Marco Peresani

Marco Peresani
University of Ferrara | UNIFE · Faculty of Humanities

About

222
Publications
97,913
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5,341
Citations
Citations since 2016
124 Research Items
4254 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600

Publications

Publications (222)
Article
Full-text available
The Quina Mousterian is one of the well-defined Middle Paleolithic techno-complexes. Despite the pivotal research carried out in south-western France, the presence of this techno-complex across the rest of Europe is still poorly documented. Here we apply a techno-functional approach, combining technological and use-wear analyses, for reconstructing...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic tool use is a central component of the human niche. However, the timing and mode of its evolution remain poorly understood. A newly developed method for the analysis of muscle recruitment patterns (Validated Entheses-based Reconstruction of Activity-V.E.R.A.) has recently been experimentally shown to provide clear and reliable evidence o...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we explore the potential of combining traditional zooarchaeological determination and proteomic identification of morphologically non-diagnostic bone fragments (ZooMS) collected from the Uluzzian levels of three Italian sites: Uluzzo C Rock Shelter, Roccia San Sebastiano cave, and Riparo del Broion. Moreover, we obtained glutamine dea...
Article
Full-text available
Personal ornaments are widely viewed as indicators of social identity and personhood. Ornaments are ubiquitous from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene, but they are most often found as isolated objects within archaeological assemblages without direct evidence on how they were displayed. This article presents a detailed record of the ornaments fou...
Chapter
This chapter presents the first collective synthesis of Late Middle Palaeolithic lithic technology (MIS 4–3, ≈ 70-40 ka) from the Altai mountains to the Atlantic coast of Western Europe and the Mediterranean regions of Europe and the Levant. As early as the first half of the twentieth century, archaeological debates focused on characterising and in...
Article
Full-text available
Laminar technologies were adopted by Paleolithic foragers to produce a variable range of stone implements. Archaeologists have reconstructed the different reduction procedures involved in the production of laminar stone tools, often underlying a separation between the bigger blanks (i.e., blades) and smaller bladelets. However, these two blank type...
Article
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Here we present the results of a microcontextual analysis of purported combustion features recovered from Middle and Upper Paleolithic occupations at the cave site of Fumane, Italy. Our analyses, which integrate micromorphology with organic petrology, show that only a few of the features represent primary, intact hearths; some of them show evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Protoaurignacian foragers relied heavily on the production and use of bladelets. Techno-typological studies of these implements have provided insights into crucial aspects of cultural variability. However, new technologies have seldom been used to quantify patterns of stone tool design. Taking advantage of a new scanning protocol and open-source so...
Poster
Full-text available
Riparo Villabruna (Belluno – Italy) is a small shelter at 500 m a.s.l. with Recent Epigravettian lithic industry, located in the Dolomites of Veneto region and excavated in the 1988-89. The Palaeolithic sequence starts with the level 17 where a burial (radiocarbon dated 14,400 – 13,800 cal. BP) was found and exposed during roadworks that cut the lo...
Raw Data
This repository contains a large dataset of 3D meshes of lithic artifacts (n = 732) from the early and late Protoaurignacian units (A2, A1, D3d base, D3d, D3b alpha, and D3b) at Fumane Cave in northeastern Italy (Bartolomei et al., 1992). At Fumane, the Protoaurignacian stratigraphic sequence spans from about 41 to 37 ky cal BP (Higham et al., 2009...
Article
Full-text available
Archaeological evidence of Middle Palaeolithic sites in Europe dating to MIS 4 remains very scarce compared to those belonging to previous (MIS 5) and later (MIS 3) periods. Of the few documented, a very low number have provided anthracological data reflecting the local landscape and fuel gathering strategies during MIS 4 Neanderthal occupations. T...
Article
Full-text available
Herbivore teeth are a valuable source of information for inferring the hunting season of past hunter-gatherers, the spatial–temporal organization of their activities, their socio-economic organization, and their adaptation to the seasonal fluctuation of the resources. Numberless of studies have been conducted on Neanderthals across Eurasia, but onl...
Article
This first report aims to illustrate the Middle Palaeolithic site of Vajo Salsone in the Monti Lessini plateau in the eastern Italian Alps, its geological and geomorphological context, the conditions leading to its discovery occurred after a road cutting, and the archaeological excavation of a karst structure where the sediments, faunal and cultura...
Article
In the last few years several studies have reassessed the attraction and the role of small game in the subsistence economy of hunter-gatherers across Europe and the Mediterranean region since the Middle Paleolithic. The exploitation of small mammals intensified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, when some unusual faunal assemblages were re...
Article
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This paper presents the first attempt to establish a Mid and Late Upper Palaeolithic absolute chronology of the Adriatic basin, including both eastern and western Adriatic coasts and their hinterlands. The proposed chronology for Gravettian, Early and Late Epigravettian techno-complexes is based on statistical analysis of 278 ¹⁴C dates from 66 arch...
Article
We present 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) imaging of the archaeological deposits at Arma Veirana cave (northern Italy), to date only partially explored. The archaeological importance of the cave is due to the presence of a rich Mousterian layer, traces of Late Upper Palaeolithic (Epigravettian) temporary occupations and an Early Mesolit...
Chapter
Various Neanderthal cultural remains can be interpreted as related to symbolic activities: burials, ornaments, pigments, unusual objects that do not fall within the technical sphere (wings, feathers, raptor claws), and more recently, the frequentation of deep underground environments which implies freeing of oneself from trepidations about darkness...
Article
Fumane Cave, northern Italy, with its early Upper Palaeolithic deposit, dating between 41.2–35 ky cal BP, is one of the most significant sites for the understanding of the first Anatomically Modern Human groups in Europe. The archaeological excavations led to discover a consistent archaeological record which includes numerous items connected to the...
Article
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The study of the past is of fundamental importance in understanding the processes that control the functioning of the Earth System and the interaction between ecosystems, human society and natural variability. The Quaternary scientist produces a variety of proxies derived from the investigation of natural, archaeological and historical records cove...
Article
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Neanderthals collected unusual, sometimes colorful mineral materials from different sources. Several green serpentinite smooth pebbles with a flat shape and use modifications were unearthed at Fumane Cave in northern Italy. This study explores cognitive and functional criteria that influenced the selection and use of unique pebbles based on their r...
Article
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Tecnologia litica • Officina litica • Mobilità • Aurignaziano • Monte Avena • Prealpi venete • Lithic technology • Lithic workshop • Mobility • Aurignacian • Monte Avena • Veneto Prealps Monte Avena (1450 m s.l.m., Belluno, Italia) è un'altura localizzata all'estremità occidentale delle Dolomiti Bellunesi. Nella sua zona sommitale, in località Camp...
Article
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To investigate the mobility patterns of Neanderthals and modern humans in Europe during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition period, we applied strontium isotope analysis to Neanderthal (n = 3) and modern human (n = 2) teeth recovered from the site of Fumane Cave in the Monti Lessini region of Northern Italy. We also measured a large number...
Article
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Endscrapers are specialized tools that are usually recovered in great quantities in every Upper Paleolithic site in Europe. Although they make their first ephemeral appearance in the Middle–late Middle Paleolithic transitional technocomplexes, endscrapers commonly appear in toolkits from initial and early Upper Paleolithic traditions onwards. Never...
Article
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Northeastern Italy is a key region for the study of Neanderthal way of life over a wide timeframe, as attested by over 20 Middle Palaeolithic multi-layered sites in caves, rock shelters and at open-air sites. Here we contribute to increase our understanding of Neanderthal subsistence strategies through the study of the faunal assemblage of Unit II...
Article
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Significance The microbiome plays key roles in human health, but little is known about its evolution. We investigate the evolutionary history of the African hominid oral microbiome by analyzing dental biofilms of humans and Neanderthals spanning the past 100,000 years and comparing them with those of chimpanzees, gorillas, and howler monkeys. We id...
Article
Before the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼16.5 ka ago)1 set in motion major shifts in human culture and population structure,2 a consistent change in lithic technology, material culture, settlement pattern, and adaptive strategies is recorded in Southern Europe at ∼18-17 ka ago. In this time frame, the landscape of Northeastern Italy change...
Article
Bone retouchers are present in the human toolkit throughout the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic and appear in many contexts across Europe, sometimes in association with heavily retouched stone tools. Here we present the complete assemblage of bone retouchers recovered in the Mousterian Quina site of De Nadale Cave in the north of Italy dated to the o...
Article
The technological dichotomy between Discoid and Levallois methods, which accompanies the Mousterian assemblages for most of the Middle Paleolithic, is a debated topic because of the implications for Neanderthals’ behavioral complexity. We here propose and discuss the possible reasons supporting the Levallois-Discoid shift, considering part of the l...
Data
The cultural dynamics that led to the appearance of the Aurignacian have intrigued archaeologists since the start of Paleolithic research. However, cultural reconstructions have often focused on a restricted region of Europe, namely the northern Aquitaine Basin. The Mediterranean Basin, though, is also a region worthy of consideration when testing...
Article
Full-text available
The cultural dynamics that led to the appearance of the Aurignacian have intrigued archaeologists since the start of Paleolithic research. However, cultural reconstructions have often focused on a restricted region of Europe, namely the northern Aquitaine Basin. The Mediterranean Basin, though, is also a region worthy of consideration when testing...
Article
The paper is an overview on the Late-Final Epigravettian in the Italian peninsula. The lithic assemblages and symbolic behaviour are the main reference records while other aspects (settlement dynamics, dwelling organisation, economic strategies, etc.) are less diagnostic for an evaluation on a broad geographical scale, since they are strictly conne...
Article
Full-text available
In Europe, the cultural trajectories of large-scale Upper Paleolithic cultural complexes, such as the Aurignacian and the Gravettian, represent highly debated topics. In this paper, we examine the evidence from the youngest anthropic layer D1d at Fumane Cave (Venetian Prealps, northeastern Italy) to investigate the nature of human settlement dynami...
Article
Significance The extent to which Neanderthals differ from us is the focus of many studies in human evolution. There is debate about their pace of growth and early-life metabolic constraints, both of which are still poorly understood. Here we use chemical and isotopic patterns in tandem with enamel growth rates of three Neanderthal milk teeth from n...
Article
The site of Riparo Broion (Vicenza, northeastern Italy) preserves a stratigraphic sequence documenting the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition, in particular the final Mousterian and the Uluzzian cultures. In 2018, a human tooth was retrieved from a late Mousterian level, representing the first human remain ever found from this rock shelter (Rip...
Article
During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 30 to 16.5 ka ago), the Great Adriatic-Po Region (GAPR) was deeply affected by the spread of glaciers from the Alps to the southern foreland and by the dropping of the sea level to ~ -120 m amsl. The combination of these two events triggered the aggradation of the Great Po Plain (GPP), a vast flat area between...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The analysis of prehistoric human dietary habits is key for understanding the effects of paleoenvironmental changes on the evolution of cultural and social human behaviors. In this study, we compare results from zooarchaeological, stable isotope and dental calculus analyses as well as lower second molar macrowear patterns to gain a bro...
Article
Full-text available
Bone retouchers are an important behavioural marker in the definition of several Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic cultural complexes. However, their relationship with the assemblages of knapped stone artefacts is still to be investigated particularly in specific but not uncommon lithic contexts of the Middle Palaeolithic in Europe. This paper o...
Preprint
Full-text available
The end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Europe (~16.5 ka ago) set in motion major changes in human culture and population structure. In Southern Europe, Early Epigravettian material culture was replaced by Late Epigravettian art and technology about 18-17 ka ago at the beginning of southern Alpine deglaciation, although available genetic evide...
Article
Full-text available
The role of small game in prehistoric hunter-gatherer economy is a highly debated topic. Despite the general assumption that this practice was uneconomic, several studies have underlined the relevance of the circumstance of capture – in terms of hunting strategies and technology – in the evaluation of the actual role of small mammals in human forag...
Preprint
This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge about the millennial scale climate variability characterizing Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) in S-Europe and the Mediterranean area and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems. The sequence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events, as recorded by Greenland ice cores and recognizable in isotope profiles from sp...
Article
Full-text available
Personal ornaments are commonly linked to the emergence of symbolic behavior. Although their presence in Africa dates back to the Middle Stone Age, evidence of ornament manufacturing in Eurasia are sporadically observed in Middle Palaeolithic contexts, and until now, large-scale diffusion has been well documented only since the Upper Palaeolithic....
Preprint
The arrival of Modern Humans (MHs) in Europe between 50 ka and 36 ka coincides with significant changes in human behaviour, regarding the production of tools, the exploitation of resources and the systematic use of ornaments and colouring substances. The emergence of the so-called modern behaviours is usually associated with MHs, although in these...
Preprint
Defining the processes involved in the technical/cultural shifts from the Late Middle to the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe (~50-39 thousand years BP) is one of the most important tasks facing prehistoric studies. In this debate Italy plays a pivotal role, due to its geographical position between eastern and western Mediterranean Europe as well...
Preprint
Evidence of human activities during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition is well represented from rock_shelters, caves and open_air sites across Italy. Over the past decade, both the revision of taphonomic processes affecting archaeological faunal assemblages and new zooarchaeological studies have allowed archaeologists to better understand...
Article
Archaeological investigations at the Paleolithic Piovesello open-air site in Italy have brought to light a small lithic workshop composed of 123 artefacts (Structure I). In order to remedy to the destructive nature of the excavation, we developed a conservative protocol based on a three-dimensional reconstruction of the heap, enabling us to restore...
Article
Defining the processes involved in the technical/cultural shifts from the Late Middle to the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe (~50-39 thousand years BP) is one of the most important tasks facing prehistoric studies. Apart from the technological diversity generally recognised as belonging to the latter part of the Middle Palaeolithic, some assembl...
Article
The arrival of Modern Humans (MHs) in Europe between 50 ka and 39 ka coincides with significant changes in human behaviour, notably regarding the production of tools, the exploitation of resources and the systematic use of ornaments and colouring substances. The emergence of the so-called modern behaviour is usually associated with MHs, although cl...
Article
North-eastern Italy was a familiar region for Neanderthal groups, as attested by over 20 Middle Palaeolithic multi-layered sites in caves, rockshelters and at the open, investigated during the last decades. Of this large record, evidence pointing for human frequentation during to the Marine Isotopic Stage 4 is documented at a very ephemeral level....
Article
Chemical characterization of cryptotephra is critical for temporally linking archaeological sites. Here, we describe cryptotephra investigations of two Middle–Upper Paleolithic sites from north‐west Italy, Arma Veirana and Riparo Bombrini. Cryptotephra are present as small (<100 µm) rhyolitic glass shards at both sites, with geochemical signatures...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bone fragmentation in Pleistocene faunal assemblages can be due to taphonomic or to anthropological processes, preventing any taxonomic identification using traditional morphological attributes (Morin et al. 2017). This constitutes a potential bias in the analysis of hominin behaviour as it excludes a vast quantity of archaeologically valuable data...
Article
Full-text available
The knapping methods used between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic show a progressive technical refinement that usually implies, for blade technology, a higher conceptual level related to greater productive effectiveness and capacity of adaptation. The analysis of multiple refittings, providing direct information on core reduction modalities, can b...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge about the millennial scale climate variability characterizing Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) in S-Europe and the Mediterranean area and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems. The sequence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events, as recorded by Greenland ice cores and recognizable in isotope profiles from sp...