Marco Steenbergen

Marco Steenbergen
University of Zurich | UZH · Institut für Politikwissenschaft

PhD

About

81
Publications
39,720
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,317
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2011 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 2007 - June 2011
Universität Bern
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
This article proposes a measure of the social structuration of political parties. The measure has some distinctive virtues. It assesses the social bases of partisanship from the standpoint of the political party, and it provides a simple and transparent method for assessing the relative weight of social-structural and behavioral factors for party c...
Article
Research on party competition and political representation relies on valid cross-national measures of party positions. This research note reports on the 1999–2019 Chapel Hill expert survey (CHES), which contains measures of national party positioning on European integration, ideology, and several European Union (EU) and non-EU policies for six wave...
Article
How do political parties respond to external shocks? Using an original survey of political parties across Europe conducted in June 2020 and CHES data on partisan ideological positioning, we argue that the pre‐existing ideological stances of Europe's political parties shaped their response to emerging Covid‐19 policy issues, including the tension be...
Chapter
Heuristics have rapidly become a core concept in the study of political behavior. The term heuristic stems from the ancient Greek heuriskein , which means “to discover.” In psychology and political science, the term is used to describe cognitive shortcuts in decision making under uncertainty. The key idea is that decision makers with limited time,...
Article
One of the most problematic aspect of p‐values is the tendency to dichotomize, whereby statistical significance is equated with scientifically worthwhile and insignificance with worthless findings. This article outlines two approaches that move beyond such dichotomies: minimum Bayes factors and the analysis of credibility. Their use is illustrated...
Article
The rising voter support for populist parties in Western Democracies in recent years has incited academic interest in populist voters and attitudes connected to the voting propensity of populist actors. In line of this research, numerous scales to measure populist attitudes among voters have been proposed. In most cases, however, the measurement of...
Chapter
Politics is a complex affair. Whether one is a legislator or a citizen, making political decisions is rarely easy. The question of how people deal with this complexity has been on the minds of scholars for decades, if not centuries. One important answer, which emerged in the 1970s, is that decision makers rely on heuristics to tame the intricacies...
Article
Consideration set models (CSMs) offer a novel way to study electoral behavior. Until now, they have been mostly studied at the micro-level of the voter's decision process. By contrast, we focus on the implications of CSMs for understanding the phenomenon of party competition. We propose a two hurdle model whereby parties compete for both considerat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In recent years, scholars have started to measure and explain populism at the micro-level, as an attitude that individuals hold about politics. Multiple scales have been proposed but, as the overview by Van Hauwaert et al. indicates, they all have limitations. Most do not capture a broad range of the phenomenon – being able to discriminate only amo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since 9/11, there is a renewed scholarly interest in the effect of terrorist attacks on public opinion. Social scientists analyze changes in a variety of perceptions such as perceived terror threat, trust in government and security policies. This paper analyzes the impact of the November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris on public perceptions in Euro...
Article
Right-wing populist parties in European democracies appeal to citizens’ feelings of uncertainty related to globalization by promoting tough immigration laws and curbing the power of the European Union. This article adds to our understanding of how individuals’ risk propensity relates to support for right-wing populist parties and their ideas in the...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the variation of anti-corruption and anti-elite salience in party positioning across Europe. It demonstrates that while anti-corruption salience is primarily related to the (regional) context in which a party operates, anti-elite salience is primarily a function of party ideology. Extreme left and extreme conservative (TAN) p...
Article
Full-text available
This working paper approaches the study of populism from an explicit political communication perspective and thereby adds a new and original dimension to the existing literature. It first reviews the existing approaches to populism and then combines them within an integrative framework for populism research. This framework understands populism as i...
Article
Full-text available
Expert surveys are a valuable, commonly used instrument to measure party positions. Some critics question the cross-national comparability of these measures, though, suggesting that experts may lack a common anchor for fundamental concepts such as economic left–right. Using anchoring vignettes in the 2010 Chapel Hill Expert Survey, we examine the e...
Article
From a normative vantage point, post-deliberative opinions should be linked to the quality of arguments presented during discussion. Yet, there is a dearth of research testing this claim. Our study makes a first attempt to overcome this deficiency. By analyzing a European deliberative poll on third country migration, we explore whether statements b...
Article
Political scientists often describe party competition, political behavior or public preferences in left/right terms. Nevertheless, the usefulness of the concepts “left” or “right” is rarely explored. This study assesses whether the left/right continuum resonates with publics in developing Latin American democracies. Using data from the 2008 wave of...
Article
This article explores the extent to which European citizens are now Euro-ambivalent. Over the past decade, authors have argued that public opinion toward European integration has moved from a permissive consensus to a constraining dissensus. This suggests a clear-cut swing from mostly favorable to mostly unfavorable attitudes toward European integr...
Article
Over the past half-century, two overarching topics have dominated the study of mass political behaviour: How do ordinary citizens form their political judgments, and how good are they from a normative perspective? This book provides a novel goal-based approach to these questions, one that compels a wholesale rethinking of the roots of responsible d...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the 2010 Chapel Hill expert surveys (CHES) and introduces the CHES trend file, which contains measures of national party positioning on European integration, ideology and several European Union (EU) and non-EU policies for 1999−2010. We examine the reliability of expert judgments and cross-validate the 2010 CHES data with da...
Article
Full-text available
This paper assesses the cross-national comparability of expert judgments of party positions. So far, most work in this area has focused on the cross-validation of different data sources with which party positions can be measured. This paper takes a novel approach and brings to bear data from a survey experiment performed in the 2010 Chapel Hill Exp...
Article
This article considers individual, communal, and cantonal sources of voting behavior in the 2007 National Council elections in Switzerland. Using hierarchical linear models, it is shown how the vote propensity for the five main parties (CVP, FDP, Greens, SP, and SVP) varies across individuals, communes, and cantons. Key explanatory factors at each...
Article
Full-text available
This research note reports on the 2002 and 2006 Chapel Hill expert surveys (CHES), which measure national party positioning on European integration, ideology, and several European Union (EU) and non-EU policies. The reliability of expert judgments is examined and the CHES data are cross-validated with data from the Comparative Manifesto Project, th...
Article
Full-text available
This research note reports on the 2002 and 2006 Chapel Hill expert surveys (CHES), which measure national party positioning on European integration, ideology, and several European Union (EU) and non-EU policies. The reliability of expert judgments is examined and the CHES data are cross-validated with data from the Comparative Manifesto Project, th...
Article
Full-text available
Why do some public organizations grow old and others die young? Since Herbert Kaufman first posed this question, considerable research has been devoted to answering it. The findings of that research suggest that the design of new public organizations affects, to a significant degree, their survival chances. In this article, we test whether and how...
Article
Full-text available
Do political parties respond to shifts in the preferences of their supporters, which we label the partisan constituency model, or to shifts in the mean voter position (the general electorate model)? Cross-national analyses — based on observations from Eurobarometer surveys and parties’ policy programmes in 15 countries from 1973 to 2002 — suggest t...
Chapter
Psychological approaches have played a central role in electoral research at least since the publication of The American Voter (Campbell et al. 1976). The early work drew from the then dominant currents in social psychology. In the 1960s, this meant a heavy emphasis on beliefs and attitudes. Thus, the Michigan voting model gave a central place to p...
Article
Full-text available
Why do some public organizations grow old and others die young? Since Herbert Kaufman first posed this question, considerable research has been devoted to answering it. The findings of that research suggest that the design of new public organizations affects, to a significant degree, their survival chances. In this article, we test whether and how...
Article
Full-text available
Deliberation in parliaments aspires to convey public justification to general norms mandatory for all. Deliberative theory looks at the normative and empirical implications of this institutional role. Within the first sections of this article, we want to explain the relationship between the argumentation requirements derived from discourse theory,...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Two challenges stand out in the study of deliberation: the development of appropriate methodological tools and the development of more unified analytical frameworks. On the one hand, analysing deliberative processes is demanding and time-consuming; hence we tend to have only few and non-randomly selected cases at the group or context level. In addi...
Article
  Although expert surveys have gained a prominent place in comparative studies of party positions on issues, their validity has been called into question. In this article, some of the validity concerns are evaluated in the context of the authors' own expert survey on national party positions vis-à-vis European integration. One goal of the article i...
Article
Expert surveys have been subject to a number of criticisms concerning their ability to produce accurate estimates of party positions. Such criticisms have particular prima facie credibility in new post-Communist democracies of Central and Eastern Europe, where party development is regarded as weak. This paper compares data from two expert surveys i...
Article
Full-text available
Our purpose in this article is to cross-validate expert and manifesto measures of party positioning on European integration. We compare these data with each other and with measures from a European election survey and an elite survey of parliamentarians. We find that expert surveys provide the most accurate data for party positioning on European int...
Article
Full-text available
The 2005 French and Dutch referendum campaigns were characterized by an alleged disconnect between pro-European political elites and Eurosceptic masses. Past evidence regarding elite-mass linkages in the context of European integration has been conflicting. Whereas some scholars argue that political elites respond to the changing preferences of the...
Chapter
In the study of deliberation, classical representative institutions such as legislatures have been largely neglected.1 While students of deliberation have mainly focused on the deliberation in the civic sphere, students of legislatures have mainly concentrated on formal outcomes (e.g., votes) and how these are affected by institutional rules and le...
Article
There has been limited research into the impact of some aspects of voting procedure but very little research into ballot paper design and the act of voting in itself. This article gives a historical overview of the evolution of voting procedures from ancient times to the modern day, describes the results of a survey of 134 paper ballots used over t...
Chapter
Affect-based models of political behavior have become increasingly complex. Not long ago, political psychology was dominated by bipolar conceptions of affect such as the familiar feeling thermometers. Such conceptions assume that movement toward one pole (e.g., positive affect) of necessity implies movement away from the other pole (e.g., negative...
Article
Our research project addressed two questions: (1) are there favorable contexts for deliberation in legislatures? and (2) does deliberation also matter for outcomes? We found that consensus institutions, presidentialism, second chambers, non-publicity, and low-issue polarization further deliberation, particularly by enhancing respectful exchanges am...
Book
Stressing the role of conversation, argument and negotiation in politics, particularly in democratic government, this book offers an empirical study of deliberative politics. Using the parliamentary debates in Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States as an empirical base, the authors measure the level of deliberation by constr...
Chapter
Recent insights about attitude structure and process have spawned a new understanding of the nature and dynamics of mass opinion. On the structural side, there is mounting evidence that political opinions are more complex than the unidimensional summary statements (e.g., unfavorable or favorable, cold or warm, negative or positive) routinely used t...
Article
Europe has experienced the most radical reallocation of authority that has ever taken place in peacetime over the past half-century. However, the ideological conflicts emerging from this development are only now becoming apparent. This collection brings together an authoritative group of scholars of European and comparative politics to investigate...
Article
The ongoing process of integration in Europe has fundamentally altered the political environment in which the political parties of the EU member states find themselves. European integration has produced new political issues, which cannot always be easily accommodated into existing cleavage structures, as the preceding chapters reveal. It has also c...
Article
In the era following the Single European Act and the Maastricht Treaty, the European Union has been transformed into a multilevel polity in which European issues have become important not only for national governments, but also for citizens, political parties, interest groups, and social movements. How is conflict over European integration structur...
Article
Political scientists have often argued that American political culture is highly ambivalent. Some scholars go on to argue that such ambivalence has dramatic ramifications for public opinion, making it more volatile. In this paper, we scrutinize these claims. Using a comprehensive definition of ambivalence and a consistent methodological approach, w...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we develop a discourse quality index (DQI) that serves as a quantitative measure of discourse in deliberation. The DQI is rooted in Habermas' discourse ethics and provides an accurate representation of the most important principles underlying deliberation. At the same time, the DQI can be shown to be a reliable measurement instrument...
Article
Although the American public’s increasingly cynical views about human nature have drawn considerable attention from scholars, existing research says little about how interpersonal trust shapes mass foreign policy opinions. This study analyzes survey data to test the claim that citizens use their beliefs about human nature to reason about internatio...
Article
Multilevel data are structures that consist of multiple units of analysis, one nested within the other. Such data are becoming quite common in political science and provide numerous opportunities for theory testing and development. Unfortunately, this type of data typically generates a number of statistical problems, of which clustering is particul...
Article
We explore the impact of prosocial orientations on a domain of American public opinion that has puzzled many-attitudes toward social welfare policies. We focus on the orientation of humanitarianism, i.e., a sense of obligation to help those in need, and find that this value can explain support for a wide variety of social welfare policies. We argue...
Article
: Although integrating multiple levels of data into an analysis can often yield better inferences about the phenomenon under study, traditional methodologies used to combine multiple levels of data are problematic. In this paper, we discuss several methodologies under the rubric of multilevel analysis. Multilevel methods, we argue, provide research...
Article
Full-text available
A statistic—the similarity coefficient—is developed for assessing the property that a set of scale items measures one and only one construct. This statistic is rooted in an explicit measurement model and is flexible enough to be used in exploratory scale analyses, even in small samples. Methods for analyzing similarity coefficients are described an...
Article
Full-text available
We find strong support for an on-line model of the candidate evaluation process that in contrast to memory-based models shows that citizens are responsive to campaign information, adjusting their overall evaluation of the candidates in response to their immediate assessment of campaign messages and events. Over time people forget most of the campai...
Article
Major policy changes like the 1986 Tax Reform Act (TRA) in the United States provide natural experiments to study attitudinal and behavior responses to law. Surprisingly, public evaluations of the TRA became increasingly negative after passage, while general support for the tax system became more positive in response to the changes. To explain this...
Article
Past research suggests that beliefs and emotions operate as partially distinct determinants of political attitudes. In addition, while positive and negative beliefs about a political object are bipolar in structure, positive and negative emotions have been demonstrated to be relatively independent. In this past research, beliefs and emotions have b...
Article
The election outcome of the parliamentary elections in the Netherlands in 1986 showed a considerable discrepancy from the expected results. Neither are large differences between poll results and election outcomes exceptional for other countries, as for example in West Germany in 1987. Research in the Netherlands showed that the failure of opinion p...
Article
Full-text available
Reconnecting political philosophy with empirical or positive political science has become a resounding call in the discipline (Rothstein 2004). As Alexander Wendt (2001) bemoans, much positive political science is driving with the rearview mirror, by explaining what happened in the past while neglecting the question where we should go from here. Bu...
Article
Measurement equivalence is the property that measures behave identically across different populations. Its importance is well established in comparative research, as estimates of mean trait differences hinge on it. While the effects of a lack of equivalence in conventional statistical analyses are well known, little is known about the effects in mu...
Article
Full-text available
Paper prepared for delivery at the 2004 meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Las Vegas, NV, October 5-9. Chilean lawmakers and policy-shapers are worried about declining rates of electoral participation. The Lagos administration's solution is to install an automatic registration system and, eventually, to eliminate fines for not votin...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Project
I have had an ongoing interest in multilevel models since the early 1990s. In addition to writing explanatory texts, I have an interest in the role of the exchangeability assumption as well as the interplay between multilevel models and measurement.
Archived project
Citizens are often conflicted about politics.They may have reasons to both support and oppose certain policies, ideas, and groups. We often call this ambivalence. In this project, my co-authors and I have studied ambivalence in the political domain from a variety of angles, focusing both on antecedents and consequences.