Marco M. Carvalho

Marco M. Carvalho
Florida Institute of Technology · Department of Computer Science

Ph.D.

About

175
Publications
36,655
Reads
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1,768
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Florida Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2000 - present

Publications

Publications (175)
Chapter
Full-text available
The area of software development and secure coding can benefit significantly from advancements in virtual assistants. Research has shown that many coders neglect security in favor of meeting deadlines. This shortcoming leaves systems vulnerable to attackers. While a plethora of tools are available for programmers to scan their code for vulnerabilit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been substantial focus on software metrics over the last few decades. However, many activities within software engineering are often qualitative and are not consonant with automated approaches. Consequently, there are few tools to measure software development quality or to assess teamwork contribution. This paper uses ideas from the Goal-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerous agent-oriented methodologies that offer a rich pool of resources to support developers of agent-based systems have been proposed. However, the use of existing method-ologies in industrial settings is still limited due to the large volume of methodologies, diversity of covered scopes, ambiguity in concepts, and lack of maturity. This makes...
Poster
Full-text available
This paper discusses a solution that deploys passive UHF RFID technology and wireless sensors on small farms to provide intelligence that will help mitigate some disparate socioeconomic conditions in farming communities. Starting with a collaborative effort with farmers in the community of Holopaw, Florida, in the United States, we first propose ex...
Conference Paper
Having reviewed a wide array of tools to either implement user models or simulate network traffic, we were unable to find a tool that generates network traffic while maintaining simplicity, portability and extensibility. To overcome these issues, we introduce a new adaptive user-modelling framework for cyber activity emulation. Our framework suppor...
Conference Paper
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks routinely disrupt access to critical services. Mitigation of these attacks often relies on planned over-provisioning or elastic provisioning of resources, and third-party monitoring, analysis, and scrubbing of network traffic. While volumetric attacks which saturate a victim's network are most common, no...
Poster
Full-text available
Classification of network traffic is an important problem in Cyber Security. Techniques in Data Mining and Machine Learning have been successfully applied to the classification problem. However, few benchmarks have been provided to give researchers some intuition on the performances of popular algorithms in network traffic classification. We addres...
Conference Paper
Spectrum sensing and characterization play a very important role in the implementation of cognitive radios and adaptive mobile wireless networks. Most practical mobile network deployments require some level of sensing and adaptation to allow individual nodes to learn and reconfigure based on observations from their own environment. Spectrum sensing...
Conference Paper
To improve the information assurance of mission execution over modern IT infrastructure, new cyber defenses need to not only provide security benefits, but also perform within a given cost regime. Current approaches for validating and integrating cyber defenses heavily rely on manual trial-and-error, without a clear and systematic understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
Despite all existing methods to identify a person, such as fingerprint, iris, and facial recognition, the personal name is still one of the most common ways to identify an individual. In this paper, we propose two novel algorithms: The first one uses sound techniques to create a multi-dimensional vector representation of names to compute a degree o...
Presentation
Full-text available
Semantic Technology for Intelligence, Defense, and Security
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dynamic and moving target defenses are generally characterized by their ability to modify their own state, or the state of the protected target. As such, the evolution of these kinds of defenses require specialized experiments that can capture their behavior and effectiveness through time, as well as their broader impacts in the network. While spec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The cyber security exposure of resilient systems is frequently described as an attack surface. A larger surface area indicates increased exposure to threats and a higher risk of compromise. Ad-hoc addition of dynamic proactive defenses to distributed systems may inadvertently increase the attack surface. This can lead to cyber friendly fire, a cond...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we introduce MIRA (Mission-aware Infrastructure for Resilient Agents), an extensible and modular infrastructure designed for the support of coordinated cyber operations. MIRA was originally designed to provide the infrastructure for a cyber-command and control and cyber operations. MIRA provides a core set of services that can be exte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The cyber security exposure of resilient systems is frequently described as an attack surface. A larger surface area indicates increased exposure to threats and a higher risk of compromise. Ad-hoc addition of dynamic proactive defenses to distributed systems may inadvertently increase the attack surface. This can lead to cyber friendly fire, a cond...
Article
Despite ongoing improvements in the quality of antimalware tests, the way in which test results are handled often shows a low level of sophistication. In this paper, we introduce the simple concept of confidence intervals and statistical significance to these tests, and show that many of the 'best practice' approaches common in other fields are lac...
Article
We consider the problem of assigning a group of users with different rate requirements to a set of frequency bands, which may have different bandwidths, when the users access the channel via carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA). For example, in systems that employ dynamic spectrum access (DSA), secondary users may interleave their transmissions int...
Patent
Full-text available
A method for visually depicting complex events. Software agents are preferably employed to assist the human operator by collecting, enriching, selecting, aggregating, and analyzing data so that patterns of interest can be visually flagged or otherwise emphasized in the visual display. Events are depicted as an "event flow" from a source surface to...
Patent
Full-text available
A method for visually depicting complex events. Software agents are preferably employed to assist the human operator by collecting, enriching, selecting, aggregating, and analyzing data so that patterns of interest can be visually flagged or otherwise emphasized in the visual display. Events are depicted as an “event flow” from a source surface to...
Conference Paper
Network analysis has draw a considerable amount of attention in the last decade, especially after the discovery of common topological characteristics such as small world or a power law degree distribution. Recently our understanding of complex networks has been augmented with the inclusion of a local view of patterns of connectivity, such patterns...
Article
Described by some as the worst vulnerability since e-commerce began on the Internet, one word sums up what this Basic Training column is all about: Heartbleed. Although we don't necessarily agree with such hyperbole (although it really was pretty bad!), the media furor around the Heartbleed vulnerability was incredible and crossed over from securit...
Conference Paper
The use of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMax cellular systems mitigates downlink intra-cell interference by the use of sub-carriers that are orthogonal to each other. Inter-cell interference, however, limits the downlink performance of cellular systems. In order to mitigate inter-cell inter...
Article
One of the criticisms of traditional security approaches is that they present a static target for attackers. Critics state, with good justification, that by allowing the attacker to reconnoiter a system at leisure to plan an attack, defenders are immediately disadvantaged. To address this, the concept of moving-target defense (MTD) has recently eme...
Article
Full-text available
The design and evaluation of resilient communication and computation infrastructures still relies heavily on empirical studies, and are often based on advanced simulation or emulation techniques that include external attacks or specific failure modes. While generally useful to provide an initial baseline, such static approaches fail to take into ac...
Conference Paper
The use of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMax cellular systems mitigates downlink intra-cell interference by the use of sub-carriers that are orthogonal to each other. Intercell interference, however, limits the downlink performance of cellular systems. In order to mitigate inter-cell interf...
Article
In this column, we give a quick overview of the many lines of protection you find on a typical home machine, which in turn helps us illustrate the complexity and challenges involved in securing a standard computer system. We focus on Windows here simply because it's widespread and widely attacked; many of the same techniques can be found on other p...
Chapter
The deployment of smart grid technologies is drawing significant attention in the electric power industry. The term “smart grid” refers to modernization of the electric grid using digital technology that includes an advanced sensing and metering infrastructure, high speed, fully integrated two-way communications, and a supporting information infras...
Conference Paper
In the recent years high throughput data about biological processes has become available and thus opened a wide range of possibilities of research in multi-disciplinary areas, like network science. An idea that has been widely accepted is the fact that no life can exist without complex systems formed by interacting macromolecules. Rather than a sin...
Conference Paper
There is great interest in the topic of resilient cyber systems, especially with respect to attacks by malicious software. The challenges of measuring the actual resilience of a system and the ambiguity of the term “resilience” itself cloud much of the accompanying research. In this paper, we examine some of the lessons learned in defining resilien...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss the need for a new command and control (C2) approach for the practical deployment of Moving Target Defenses (MTDs) enterprise networks. We describe some of the requirements and constraints associated with the combined use of multiple moving target defenses, and introduce a human-agent teamwork approach for the command and c...
Conference Paper
In this position paper we explore the use of behavior models as an enabling methodology in the promotion of a more holistic understanding of CPS that can bridge both cyber and physical domains. Thus, we investigate the use of aggregate behavior analysis techniques combined in both cyber and physical domains. Ultimately, our work focuses on the deve...
Conference Paper
Historically, behavior-based computer security has relied on automatic classification of the activities of persons and programs to determine whether these activities should be restricted. In this paper, we argue that classification that relies exclusively upon observation of low-level events (either via signatures or anomalies) is insufficient to i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we introduce and discuss some of the concepts, motivations and requirements for cooperative models between humans and artificial self-organizing systems. After a brief review of alternative cooperation methods, an implicit cooperation-based approach through parameterization and incentives is proposed for human-agent collaboration. Our...
Conference Paper
User interests and behavior will play a key role in the design of future mobile networks. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique for the modeling of mobile users interests based on their online activity and mobility. In this study, we conduct domain-specific and location-based analysis and modeling of mobile user interests based on the amoun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the next few years, Brazil will host international events such as the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympics Games. Given the worldwide appeal of these events, local authorities in Brazil expect the country will have around 1.6 million visitors arriving at its airports (1 million for the Olympics and 600 thousand for the World Cup). Therefore...
Article
Moving target defense is a conceptual shift from the standard defense mechanisms used on today's statically configured networks. Most mechanisms for moving target defense are limited in the protocols and applications they can support. In this paper, we outline a simple method to identify the network dependencies these have and begin the discussion...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss the need for a command and control (C2) capability for moving target (MT) defenses. We describe some of the requirements and constraints associated with such a capability, and propose a human-agent teamwork approach for MTC2. We further discuss some specific concepts and technologies that could play an important role in the...
Book
This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art research on “Systems and Optimization Aspects of Smart Grid Challenges.” The authors have compiled and integrated different aspects of applied systems optimization research to smart grids, and also describe some of its critical challenges and requirements. The promise of a smarter electricity grid...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article, we explain our rationale for the development of Luna, a software agent framework. In particular, we focus on how we use capabilities for comprehensive policy-based governance to ensure that key requirements for security, declarative specification of taskwork, and built-in support for joint activity within mixed teams of humans and...
Conference Paper
There is great interest in the topic of resilient cyber systems. However, much of the accompanying research is clouded by a lack of an appropriate definition of the term “resilience ” and the challenges of measuring the actual resilience of a system. In this paper, we examine some of the lessons learned in defining resilience metrics and argue that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article, we outline the general concept of coactive emergence, an iterative process whereby joint sensemaking and decision-making activities are undertaken by analysts and software agents. Then we explain our rationale for the development of the Luna software agent framework. In particular, we focus on how we use capabilities for comprehens...
Conference Paper
In the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer of a wireless network that uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), the performance is limited by collisions that occur because of carrier sensing delays associated with propagation and the sensing electronics. In this paper, we use a continuous-time Markov model to analyze and optimize the performance of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we introduce a new approach to Virtual World-based Command and Control environments for multi-domain operations. Our target scenario is a military coalition operation in a common operation setting. All coalition partners participate in a common virtual command and control environment while different operational contexts take place sim...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we describe how we augment human perception and cognition through Sol, an agent-based framework for distributed sensemaking. We describe how our visualization approach, based on IHMC’s OZ flight display, has been leveraged and extended in our development of the Flow Capacitor, an analyst display for maintaining cyber situation awar...
Article
Full-text available
The macrocognitive workplace is constantly changing, and a work system can never match its environment completely; there are always gaps in fitness because the work is itself a moving target. This article looks at a domain where the workplace is a moving target in three ways: cyberdefense. New technology and work methods are continually being intro...
Book
The human capacity to abstract complex systems and phenomena into simplified models has played a critical role in the rapid evolution of our modern industrial processes and scientific research. As a science and an art, Modelling and Simulation have been one of the core enablers of this remarkable human trace, and have become a topic of great import...
Article
Full-text available
Agile computing is an innovative metaphor for distributed computing systems and prescribes a new approach to their design and implementation. Agile computing may be defined as opportunistically discovering, manipulating, and exploiting available computing and communication resources in order to improve capability, performance, efficiency, fault-tol...
Article
Full-text available
One way to achieve reliability with low-latency is through multi-path routing and transport proto-cols that build redundant delivery channels (or data paths) to reduce end-to-end packet losses and retransmis-sions. However, the applicability and effectiveness of such protocols are limited by the topological constraints of the underlying communicati...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a reinforcement learning-based approach to power management in smart grids. The scenarios we consider are smart grid settings where renewable power sources (e.g. Photovoltaic panels) have unpredictable variations in power output due, for example, to weather or cloud transient effects. Our approach builds on a multi-agent...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we describe how we apply the concept of coactive emergence as a phenomenon of complexity that has implications for the design of sensemaking support tools involving a combination of human analysts and software agents. We apply this concept in the design of work methods for distributed sensemaking in cyber operations. Sensemaking is...
Chapter
Airborne networks are among some of the most challenging communication environments for protocol design and validation. Three dimensional and highly dynamic in nature, airborne network links are generally difficult to simulate accurately and often expensive to recreate in field experiments. The physical characteristics of the data links in these ki...
Article
SUMMARYSOA middleware has emerged as a powerful and popular distributed computing paradigm because of its high-level abstractions for composing systems and encapsulating platform-level details and complexities. Control of some details encapsulated by SOA middleware is necessary, however, to provide managed QoS for SOA systems that require predictab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Publish-subscribe-based Information Management (IM) services provide a key enabling technology for net-centric operations. This paper describes technology for Quality of Service (QoS) and Internet-Protocol-based Airborne Networking features for IM services. Enhancing IM services with airborne networking features improves effectiveness in combined t...
Conference Paper
In this paper we introduce a hybrid emulation infrastructure that combines theoretical path loss models with data-driven statistical link models. The goal is to provide a specialized emulation environment for the development and validation of airborne networking protocols, in support of the AFRL's PENGWUN research effort. After a brief discussion o...
Article
SOA middleware has emerged as a powerful and popular distributed computing paradigm because of its high-level abstractions for composing systems and encapsulating platform-level details and complexities. Control of some details encapsulated by SOA middleware is necessary, however, to provide managed QoS for SOA systems that require predictable perf...
Article
Full-text available
One of the chief computer security problems is not the long list of viruses and other potential vulnerabilities, but the vast number of systems that continue to be easy prey, as their system administrators or owners simply are not able to keep up with all of the available patches, updates, or needed configuration changes in order to protect them fr...