Marco Pau

Marco Pau
Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology | IEE · Grid Planning and Operation

PhD

About

68
Publications
9,287
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,335
Citations
Introduction
Marco Pau currently works as a Senior Researcher at the Grid Planning and Operation Department of the Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology. Marco has a background in Electrical Engineering and he conducts research mainly in the area of distribution system monitoring, automation and digitalization.
Additional affiliations
March 2022 - present
July 2015 - February 2022
RWTH Aachen University
Position
  • Research Associate
September 2013 - March 2014
RWTH Aachen University
Position
  • Visiting PhD
Education
February 2012 - April 2015
Università degli studi di Cagliari
Field of study
  • Electronic Engineering and Computer Science
August 2008 - December 2011
Università degli studi di Cagliari
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
The real-time monitoring of electric distribution grids via state estimation is a fundamental requirement to deploy smart automation and control in the distribution system. Due to the large size of distribution networks and the poor coverage of measurement instrumentation on the field, designing fast state estimation algorithms and achieving accura...
Article
Full-text available
The ramping trend of cheap and performant single board computers (SBC) is growingly offering unprecedented opportunities in various domains, taking advantage of the widespread support and flexibility offered by an operating system (OS) environment. Unfortunately, data acquisition systems implemented in an OS environment are traditionally considered...
Article
Full-text available
This Special Issue aims at collecting new research contributions and perspectives on the topic of the monitoring and automation of modern power systems [...]
Article
Full-text available
The building sector is undergoing a deep transformation to contribute to meeting the climate neutrality goals set by policymakers worldwide. This process entails the transition towards smart energy-aware buildings that have lower consumptions and better efficiency performance. Digitalization is a key part of this process. A huge amount of data is c...
Article
Modern distribution grids are complex systems that need advanced management for their secure and reliable operation. The Information and Communication Technology domain today offers unprecedented opportunities for the smart design of tools in support of grid operators. This paper presents a new philosophy for the digitalization and automation of di...
Article
Advanced control techniques for modern distribution grids are becoming fundamental for the reduction of grid reinforcements while maintaining network performances. In particular, as shown in literature, distributed algorithms for voltage control have gained much interests in comparison with the typical centralized formulation for its feasibility. D...
Article
Full-text available
Electric infrastructures have been pushed forward to handle tasks they were not originally designed to perform. To improve reliability and efficiency, state-of-the-art power grids include improved security, reduced peak loads, increased integration of renewable sources, and lower operational costs. In this framework“, smart grids” are built around...
Conference Paper
Measurements are the enabler for any power system monitoring and control application. The transition towards the smart grid consequently implies also the deployment of smart measurement systems. Recently, ideas have been proposed for the development of measurement units that directly provide the waveform samples, which can be deployed in the next f...
Conference Paper
The monitoring of distribution systems via ad hoc state estimation techniques is essential to provide system awareness to distribution system operators and to enable advanced control functionalities. When estimating the operating conditions of the system, it is important not only to identify the state of the grid, but also to determine the confiden...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid AC/DC distribution systems are becoming a popular means to accommodate the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources and flexible loads. This paper proposes a decentralized robust state estimation (DRSE) method for hybrid AC/DC distribution systems using multiple sources of data. In the proposed decentralized implementation fram...
Conference Paper
Advanced distribution management systems are increasingly required to operate today's distribution grids and to deal with the challenges brought by both renewable sources and new loads. In particular, voltage control strategies are essential to handle possible anomalies in the voltage profile of the grid. In the field implementation of voltage cont...
Article
Full-text available
Direct Current (DC) grids are considered an attractive option for integrating high shares of renewable energy sources in the electrical distribution grid. Hence, in the future, Alternating Current (AC) and DC systems could be interconnected to form hybrid AC-DC distribution grids. This paper presents a two-step state estimation formulation for the...
Article
Full-text available
The development of strategies for distribution network management is an essential element for increasing network performance and reducing the upgrade of physical assets. This paper analyzes a multi-timescale framework to control the voltage of distribution grids characterized by a high penetration of renewables. The multi-timescale solution is base...
Chapter
Distribution system state estimation (DSSE) is a potentially powerful tool for the management and control of modern and future distribution networks. Distribution grids are usually characterized by a very large number of nodes and different voltage levels. Moreover, different portions of the system can be operated by different distribution system o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hybrid AC/DC distribution systems are becoming a popular means to accommodate the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources and flexible loads. This paper proposes a distributed and robust state estimation (DRSE) method for hybrid AC/DC distribution systems using multiple sources of data. In the proposed distributed implementation fram...
Article
The ongoing electrification of the heating sector will severely affect the patterns of power consumption in electrical distribution systems. Coupling electric heat pumps to thermal energy storage systems allows to increase the flexibility in their operation, thus minimizing the side effects on the electrical grid. This paper investigates the potent...
Conference Paper
In the smart grid scenario, monitoring and automation of the distribution system are required up to the low voltage level of the electric system. An option to monitor the low voltage grids is to use measurements collected from the end-user smart meters. Even in this case, a still open issue is the detection and identification of possible bad data,...
Conference Paper
Real-time monitoring and situational awareness are often a prerequisite to enable the intelligent management of distribution grids and to step into the smart grid paradigm. Despite the research efforts to design state estimation tools tailored to the distribution system, achieving real-time monitoring at distribution level is still a major challeng...
Conference Paper
Future smart grids will increasingly rely on automated functionalities for the efficient management of the electric grid and of its assets. The reliable processing of the measurement data collected from the field will play thus a critical role. In such a scenario, the detailed knowledge of the metrological characteristics of the used sensors and of...
Article
Full-text available
The design of intelligent strategies for grid management is a cost-effective solution to increase the hosting capacity of distribution grids without investing in the reinforcement of the grid assets. This paper presents a distributed voltage control algorithm to coordinate Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) and Distributed Generation (DG) in a scenario...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new Kalman filter approach to Power System State Estimation based on PMUs, in which the knowledge of the system frequency is exploited to ensure the accuracy of the estimated quantities even under off-nominal conditions. In the proposed solution, the frequency is added as a new state variable to be estimated, so that its value...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a forecasting-aided medium voltage (MV) distribution system state estimation method using a robust ensemble Kalman filter (REnKF). In the proposed solution, low voltage (LV) measurements at the LV side of secondary substations are used together with the mathematical model of the MV/LV substations to derive new equivalent MV meas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a new PMU-based Kalman Filter approach for Power System State Estimation, in which an estimator model is proposed to include the system frequency and exploit synchronized frequency measurements. The performance of this new estimator is evaluated in comparison to different state estimation methodologies, in order to assess the im...
Conference Paper
State Estimation is a key function for the control and secure operation of automated systems. Distribution system operators exploit the state estimation algorithms to merge the available measurements and to obtain the most likely state of the system. The knowledge of the expected uncertainty of the state estimator is critical to fine-tune the appli...
Conference Paper
Many distribution grid management functions rely upon power flow algorithms to analyse the behaviour of the grid under specific conditions. The knowledge of the grid parameters is usually the starting point for the definition of the models behind power flow algorithms. However, in the distribution system scenario, several factors can affect the lev...
Conference Paper
The accurate location of faults through smart algorithms is an essential requirement for grid operators to apply automation schemes aimed at promptly isolating the fault and at restoring the power supply in non-faulty segments of the network. In the distribution system, this task is particularly challenging mainly due to the large size of the netwo...
Conference Paper
The growing penetration of distributed generation based on renewable energy sources is changing the way electric distribution grids are operated. Smart monitoring, management and control are increasingly required to face the challenges brought by the transition to active distribution networks and to handle the intermittent behaviour of the renewabl...
Conference Paper
Hybrid ac-dc grids are one of the possible solutions to support the integration of the increasing renewable capacity into the ac grid thanks to the flexibility of voltage and power flow control that converters at the boundary buses offer. However, this requires coordinated control and accurate monitoring of the converter and the hybrid ac-dc networ...
Conference Paper
The improvement of network reliability indices through the minimization of the number of customers affected by power outages is a major challenge for Distribution System Operators. To this purpose, automated procedures for fault location, isolation and service restoration have been recently proposed. To maximize the benefits provided by such automa...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the positive contributions of controllable electric loads such as electric vehicles (EV) and heat pumps (HP) in providing demand-side flexibility, uncoordinated operation of these loads may lead to congestions at distribution networks. This paper aims to propose a market-based mechanism to alleviate distribution network congestions through...
Article
While the initial aim of smart meters is to provide energy readings for billing purposes, the availability of these measurements could open new opportunities for the management of future distribution grids. This paper presents a multilevel state estimator that exploits the smart meter measurements for monitoring both low and medium voltage grids. T...
Chapter
In future electric distribution networks, demand flexibility offered by controllable loads will play a key role for the effective transition towards the smart grids. Electric heat pumps are flexible loads whose operation can be controlled, to some extent, to foster the efficient operation of the distribution grids. This paper presents an optimizati...
Article
Full-text available
The effective management of future smart grids is strictly related to the accurate knowledge of the network operating conditions via distribution system state estimation (DSSE). To achieve this target, the measurement infrastructure of the distribution systems needs a substantial upgrade. However, obvious economic limitations prevent a massive depl...
Article
The real-time monitoring and control of distribution systems are an essential step toward the future smart grid. This paper presents an interval state estimation model for low-voltage (LV) systems based on smart meter data provided by electrical customers. The formulation is based on a two-level approach, constituted of a nodal processor and a syst...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a novel distributed framework for real time management and co-simulation of Demand Response (DR) in smart grids. Our solution provides a (near-) real-time co-simulation platform to validate new DR-policies exploiting Internet-of-Things approach performing software-in-the-loop. Hence, the behavior of real-world power system...
Conference Paper
With the transition towards the smart grid paradigm, end-users are expected to play a more and more active role by offering their flexibility to support the efficient operation of electric networks. This paper investigates the potential given by a Demand Side Management program for the control of electric heat pumps combined with thermal storage ai...
Conference Paper
Distribution grids are becoming active and highly complex systems. In this scenario, monitoring of the distribution network is key to ensure its efficient and reliable operation. While distribution state estimation techniques have been proposed to this purpose, their practical use in the field is challenging, mainly due to the lack of a redundant m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Phasor Measurement Units have become more and more interesting for monitoring applications in distribution grids. For a large exploitation in medium and low voltage networks, however, a limited cost is required. Such specification, however, should not impact excessively the accuracy requirements, as it is expected that automatic control functionali...
Article
Full-text available
To deal with the increasing complexity of distribution networks that are experiencing important changes, due to the widespread installation of distributed generation and the expected penetration of new energy resources, modern control applications must rely on an accurate picture of the grid status, given by the distribution system state estimation...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of the power systems towards the smart grid paradigm is strictly dependent on the modernization of distribution grids. To achieve this target, new infrastructures, technologies and applications are increasingly required. This paper presents a smart metering infrastructure that unlocks a large set of possible services aimed at the auto...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the wideband system identification (WSI) technique, i.e., an online method to identify power impedances over a wide frequency range from which the corresponding parametric impedance can be calculated online as well. The WSI technique exploits an existing custom 25-kW power electronic converter on the top of its power conversion...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the smart grid scenario, Demand Response (DR) and Demand Side Management (DSM) programs are considered as strategic to obtain a more efficient operation of the grid. The flexibility given by the final customers plays a key role to unlock the potential benefits offered by the application of these schemes. A classical example of flexible load that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In electrical distribution networks many automation applications, such as voltage and power control, require to access the status of the system. Such information can be obtained by aggregating the heterogeneous measurements available in the grid and then applying state estimation algorithms. Different factors may have an impact on the estimation er...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution system state estimation (DSSE) is an essential tool for the management and control of future distribution networks. Distribution grids are usually characterized by a very large number of nodes and different voltage levels. Moreover, different portions of the system can be operated by different distribution system operators. In this con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Final customers are expected to play an active role in the Smart Grid scenario by offering their flexibility to allow a more efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Among the household appliances, heat pumps used for space heating are commonly recognized as flexible loads that can be suitably handled to gain benefit in the Smart Grid...
Chapter
Power systems are rapidly evolving, and correspondingly control and management systems require more reliable and accurate information on the operating conditions of the grids, in order to manage them. This information can be acquired in several ways and can concern different types of data. The possibility of obtaining such information and its relev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hybrid AC/DC grids have been recently proposed as an efficient solution to accommodate increasing amounts of renewable energy sources in future smart grids. Similarly to the traditional power systems, state estimation algorithms are necessary in AC/DC grids to acquire awareness about the operating conditions of the system and to enable proper opera...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) is nowadays essential to enable the smart management of medium and low voltage grids. Due to the lack of a suitable measurement infrastructure, DSSE usually relies on the use of power injection pseudo-measurements derived from the knowledge of the historical and statistical behaviour of loads and generato...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to ensure safe and reliable operation of the grids of the future, hybrid ac-dc grids are being considered as a promising solution. Traditionally state estimation (SE) of hybrid ac-dc grids has been performed with sequential SE algorithms. In this paper the authors show the inherent problems of the sequential SE algorithms, especially due t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The accurate monitoring of distribution grids is essential to enable the intelligent management and control of future Smart Grids. Several challenges prevent an easy development of the state estimation tools needed to assess the operating conditions of distribution networks. The lack of a suitable measurement infrastructure is one of the most chall...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the application of a fast two-step multi-area approach for state estimation in wide-area distribution systems. The possibility to perform Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) in a multi-area framework, designing the methodology according to the configuration of the measurement infrastructure is assessed. In particular, th...
Article
Distribution system state estimation (DSSE) tools are required to estimate the real operating conditions of power distribution networks. The accuracy of the quantities estimated through DSSE plays a key role in the effectiveness of the management and control functions. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical analysis aimed at highlighting...
Conference Paper
The roadmap towards the so-called Smart Grids calls for a clever and efficient management of the distribution systems. In this context, Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) tools play a crucial role to acquire the knowledge about the effective operating conditions of the network and to enable the proper management and control functions opera...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new approach to the distribution system state estimation in wide-area networks. The main goal of this paper is to present a two-step procedure designed to accurately estimate the status of a large-scale distribution network, relying on a distributed measurement system in a multiarea framework. First of all, the network is divi...
Conference Paper
Electrical distribution systems are usually poorly monitored networks with few measurement devices installed on the field. The significant changes affecting the distribution grids in last decades, mainly due to the increasing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), call for a smarter monitoring and control of such networks. In this cont...
Thesis
Full-text available
The changes occurring in electrical systems, due to technical and economic reasons, and the requirements of a reliable and efficient delivery of the power supply to the customers demand a smarter management of the current grids at all the levels. In particular, the distribution level, until now managed without a detailed monitoring of its operating...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution system state estimation is a fundamental tool for the management and control functions envisaged for future distribution grids. The design of accurate and efficient algorithms is essential to provide estimates compliant with the needed accuracy requirements and to allow the real-time operation of the different applications. To achieve...
Article
Smart Grid (SG) is an expression that has diffused worldwide. However, the meaning of this expression is not commonly shared, since there is not yet a totally defined or accepted idea of smartness. What is commonly recognized is that significant changes are occurring in electric systems, and traditional management and protection schemes will not be...
Article
The distribution grid is the infrastructure that transports electrical energy generated by large plants that are long distances away to the final user. A typical distribution grid consists of High-to-Medium Voltage (HV/MV) transformation centers; the MV grid; Medium-to-Low Voltage (MV/LV) transformation centers; and the LV grid, both three-phase an...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution system state estimation (DSSE) is one of the key elements of the monitoring activity of an active distribution network, and is the basis for every control and management application. The DSSE relies on real measurements collected by the distributed measurement system and on other available information, mainly obtained from historical d...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the application of multi-area approaches to the state estimation in wide-area distribution systems. The main goal of the paper is to analyze the possibility to accurately estimate the status of a large scale distribution network, relying on a distributed measurement system, in a multi-area framework: to this aim, two-step state...
Conference Paper
State Estimation (SE) is the basis for every control and management application on a power network. SE relies on accurate real measurements. In the near future, these measurements are expected to be more and more frequently provided by Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). PMUs are very accurate measurement devices able to give synchronized phasor measu...
Conference Paper
Monitoring irradiance values is a critical issue for correct management and possible fault detection in large photovoltaic plants. In a previous work it was shown that the use of suitable spatial interpolation algorithms allows better accuracy in the estimation of the irradiance values, especially under partial shading conditions. At the same time,...
Article
Full-text available
Deregulation and privatization actions are creating new problems of control, management and reliability, because of new players and new technologies spreading in distribution systems. Such new scenarios require more comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the system to make control actions efficient and reliable. In particular, attention must be pa...
Conference Paper
The State Estimation (SE) is one of the key elements of the monitoring activity of an active distribution network and is the basis for every control and management application. Distribution networks present their own features, requiring specific estimation methodologies. The most widespread algorithms for Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE)...
Conference Paper
The role of measurements is crucial for performance assessment in PV plants. Measurements are of critical importance both on a preliminary stage of model validation and on the subsequent stage of on-line monitoring. Measurement issues are particularly critical above all in large PV plants, where different environmental, geometrical and technical co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a comparison between the two main classes of Weighted Least Squares (WLS) state estimators used in distribution systems: state estimators based on node voltage state variables and estimators based on a state expressed in terms of branch-currents. In particular, the actual accuracy achieved for the estimated quantities by these e...