Marco Gaiani

Marco Gaiani
University of Bologna | UNIBO · Department of Architecture DA

Civil Engineering

About

90
Publications
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1,192
Citations

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
The development of the technology for reproducing and documenting the Cultural Heritage is tortuous and ridden with dead ends. It is often difficult to fathom why a step is done a certain way. We retrace the development of imaging technology and documentation systems, explaining how some fundamental decisions were made and how the technology evolve...
Article
A discriminating, multi-disciplinary knowledge is a necessary expertise that all the actors who operate in the management, conservation, and communication of Cultural Heritage (CH) must have. They are, therefore, expected to be seriously prepared in many fields. However, a proper training program for them, which effectively combines humanistic stud...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution to the literature presents an in-depth analysis of the scene drawn by Leonardo da Vinci in the preparatory drawing, Adoration of the Magi, dated 1481, that is now housed at the Département des Arts Graphiques du Musée du Louvre in Paris, France. This analysis focuses on the architectural elements and highlights how the drawing dis...
Article
Original hand drawings by Leonardo are astonishing collections of knowledge, superb representations of the artist's way of working, which proves the technical and cultural peak of the Renaissance era. However, due to their delicate and fragile nature, they are hard to manipulate and compulsory to preserve. To overcome this problem we developed, in...
Article
This paper aims at presenting the complexity of the process of image target-based color correction (CC). We present issues encountered from acquisition to rendering using colorimetric traditional tools. Target-based CC can be seen as an optimization problem. We have tested SAT and HUE adaptive fine tuning (SHAFT) an automated framework for target-b...
Article
In 3-D Digital Modeling and Giuliano da Sangallo’s Designs for Santa Maria delle Carceri in Prato, Sabine Frommel, Marco Gaiani, and Simone Garagnani examine one of the most representative central-plan churches of Renaissance Italy. Their study is based on the examination of an original drawing by the architect of Santa Maria delle Carceri, Giulian...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays digital replicas of artefacts belonging to the Cultural Heritage (CH) are one of the most promising innovations for museums exhibitions, since they foster new forms of interaction with collections, at different scales. However, practical digitization is still a complex task dedicated to specialized operators. Due to these premises, this pa...
Article
Colours play a crucial role in the field of architectural heritage. Colour analysis and colour rendition are involved in several critical facets of heritage preservation, conservation and restoration. These aspects are related to accurate documentation and an accurate representation of heritage artefacts and architectural works. The aim of this pap...
Article
Full-text available
Among many other themes, Leonardo da Vinci’s Manuscript B contains several drawings of centrally planned churches, some of which are represented using a plan view paired with a bird’s-eye view. The use of a bird’s-eye instead of an elevation represents an innovative depiction technique, which allows combining the immediacy of the perspective view w...
Preprint
Among many other themes, Leonardo da Vinci’s Manuscript B contains several drawings of centrally planned churches, some of which are represented using a plan view paired with a bird’s-eye view. The use of a bird’s-eye instead of an elevation represents an innovative depiction technique, which allows to combine the immediacy of the perspective view...
Article
Full-text available
p>El documento describe una metodología que cubre los procedimientos de levantamiento y las aplicaciones informáticas con el objetivo de convertir herramientas generalistas (teléfonos inteligentes) en dispositivos de adquisición rigurosa de BIC almacenados en los museos. Dos problemas diferentes se enfrentan: a) como las caracteristicas de dichos o...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural Heritage management is a topical issue facing administrators, professionals and scholars involved in documentation, restoration and enhancement of the cultural assets. In the paper, after a general framework on the state of the art in the sector, two recent experiences are reported about Information System and integrated service platform f...
Article
Full-text available
Smartphone camera technology has made significant improvements of sensors quality and software camera performance in recent years. Devices as Apple iPhone X and the Samsung Galaxy S9 Plus, allow to reach levels of image resolution, sharpness and color accuracy very close to prosumer SLR cameras, enabling also on-the-fly processing and procedures wh...
Chapter
Building Information Modeling (BIM) has attracted wide interest in the field of documentation and conservation of Architectural Heritage (AH). Existing approaches focus on converting laser scanned point clouds to BIM objects, but laser scanning is usually limited to planar elements which are not the typical state of AH where free-form and double-cu...
Chapter
Building Information Modeling (BIM) has attracted wide interest in the field of documentation and conservation of Architectural Heritage (AH). Existing approaches focus on converting laser scanned point clouds to BIM objects, but laser scanning is usually limited to planar elements which are not the typical state of AH where free-form and double-cu...
Article
On the occasion of the recent restoration of the sixteenth century Neptune’s Fountain in Bologna, promoted by the municipality in 2015 to preserve one of the major town’s landmark, high-quality imagery has been acquired for documenting the current state of preservation of the marble and bronze surfaces before and during the restoration phases. Star...
Article
This paper reports the latest developments for the photogrammetric open-source tool called GRAPHOS (inteGRAted PHOtogrammetric Suite). GRAPHOS includes some recent innovations in the image-based 3D reconstruction pipeline, from automatic feature detection/description and network orientation to dense image matching and quality control. GRAPHOS also...
Chapter
This chapter presents a framework and some solutions for color acquisition, management, rendering and assessment in Architectural Heritage (AH) 3D models construction from reality-based data. The aim is to illustrate easy, low-cost and rapid procedures that produce high visual accuracy of the image/model while being accessible to non-specialized us...
Article
Giuliano da Sangallo's versatile endeavours are materially embodied not just by the architectural works which have survived to the present day, but also by the many corpus of drawings, surveys of ancient buildings, and the maquettes of several of his projects. To retrace his design method and understand its fundamentals we decided to use 3D digital...
Article
Full-text available
La visualizzazione digitale come rappresentazione di un passato non più esistente è un’esigenza comunicativa in cui le ricostruzioni virtuali sono divenute mezzo e sperimentazione di un tempo altrimenti intangibile. Il caso studio presentato è espressione di una metodologia che cerca di combinare insieme l’aspetto divulgativo e quello scientifico....
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring color fidelity in image-based 3D modeling of heritage scenarios is nowadays still an open research matter. Image colors are important during the data processing as they affect algorithm outcomes, therefore their correct treatment, reduction and enhancement is fundamental. In this contribution, we present an automated solution developed to...
Chapter
The paper, aiming to retrieve the original meaning of Smart City, attempts to demonstrate its impact in the field of Cultural Heritage (CH). It presents a framework - applied in a project for a prototypical case study of ‘Widespread Built Heritage’ (WBH) - to create a Smart cultural city, transforming Cultural Items into Smart Cultural Objects (SCO...
Article
Restoration is becoming a quite complex process: a large number of internal and external variables co-exist and may impair it. Among these, the large number of professionals involved and the huge amount of documentation produced can heavily affect the quality of the intervention as well as the possibility to have systemic and informed interventions...
Article
The color survey of Architectural and open-air Archaeological artefacts represents a difficult operation due to a lot of factors such as subjective aspects of visual perception, objective characteristics relating to sources of lighting and the way one watches something. The paper describes a method for 3D reality-based color managed modeling, aimed...
Article
Full-text available
The sixteenth-century Fountain of Neptune is one of Bologna’s most renowned landmarks. During the recent restoration activities of the monumental sculpture group, consisting in precious marbles and highly refined bronzes with water jets, a photographic campaign has been carried out exclusively for documentation purposes of the current state of pres...
Article
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Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact’s surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-b...
Article
This paper deals with the topic of virtualization of Information System related to Architectural Heritage in the age of Information Technology. The case of PALLADIOLibrary and its interface Andrea Palladio - 3D geodatabase, a comprehensive Information System about the architect Andrea Palladio and his work is introduced. The new system, gathering t...
Article
In this paper, we reviewed 20 years of development of 3D based IS to support archaeological and AH artefact knowledge, management and communication and their theoretical work basis. In detail, we illustrated our experiences showing the advantages and limits we had observed after extensive use. In conclusion, we have illustrated a new paradigm based...
Article
Together with the Two Towers, the Fountain of Neptune is undoubtedly the most emblematic monumental complex in Bologna (fig. 1) Commissioned by the papal legate Cardinal Carlo Borromeo and supervised by Bishop Pier Donato Cesi, the fountain is the last in a series of works that created the current appearance of Piazza Maggiore, the imposing emblem...
Conference Paper
ICT-based technological innovation has not yet made substantial advantages, although desirable, in the Cultural Heritage field, both as regards the management and as regards the use of assets. It is still weak, e.g., the receipt of the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). Conversely ICT-based technologies could play a main role. I.e. in the fo...
Article
Full-text available
Photogrammetry is currently facing some challenges and changes mainly related to automation, ubiquitous processing and variety of applications. Within an ISPRS Scientific Initiative a team of researchers from USAL, UCLM, FBK and UNIBO have developed an open photogrammetric tool, called GRAPHOS (inteGRAted PHOtogrammetric Suite). GRAPHOS allows to o...
Article
Full-text available
Photogrammetry is currently facing some challenges and changes mainly related to automation, ubiquitous processing and variety of applications. Within an ISPRS Scientific Initiative a team of researchers from USAL, UCLM, FBK and UNIBO have developed an open photogrammetric tool, called GRAPHOS (inteGRAted PHOtogrammetric Suite). GRAPHOS allows to o...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years the image-based pipeline for 3D reconstruction purposes has received large interest leading to fully automated methodologies able to process large image datasets and deliver 3D products with a level of detail and precision variable according to the applications. Different open issues still exist, in particular when dealing with th...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years the image-based pipeline for 3D reconstruction purposes has received large interest leading to fully automated methodologies able to process large image datasets and deliver 3D products with a level of detail and precision variable according to the applications. Different open issues still exist, in particular when dealing with th...
Article
Full-text available
Automated image-based 3D reconstruction methods are more and more flooding our 3D modeling applications. Fully automated solutions give the impression that from a sample of randomly acquired images we can derive quite impressive visual 3D models. Although the level of automation is reaching very high standards, image quality is a fundamental pre-re...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays cities, as well as Cultural Heritage, are facing new challenges due to the public financial straits and the increasing need to deliver innovative service to manage a wide heritage. Great expectations are in put the Smart City paradigm relying on the capability of the city to realize and scale up intangible infrastructures based on new typo...
Article
Archaeological monuments involve different approaches of research, between conservation, management and communication, addressing various levels of users: scholars, restorers, visitors (real and on line). Using the case study of a famous monumental setting as Pompeii this paper focuses on a new multi-approach methodology to represent and describe i...
Article
The paper presents a new technique for detecting and rendering the total appearance of a drawing with the aim of digitally visualizing fine drawing collections with perceptive accuracy. A drawing's total appearance can be measured using equipment commonly found in a photographic studio. The system consists of four strobes and an RGB camera. The app...
Article
Full-text available
Tools and algorithms for automated image processing and 3D reconstruction purposes have become more and more available, giving the possibility to process any dataset of unoriented and markerless images. Typically, dense 3D point clouds (or texture 3D polygonal models) are produced at reasonable processing time. In this paper, we evaluate how the ra...
Chapter
In this chapter are presented a framework and some solutions for color acquisition, management, rendering and assessment in Architectural Heritage (AH) 3D models construction from reality-based data. The aim is to illustrate easy, low-cost and rapid procedures that produce high visual accuracy of the image/model while being accessible to non-specia...
Article
This paper illustrates a new method used to portray and view the most famous drawing in the world: The Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. A successful workflow of acquisition, processing, visualisation and 3D digital fruition of the paper support aimed at enhancing perceptive realism and achieve a visual detail of a hundredth of a millimetre. The...
Conference Paper
Among the actions developed in order to submit the Bologna porticoes ensemble to World heritage sites of UNESCO, there is a platform conceived for on-line accessing the huge amount of data and resources related to the porticoes. The core of platform will consist of reality-based high quality 3D models usable and navigable within the system as main...
Article
This article describes the evolution of an information system (IS) of Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio di Vicenza and the related interfaces from the first standalone on a CD-ROM system to the current web-based and georeferenced solution. The goal of these ISs was manifold: the dissemination, study, and analysis of arc...
Article
Full-text available
Every day new tools and algorithms for automated image processing and 3D reconstruction purposes become available, giving the possibility to process large networks of unoriented and markerless images, delivering sparse 3D point clouds at reasonable processing time. In this paper we evaluate some feature-based methods used to automatically extract t...
Article
Full-text available
The paper describes a color enhanced processing system - applied as case study on an artifact of the Pompeii archaeological area - developed in order to enhance different techniques for reality-based 3D models construction and visualization of archaeological artifacts. This processing allows rendering reflectance properties with perceptual fidelity...
Article
Full-text available
ItIn questo contributo si assume il concetto di ‘Smart City’ come paradigma per sottolineare l’importanza che riveste l’Information Technology (IT) di prima e seconda generazione ai fini del miglioramento del profilo competitivo di una città, soprattutto per ciò che riguarda il patrimonio culturale in essa contenuto. Si estende così il costrutto di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The system of Bologna porticoes, included in 2006 in the Italian tentative list of World heritage sites of UNESCO, will undergo a definitive recognition of the nomination as part of the program of the current municipal council. The nomination is aimed at highlighting the portico, not only as a high-quality architectural work, which in the past cent...
Article
Full-text available
The paper describes objectives, methods, procedures and outcomes of the development of the digital archive of Palladio works and documentation: the PALLADIOLibrary of Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio di Vicenza (CISAAP). The core of the application consists of fifty-one reality-based 3D models usable and navigable with...
Article
The paper presents some experiments carried out as part of the virtual reconstruction of buildings just documented by partial sketches, or partially built, or no more existing, with the aim (a) to emphasize the use of a semantic construction of the digital model, not only as a means to modeling a building but as a cognitive system, (b) to show conc...
Article
This paper illustrates the objectives, methods, procedures, and results of the innovative digital database of Palladio's works: the PALLADIoLibrary project. The database has fifty-one 3D models which can be accessed and browsed using the Google Earth geosystem. The system was developed by four universities in collaboration with the Andrea Palladio...
Article
Full-text available
Questo scritto illustra un framework sviluppato per rilevare, costruire, elaborare, gestire e visualizzare modelli tridimensionali di grandi siti archeologici e monumenti architettonici per sistemi 3DGIS Web-based. Il framework è il risultato di 15 anni di sperimentazioni e ricerche realizzati in differenti contesti e situazioni. Le applicazioni sv...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a method for applying VR techniques to simulate and analyze restoration projects of architectural monuments, starting from real world data. Our method is meant as a visualization and collaborative design tool and as a study aid in virtual rooms. We address the main issues in real-time visualization and interactive manipulat...
Article
This work describes the procedures, the different techniques and the pipeline used for creating a digital framework that should assist the Superintendence of Pompeii in the digital reconstruction, classification, management and visualisation of archaeological finds inside an advanced 3D web-based repository of reality-based data. Specific topics ha...
Article
The article presents a study on the use of digital threedimensional models as a tool to help in the identification of an architectural drawing. Compared to previous studies in this field, this study is unique: it attempts to discover whether or not a signed drawing by Palladio corresponds to Villa Contarini using a semantic construction of the digi...
Article
The design-to-customer pipeline in companies operating in the high-end furniture market is pretty complex and fragmented, mainly because during the last years fundamental requirements have become: • to suggest the customer not only a single piece of furniture, but a whole interior design solution, building and communicating a 'brand atmosphere' wit...
Article
The paper presents a novel digital 3D GIS web-based system entirely founded on Google Earth, built to offer a deep insight into Palladio's opera for restitution of its architectural surveys, reconstruction for historical reasons, analysis for structural and other options, and assembly and presentation of all certified Palladian documentation.The de...
Article
Full-text available
La experiencia llevada a cabo en Pompeya tiene como objetivo la formación de un Sistema Informativo que permita conservar, gestionar e integrar los datos, archivos y documentos recogidos en diferentes momentos y espacios del yacimiento arqueológico. Un Sistema Informativo Unificado de carácter 3D capaz de suministrar un framework uniforme para la v...
Article
The article presents a new digital framework developed to pool and collate information about excavations, scientific studies and projects, historical documentation regarding previous renovation, restoration and maintenance of an important archaeological site: Pompeii. The geo-referential framework is based on 3D models developed using survey data....
Article
In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues lin...
Conference Paper
This paper aims to describe a prototypal immersive virtual reality application, running in a Virtual Theater, that uses portable terminals to visualize multimedia data and to manage the interaction with 3D models regarding the survey and restoration of eight tombs along the ancient Rome's Appian Way. The starting point of our work is a 3D Web appli...
Article
Full-text available
Between 1998 and 1999 the Archeological Superintendence of Rome restored eight small Roman tombs along the ancient Appian Way. We discuss the challenges of built heritage documentation and visual, knowledge representation and our development of a digital toolkit to record, organize, present, and visually navigate 3D architectural and archaeological...
Article
The paper describes the process of building Internet-transmittable, 3-D digital virtual models of ancient heritage monuments from on-site data, focusing especially on 3-D dimensional data acquisition techniques and color processing methods. Section 1 considers project goals and the attendant problems; Section 2 provides a brief summary of state-of-...