios based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 climate projections and in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Southeast Asian peatlands are climatically important ecosystems, storing approximately 70 billion tons of carbon. Natural and human-induced droughts are lowering peatland water tables, increasing decomposition and the risk of peat-burning wildfires. The rapid nature of carbon losses arising from peatland drainage and accompanying fire-related losse...
Preprint
Full-text available
Forest biodiversity is critical for many ecosystem functions and services at plot scale, but it is uncertain how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning across environmental gradients and contiguous larger areas. We used remote sensing and process-based terrestrial biosphere modeling to explore functional diversity–productivity relationships...
Article
Full-text available
Hurricanes commonly disturb and damage tropical forests. Hurricane frequency and intensity are predicted to change under the changing climate. The short-term impacts of hurricane disturbances to tropical forests have been widely studied, but the long-term impacts are rarely investigated. Modeling is critical to investigate the potential response of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Tropical forests are critical for the global carbon budget, yet they have been threatened by deforestation and forest degradation by fire, selective logging, and fragmentation. Existing uncertainties in land cover classification and in biomass estimates hinder accurate attribution of carbon emissions to specific land covers. In this stu...
Article
Full-text available
Transpiration is often considered to be light- but not water-limited in humid tropical rainforests due to abundant soil water, even during the dry seasons. The record-breaking 2015-16 El Niño drought provided a unique opportunity to examine whether transpiration is constrained by water under severe lack of rainfall. We measured sap velocity, soil w...
Article
Full-text available
Land and Earth system modeling is moving towards more explicit biophysical representations, requiring increasing variety of datasets for initialization and benchmarking. However, researchers often have difficulties in identifying and integrating non-standardized datasets from various sources. We aim towards a standardized database and one-stop dist...
Article
Tropical forest degradation (e.g., anthropogenic disturbances such as selective logging and fires) alters forest structure and function and influences the forest's carbon sink. In this study, we explored structure-function relationships across a variety of degradation levels in the southern Brazilian Amazon by 1) investigating how forest structural...
Article
Full-text available
The seasonal-to-decadal terrestrial water balance on river basin scales depends on several well-characterized but uncertain soil physical processes, including soil moisture, plant available water, rooting depth, and recharge to lower soil layers. Reducing uncertainties in these quantities using observations is a key step toward improving the data f...
Article
1. LiDAR data are being increasingly used to provide a detailed characterization of the vertical profile of forests. This characterization enables the generation of new insights on the influence of environmental drivers and anthropogenic disturbances on forest structure as well as on how forest structure influences important ecosystem functions and...
Article
Full-text available
NASAs Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is collecting space-borne full waveform lidar data with a primary science goal of producing accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass density (AGBD). This paper presents the development of the models used to create GEDIs footprint-level (~25 m) AGBD (GEDI04_A) product, including a descript...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hurricanes commonly disturb and damage tropical forests. It is predicted that changes in climate will result in changes in hurricane frequency and intensity. Modeling is needed to investigate the potential response of forests to future disturbances. Unfortunately, existing models of forests dynamics are not presently able to account for hurricane d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent progress in satellite observations has provided unprecedented opportunities to monitor vegetation activity on the global scale. However, a major challenge in fully utilizing remotely sensed data to constrain land surface models (LSMs) lies in inconsistencies between simulated and observed quantities. Transpiration and gross primary productiv...
Article
is collecting spaceborne full waveform lidar data with a primary science goal of producing accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass density (AGBD). This paper presents the development of the models used to create GEDI's footprint-level (~25 m) AGBD (GEDI04_A) product, including a description of the datasets used and the procedure for final...
Article
Full-text available
Lianas are a key growth form in tropical forests. Their lack of self-supporting tissues and their vertical position on top of the canopy make them strong competitors of resources. A few pioneer studies have shown that liana optical traits differ on average from those of colocated trees. Those trait discrepancies were hypothesized to be responsible...
Article
Full-text available
Droughts in a warming climate have become more common and more extreme, making understanding forest responses to water stress increasingly pressing. Analysis of water stress in trees has long focused on water potential in xylem and leaves, which influences stomatal closure and water flow through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. At the same time...
Article
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) vegetation canopy structure plays an important role in the way radiationinteracts with the land surface. Accurately representing this process in Earth System Models(ESMs) is crucial for the modeling of the global carbon, energy, and water cycles and hencefuture climate projections. Despite the importance of accounting for 3D...
Article
Full-text available
Humid tropical forests play a dominant role in the functioning of Earth but are under increasing threat from changes in land use and climate. How forest vulnerability varies across space and time and what level of stress forests can tolerate before facing a tipping point are poorly understood. Here, we develop a tropical forest vulnerability index...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lianas are a key growth form in tropical forests. Their lack of self-supporting tissues and their vertical position on top of the canopy make them strong competitors of resources. A few pioneer studies have shown that liana optical traits differ on average from those of colocated tree. Those trait discrepancies were hypothesized to be responsible f...
Preprint
Full-text available
The seasonal-to-decadal terrestrial water balance on river basin scales depends on a number of well-characterized but uncertain soil physical processes, including soil moisture, plant available water, rooting depth, and recharge to lower soil layers. Reducing uncertainties in these quantities using observations is a key step towards improving the d...
Article
Tropical forests are an important part of global water and energy cycles, but the mechanisms that drive seasonality of their land-atmosphere exchanges have proven challenging to capture in models. Here, we (1) report the seasonality of fluxes of latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H), and outgoing short and longwave radiation at four diverse tropical...
Article
Variation in canopy water content (CWC) that can be detected from microwave remote sensing of vegetation optical depth (VOD) has been proposed as an important measure of vegetation water stress. However, the contribution of leaf surface water (LWs ), arising from dew formation and rainfall interception, to CWC is largely unknown, particularly in tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tropical forest degradation (e.g., selective logging and fires) alters forest structure and function, increases structural heterogeneity and may affect the forest’s ability to efficiently harvest light for photosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of structural variables to solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) measured over i...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forest degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation not only alters carbon stocks and carbon fluxes, but also impacts physical land surface properties such as albedo and roughness length. Such impacts are poorly quantified to date due to difficulties in access-ing and maintaining observational infrastructures, as well as the lack of p...
Poster
Full-text available
Deforestation is the primary driver of forest carbon loss in tropical forests. Nevertheless, forest fragmentation-induced carbon loss is poorly studied and not implicitly included in the policies of reductions in carbon emissions in the tropics. Here, we used an innovative remote sensing approach to estimate for the first time the carbon loss due t...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their low contribution to forest carbon stocks, lianas (woody vines) play an important role in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests. As structural parasites, they hinder tree survival, growth, and fecundity, hence they negatively impact net ecosystem productivity and long‐term carbon sequestration. Competition (for water and light) drive...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation is the primary driver of carbon losses in tropical forests, but it does not operate alone. Forest fragmentation, a resulting feature of the deforestation process, promotes indirect carbon losses induced by edge effect. This process is not implicitly considered by policies for reducing carbon emissions in the tropics. Here, we used a r...
Article
Full-text available
Selective logging, fragmentation, and understory fires directly degrade forest structure and composition. However, studies addressing the effects of forest degradation on carbon, water, and energy cycles are scarce. Here, we integrate field observations and high‐resolution remote sensing from airborne lidar to provide realistic initial conditions t...
Article
Full-text available
In tropical rainforests, trees size and number density are influenced by disturbance history, soil, topography, climate, and biological factors that are difficult to predict without detailed and widespread forest inventory data. Here, we quantify tree size–frequency distributions over an old‐growth wet tropical forest at the La Selva Biological Sta...
Article
Full-text available
There is large uncertainty whether Amazon forests will remain a carbon sink as atmospheric CO2 increases. Hence, we simulated an old‐growth tropical forest using six versions of four terrestrial models differing in scale of vegetation structure and representation of biogeochemical (BGC) cycling, all driven with CO2 forcing from the preindustrial pe...
Poster
Tropical forests are an essential component of the Earth system as they store and process huge quantities of carbon and water. They are estimated to account for over 50% of the global forest carbon sequestration and for 34% of global terrestrial photosynthesis. Tropical forests have been experiencing long-term and large-scale structural changes due...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
The Ecosystem Demography model version 2.2 (ED-2.2) is a terrestrial biosphere model that simulates the biophysical, ecological, and biogeochemical dynamics of vertically and horizontally heterogeneous terrestrial ecosystems. In a companion paper (Longo et al., 2019a), we described how the model solves the energy, water, and carbon cycles, and veri...
Article
Full-text available
Earth system models (ESMs) have been developed to represent the role of terrestrial ecosystems on the energy, water, and carbon cycles. However, many ESMs still lack representation of within-ecosystem heterogeneity and diversity. In this paper, we present the Ecosystem Demography model version 2.2 (ED-2.2). In ED-2.2, the biophysical and physiologi...
Article
Plants have an important effect on our climate: as they assimilate atmospheric CO 2 through the process of photosynthesis, they also transpire water to the atmosphere and thereby influence surface temperatures. It is, however, difficult to quantify transpiration from ecosystems due to measurement limitations. Direct eddy cov-ariance (EC) measuremen...
Article
Full-text available
Coarse dead wood is an important component of forest carbon stocks, but it is rarely measured in Amazon forests and is typically excluded from regional forest carbon budgets. Our study is based on line intercept sampling for fallen coarse dead wood conducted along 103 transects with a total length of 48 km matched with forest inventory plots where...
Article
Full-text available
Large herbivores, such as elephants, can have important effects on ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Yet, the influence of elephants on the structure, productivity and carbon stocks in Africa’s rainforests remain largely unknown. Here, we quantify those effects by incorporating elephant disturbance in the Ecosystem Demography model, and verify...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests are critical for supporting strategies of ecosystem functioning conservation and climate change mitigation. However, such estimates at regional and local scales are still highly uncertain. Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) can characterize...
Article
Full-text available
Land conversion and changing climate are expected to significantly alter tropical forest hydrology. We used a land surface model integrated with a river routing scheme to analyze the hydrological alterations expected in the Tapajós river basin, a large portion of the Brazilian Amazon, caused by two environmental drivers: climate and land use. The m...
Article
Full-text available
There is mounting empirical evidence that lianas affect the carbon cycle of tropical forests. However, no single vegetation model takes into account this growth form, although such efforts could greatly improve the predictions of carbon dynamics in tropical forests. In this study, we incorporated a novel mechanistic representation of lianas in a dy...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forest degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation not only alters carbon stocks and carbon fluxes, but also impacts physical land-surface properties such as albedo and roughness length. Such impacts are poorly quantified to date due to difficulties in accessing and maintaining observational infrastructures, and the lack of proper mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Active Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) remote sensing provide complementary information that can be combined to improve the estimation of vegetation properties, such as aboveground biomass (AGB). Thus, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the combined use of LiDAR and HSI data for estimating AG...
Article
Full-text available
Coarse dead wood is an important component of forest carbon stocks, but it is rarely measured in Amazon forests and is typically excluded from regional forest carbon budgets. Our study is based on line intercept sampling for fallen coarse dead wood conducted along 103 transects with a total length of 48 km matched with forest inventory plots where...
Article
Full-text available
The Ecosystem Demography Model version 2.2 (ED-2.2) is a terrestrial biosphere model that simulates the biophysical and biogeochemical cycles of dynamic ecosystems while considering the role of vertical structure of plant communities and the heterogeneity of such structures across the landscape. In a companion paper, we described in detail how the...
Article
Full-text available
Earth System Models (ESMs) have been developed to represent the role of terrestrial ecosystems on the energy, water, and carbon cycles. However, many ESMs still lack representation of within-ecosystem heterogeneity and diversity. In this manuscript, we present the Ecosystem Demography Model version 2.2 (ED-2.2). In ED-2.2, the biophysical and physi...
Article
Full-text available
Forest degradation is common in tropical landscapes, but estimates of the extent and duration of degradation impacts are highly uncertain. In particular, selective logging is a form of forest degradation that alters canopy structure and function, with persistent ecological impacts following forest harvest. In this study, we employed airborne laser...
Article
This article is a Commentary on Both et al., 221: 1853–1865.
Article
Full-text available
In Amazon forests, the relative contributions of climate, phenology, and disturbance to net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) are not well understood. To partition influences across various timescales, we use a statistical model to represent eddy-covariance-derived NEE in an evergreen eastern Amazon forest as a constant response to changing meteor...
Article
Full-text available
Despite sustained declines in Amazon deforestation, forest degradation from logging and fire continues to threaten carbon stocks, habitat, and biodiversity in frontier forests along the Amazon arc of deforestation. Limited data on the magnitude of carbon losses and rates of carbon recovery following forest degradation have hindered carbon accountin...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of increases in drought frequency on the Amazon forest's composition, structure and functioning remain uncertain. We used a process‐ and individual‐based ecosystem model (ED2) to quantify the forest's vulnerability to increased drought recurrence. We generated meteorologically realistic, drier‐than‐observed rainfall scenarios for two Ama...
Article
Full-text available
In Amazon forests, the relative contributions of climate, phenology, and disturbance to net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) are not well understood. To partition influences across various timescales, we use a statistical model to represent eddy covariance-derived NEE in an evergreen Eastern Amazon forest as a constant response to changing meteor...
Article
Amazon droughts, including the 2015-2016 El Niño, may reduce forest net primary productivity and increase canopy tree mortality, thereby altering both the short- and the long-term net forest carbon balance. Given the broad extent of drought impacts, inventory plots or eddy flux towers may not capture regional variability in forest response to droug...
Article
Systematic biases in eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) are ubiquitous in forests when turbulence is low at night. We propose an alternative to the conventional bias correction, the friction velocity (u*) filter, by hypothesizing that these biases have two separate, concurrent causes: (1) a subcan...
Article
Secondary forests account for more than half of tropical forests and represent a growing carbon sink, but rates of biomass accumulation vary by a factor of two or more even among plots in the same landscape. To better understand the drivers of this variability, we used airborne lidar to measure forest canopy height and estimate biomass over 4529 ha...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous current efforts seek to improve the representation of ecosystem ecology and vegetation demographic processes within Earth System Models (ESMs). These developments are widely viewed as an important step in developing greater realism in predictions of future ecosystem states and fluxes. Increased realism, however, leads to increased model co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The factors that determine the occurrence, composition and structure of tropical forests and their functional responses to climate change are still not well understood. Remote sensing provides valuable tools for investigating these factors at multiple temporal and spatial scales. This paper aims to 1) explore the influence of topography on canopy h...