Marco Castellani

Marco Castellani
National Institute of Astrophysics | INAF · Astronomical Observatory of Rome

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82
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Publications

Publications (82)
Preprint
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(Abridged) Blue (BP) and Red (RP) Photometer low-resolution spectral data is one of the exciting new products in Gaia Data Release 3 (Gaia DR3). We calibrate about 65 billion individual transit spectra onto the same mean BP/RP instrument through a series of calibration steps, including background subtraction, calibration of the CCD geometry and an...
Preprint
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Context. Gaia Data Release 3 contains astrometry and photometry results for about 1.8 billion sources based on observations collected by the European Space Agency (ESA) Gaia satellite during the first 34 months of its operational phase (the same period covered Gaia early Data Release 3; Gaia EDR3). Low-resolution spectra for 220 million sources are...
Article
Context. The study of stars that evolve through the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) proves crucial in several astrophysical contexts because these objects provide important feedback to the host system in terms of the gas that is poured into the interstellar medium after being exposed to contamination from nucleosynthesis processes, and in terms of th...
Preprint
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Gaia Early Data Release 3 contains astrometry and photometry results for about 1.8 billion sources based on observations collected by the ESA Gaia satellite during the first 34 months of operations. This paper focuses on the photometric content, describing the input data, the algorithms, the processing, and the validation of the results. Particular...
Article
We discuss the observed pulsation properties of Type II Cepheids (TIICs) in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic Clouds. We found that period (P) distributions, luminosity amplitudes, and population ratios of the three different sub-groups (BL Herculis [BLH, P < 5 days], W Virginis [WV, 5 ≤ P < 20 days], RV Tauri [RVT, P > 20 days]) are quite similar i...
Preprint
We discuss the observed pulsation properties of Type II Cepheids (TIICs) in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The period (P) distributions, luminosity amplitudes and population ratios of the three different sub-groups (BL Herculis[BLH, P<5 days], W Virginis [WV, 5<P<20 days], RV Tauri [RVT, P>20 days]) are quite similar in different stellar systems...
Article
Context . Theory and observations indicate that the distribution of stars along the horizontal branch of Galactic globular clusters mainly depends on the metal content. However, the existence of globular clusters with similar metal content and absolute age but different horizontal branch morphologies, suggests the presence of another parameter affe...
Article
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The ESA Gaia mission provides a unique time-domain survey for more than 1.6 billion sources with G ~ 21 mag. We showcase stellar variability across the Galactic colour-absolute magnitude diagram (CaMD), focusing on pulsating, eruptive, and cataclysmic variables, as well as on stars exhibiting variability due to rotation and eclipses. We illustrate...
Preprint
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The main aim of this experiment is to provide a complete census of old (t > 10 Gyr, RR Lyrae, type II Cepheids, red horizontal branch), intermediate age (red clump, Miras) and young (classical Cepheids) stellar tracers across the Galactic Bulge. To fully exploit the unique photometric quality of LSST images, we plan to perform a Shallow minisurvey...
Article
We constructed new sets of He-enhanced (Y = 0.30, Y = 0.40) nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models of RR Lyrae (RRL) stars covering a broad range in metal abundances (Z = 0.0001–0.02). The increase in He content from the canonical value (Y = 0.245) to Y = 0.30–0.40 causes a simultaneous increase in stellar luminosity and in puls...
Preprint
We constructed new sets of He-enhanced (Y = 0.30, Y = 0.40) nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models of RR Lyrae (RRL) stars covering a broad range in metal abundances (Z from 0.0001 to 0.02). The increase in He content from the canonical value (Y = 0.245) to Y = 0.30 and 0.40 causes a simultaneous increase in stellar luminosity a...
Article
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We present a new complete Near-Infrared (NIR, $JHK_s$) census of RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) in the globular $\omega$ Cen (NGC 5139). We collected 15,472 $JHK_s$ images with 4-8m class telescopes over 15 years (2000-2015) covering a sky area around the cluster center of 60x34 arcmin$^2$. These images provided calibrated photometry for 182 out of the 198...
Article
CONTEXT. This paper presents an overview of the photometric data that are part of the first Gaia data release. AIMS. The principles of the processing and the main characteristics of the Gaia photometric data are presented. METHODS. The calibration strategy is outlined briefly and the main properties of the resulting photometry are presented. RESULT...
Article
Context. This paper presents an overview of the photometric data that are part of the first Gaia data release. Aims. The principles of the processing and the main characteristics of the Gaia photometric data are presented. Methods. The calibration strategy is outlined briefly and the main properties of the resulting photometry are presented. Result...
Article
Full-text available
New accurate and homogeneous optical UBVRI photometry has been obtained for variable stars in the Galactic globular $\omega$ Cen (NGC 5139). We secured 8202 CCD images covering a time interval of 24 years and a sky area of 84x48 arcmin. The current data were complemented with data available in the literature and provided new, homogeneous pulsation...
Article
We present asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models of solar metallicity, to allow the interpretation of observations of Galactic AGB stars, whose distances should be soon available after the first release of the Gaia catalogue. We find an abrupt change in the AGB physical and chemical properties, occurring at the threshold mass to ignite hot bottom bu...
Article
We present new nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models of RR Lyrae stars computed assuming a constant helium-to-metal enrichment ratio and a broad range in metal abundances (Z=0.0001--0.02). The stellar masses and luminosities adopted to construct the pulsation models were fixed according to detailed central He burning Horizontal...
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We present the alpha release of the VOGCLUSTERS web application, specialized for data and text mining on globular clusters. It is one of the web2.0 technology based services of Data Mining & Exploration (DAME) Program, devoted to mine and explore heterogeneous information related to globular clusters data.
Article
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Massive data sets explored in many e-science communities, as in the Astrophysics case, are gathered by a very large number of techniques and stored in very diversified and often-incompatible data repositories. Moreover, we need to integrate services across distributed, heterogeneous, dynamic "virtual organizations" formed from the different resourc...
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Dwarf galaxies have been the crossroad of significant theoretical and observational efforts, but we still lack firm constraints concerning their formation and evolution. They are also fundamental laboratories to investigate the impact of the environment on star formation and on chemical evolution in stellar systems that are order of magnitudes smal...
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We present U,B,V,I photometry of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy, based on more than 4,000 CCD images. Special attention was given to the photometric calibration, and the precision for the B,V,I bands is better than 0.01 mag. We compared in the V,B-V and V,B-I color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) Carina with three Globular Clusters (GCs, M53, M55, M7...
Article
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We present new empirical estimates of the ΔV bump HB parameter for 15 Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) using accurate and homogeneous ground-based optical data. Together with similar evaluations available in the literature, we ended up with a sample of 62 GGCs covering a very broad range in metal content (–2.16 dex ≤ [M/H] ≤ –0.58 dex). Adopting t...
Article
Full-text available
We present new empirical estimates of the Delta V_HB_bump parameter for 15 Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) using accurate and homogeneous ground-based optical data. Together with similar evaluations available in the literature, we ended up with a sample of 62 GGCs covering a very broad range in metal content (-2.16<=[M/H]<=-0.58 dex). Adopting th...
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We present new intermediate-band Strömgren photometry based on more than 300 u, v, b, y images of the Galactic globular cluster ω Cen, covering a region of more than 20×20 arcmin squared across the cluster center. By adopting different Strömgren metallicity indices we estimate the photometric metallicity for ≈ 4, 000 Red Giants, the largest sample...
Article
We present new intermediate-band Strömgren photometry based on more than 300 u,v,b,y images of the Galactic globular cluster omega Cen p, covering a region of more than 20×20 arcmin squared across the cluster center. By adopting different Strömgren metallicity indices we estimate the photometric metallicity for &ap; 4,000 Red Giants, the largest sa...
Article
Full-text available
Gaia will produce a catalogue of 1 billion of Milky Way stars, along with huge number of extragalactic and solar system's objects, changing drastically our vision of the sky. The photometric cameras will supply low resolution spectra (from 3 to 29 nm/pixel) in two bands, BP ( 300-660 nm) and RP (650-1000 nm) for all targets with magnitude G
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Full-text available
We present new intermediate-band Strömgren photometry based on more than 300 u, v, b, y images of the Galactic globular cluster ω Cen. Optical data were supplemented with new multiband near-infrared (NIR) photometry (350 J, H, Ks images). The final optical-NIR catalog covers a region of more than 20 × 20 arcmin squared across the cluster center. We...
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We investigate the stellar content of the starburst dwarf galaxy IC10 using accurate and deep optical data collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The comparison between theory and observations indicates a clear change in age distribution when moving from the cent...
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We present accurate new ultraviolet and optical BVI photometry for the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808 based on both ground-based and archival Hubble Space telescope imagery. From this we have selected a sample of ~2000 Horizontal Branch (HB) stars; given the extensive wavelength range considered and the combination of both high angular resoluti...
Article
With an expected catalogue of 1 billion MW stars in addition to a huge number of extragalactic and solar system's objects, Gaia mission will drastically change our vision of the sky. Considered that the photometric cameras will produce low resolution spectra in two bands, BP ( 300-660 nm) and RP (650-1000 nm), the expected fraction of crowded stars...
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We present new near-infrared (J and K) magnitudes for 114 RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139), which we combine with data from the literature to construct a sample of 180 RR Lyrae stars with J and K mean magnitudes on a common photometric system. This is currently the largest such sample in any stellar system. We also prese...
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We performed a new calibration of the Stroemgren metallicity index m1 based on the b-y color of cluster red giant stars. The current Metallicity-Index-Color relation is not linear in the color range 0.40 < b-y < 1.0, but provides iron abundances of cluster and field red giants with an accuracy of ~ 0.25 dex.
Article
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The present status of Galactic Globular Clusters Database is briefly reviewed. The features implemented at the time writing are described, as well as plans for future improvements.
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We present new BV time series data of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). Current data cover an area of ≈0.3 deg2 around the center of the galaxy and allow us to identify 92 variables. Among them 75 are RR Lyrae stars, 15 are bona fide anomalous Cepheids, one might be a Galactic field RR Lyrae star, and one is located along the Carina red gi...
Article
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Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope archive, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) have been constructed for globular cluster 4 in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its surrounding field. These diagrams extend below the main-sequence turnoffs and have yielded measurements of the ages of the populations. The most prominent features of...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new (V, B-V) color-magnitude diagram of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) that extends from the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) down to V ~ 25 mag. Data were collected with the Wide Field Imager available at the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope and cover an area of ≈0.3 deg2 around the center of the galaxy. We confirm the occurrence o...
Article
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Context. In this paper we present multiband optical and UV Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the two Galactic globular clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441. Aims. We investigate the properties of their anomalous horizontal branches in different photometric planes in order to shed light on the nature of the physical mechanism(s) responsible for the ex...
Article
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We present a new calibration of the Stroemgren metallicity index m1 using red giant (RG) stars in 4 globular clusters (GCs:M92,M13,NGC1851,47Tuc) with metallicity ranging from [Fe/H]=-2.2 to -0.7, marginally affected by reddening (E(B-V)<0.04) and with accurate u,v,b,y photometry.The main difference between the new metallicity-index-color (MIC) rel...
Article
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We revisit the evolutionary scenario for Hot Flasher low-mass structures, where mass loss delays the He flash till the initial phases of their White Dwarf cooling sequence. Our aim has been to test the theoretical results vis-a-vis different assumptions about the efficiency of mass loss. To this purpose, we present evolutionary models covering a fi...
Article
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In this article we present the survey STREGA, that has been proposed as part of the VST GTO (VLT Survey Telescope Guarantee Time of Observation) that will be given to the INAF-OAC in exchange for the construction of the telescope (see Alcalàet al., this volume). This survey will cover an area of about 150 sq. deg., searching for the southern portio...
Article
We present some applications of our Synthetic Horizontal Branches (SHB) simulations, aimed to reproduce the peculiar period distributions of RR Lyrae belonging to the Galactic Globular Clusters M3 and M5. We show some evidence, supporting the importance of SHBs in obtaining parameters such as the mass distribution inside the instability strip.
Article
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We present some applications of our Synthetic Horizontal Branches (SHB) simulations, aimed to reproduce the peculiar period distributions of RR Lyrae belonging to the Galactic Globular Clusters M3 and M5. We show some evidence, supporting the importance of SHBs in obtaining parameters such as the mass distribution inside the instability strip.
Article
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We present a new database of stellar evolution models for a large range of masses and chemical compositions, based on an up-to-date theoretical framework. We briefly discuss the physical inputs and the assumptions adopted in computing the stellar models. We explain how to access to the on-line archive and briefly discuss the interactive WEB tools t...
Article
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We use our synthetic Horizontal Branch (HB) procedure to approach the often debated problem of how adequate canonical HB stellar models are to account for the observed peaked distribution of RR Lyrae fundamentalised periods in the globular cluster M 3. We find that by assuming a suitable bimodal mass distribution, canonical models do account for th...
Article
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We present detailed evolutionary calculations focused on the evolution of intermediate mass stars with 3 Msun < M < 9 Msun of metallicity typical of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), i.e. Z=0.008. We compare carefully the models calculated by adopting a diffusive scheme for chemical mixing, in which nuclear burning and mixing are self-consistently...
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We examine the convective core helium burning phase of intermediate mass stars, and investigate the role of coupling of nuclear burning and mixing on the extension and duration of the blue loop phase. We compare the theoretical scenario with the distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude (CM) diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster N...
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We present theoretical predictions concerning horizontal branch stars in globular clusters, including RR Lyrae variables, as derived from synthetic procedures collating evolutionary and pulsational constraints. On this basis, we explore the predicted behavior of the pulsators as a function of the horizontal branch morphology and over the metallicit...
Article
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We present first results concerning the detection of variable stars in the Carina dwarf Spheroidal from B, V images collected with the 4-m CTIO telescope. We show a sample of candidate variables spanning from the tip of the Red Giant Branch down to the Main Sequence turn off. Finally, we discuss the future photometric and spectroscopic developments...
Article
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We present optical photometry of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) Galaxy. Data have been collected with CCD mosaic cameras available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI and at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescopes. Our current (V,B-V) Color-Magnitude diagram (CMD) confirms the occurrence of an old (˜ 11 Gyr) and an intermediate-age (˜ 5 Gyr ) population. Furthermore, we...
Article
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In this paper we revisit observational data concerning RR Lyrae stars in Galactic globular clusters, presenting frequency histograms of fundamentalized periods for the 32 clusters having more than 12 pulsators with well recognized period and pulsation mode. One finds that the range of fundamentalized periods covered by the variables in a given clus...
Article
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We present predicted relations connecting pulsational and evolutionary parameters, as based on a wide set of convective pulsating models of RR Lyrae stars with Z=0.001, Y=0.24 and mass and luminosity suitable for the ``old'' (age $>$ 8 Gyr) variables observed in globular clusters. The relations are collated with sound constraints on the mass of pul...
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We present B, V photometric data of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy collected with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope. We briefly discuss the main features of the color magnitude diagram and in particular the mix of stellar populations present in this galaxy. A preliminary analysis of the spatial distribution of...
Article
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We present recent results on variable stars in the Carina Dwarf Galaxy based on B,V time series data collected over three consecutive nights with the Wide Field Imager available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. At present we have already detected and measured a sample of 92 variable stars. Among them 75 are RR Lyrae stars (54 fundamental, 15 first ov...
Article
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We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed wit...
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We present B,V photometric data of the Carina dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, collected with the Mosaic Camera (36 × 36arcmin 2) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. We discuss different reduction strategies and in particular the PSF extraction and internal accuracy reached by our measurements. We discuss a new deep Color-Magnitude Diagram (C...
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We present accurate multiwavelength UBVI time series data of the LMC cluster Reticulum. Data cover a time interval of ~ 6 yr and have been collected with SUSI1/2 and SOFI at NTT/ESO. For each band we collected approximately 30 short/long exposures and the total exposure times range from roughly 3500 (U, B), 6000s (V) to 8300s (I). The observing str...
Article
We present some preliminary results based on new observations of the variable stars belonging to the Carina Dwarf Galaxy (DG). Photometric data were collected with the two wide field imagers available at ESO (WFI@2.2.) and CTIO (4m prime focus).
Article
We present deep CCD photometry for the dwarf galaxy in Tucana (l=323, b=-47.4). The data indicate that the galaxy is dominated by an intermediate/old stellar population with metallicity similar to that of the galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 7089 (M2) (we find [Fe/H]=~-1.56). The distance modulus we derived, (m-M)V=~24.72+/-0.2, makes cl...
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Deep (I,V-I) and (I,B-I) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the Antlia dwarf galaxy, based on Science Verification (SV) data collected with the FORS I camera on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) are presented. By adopting the new calibration of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) provided by Salaris & Cassisi (1998) we estimated that the Antlia...
Article
We present V,I deep CCD photometry for three fields of the dwarf galaxy in Sagittarius (Sgr), located at l=5.6°, b=-14.1°. One of the fields is centered on the globular cluster NGC 6715 (M54), which lies in one of the dense clumps of the Sgr galaxy. Comparing the CMD of Sgr with those of globular clusters which are believed to be kinematically asso...
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We present deep (I,V-I) and (I,B-I) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the Antlia dwarf galaxy, based on Science Verification (SV) data collected with the FORS I camera on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The CMDs present two key features: a well-defined RGB, and a sample of bright blue stars, belonging to a young stellar component. The comparis...
Article
Full-text available
Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope archive, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) have been constructed for globular cluster 4 in the Fornax dSph galaxy and its surrounding field. These diagrams extend below the main-sequence turnoffs and have yielded measurements of the ages of the populations. The most prominent features of the CMD of t...