Marco Carrer

Marco Carrer
University of Padova | UNIPD · Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry TESAF

PhD

About

157
Publications
58,116
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Introduction
I am a forest ecologist, mostly interested in studying the effects of climate on tree growth. My basic tool is dendrochronology. Recently I am focused on dendroanatomy, that is the analysis of time series of xylem anatomical traits, to reach a closer view on tree functioning and on the climate/growth associations. Visit my webpage for more information and papers download: https://intra.tesaf.unipd.it/carrer/index.htm
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - December 2013
University of Padova

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Full-text available
The effects of climate change on high‐latitude forest ecosystems are complex, making forecasts of future scenarios uncertain. The predicted lengthening of the growing season under warming conditions is expected to increase tree growth rates. However, there is evidence of an increasing sensitivity of the boreal forest to drought stress. To assess th...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Plant growth and phenology respond plastically to changing climatic conditions in both space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial growth dynamics is complicated,...
Article
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In 2010–2018 Northern Patagonia featured the longest severe drought of the last millennium. This extreme dry spell triggered widespread growth decline and forest dieback. Nonetheless, the roles played by the two major mechanisms driving dieback, hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, are still not clear and understudied in this seasonally dry reg...
Article
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With the recent climate warming, tundra ecotones are facing a progressive acceleration of spring snowpack melting and extension of the growing season, with evident consequences to vegetation. Along with summer temperature, winter precipitation has been recently recognised as a crucial factor for tundra shrub growth and physiology. However, gaps of...
Book
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Los bosques de Araucaria araucana son uno de los ecosistemas más importantes en el ámbito evolutivo, biológico y cultural del extremo sur de América. Han sobrevivido a todo tipo de cambios en el paisaje y hoy son los únicos representantes del género que habita climas templados. En la cordillera de los Andes, sobre los 1000 m s.n.m., esta especie se...
Article
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High-elevation ecosystems are one of the most sensitive to climate change. The analysis of growth and xylem structure of trees from marginal populations, especially the ones growing at the treeline, could provide early-warning signs to better understand species-specific responses to future climate conditions. In this study, we combined classical de...
Article
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The aim of this study was to quantify the natural regeneration and the density of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in Steinadalur, SE-Iceland and to examine the changes that have taken place since the first self-seeded plants were discovered in 1985 and the last surveying took place in 2010. Since 1985 the lodgepole pine has spread outside the origi...
Preprint
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The process of sapwood/heartwood transition in trees is not fully understood. We tested whether the ontogenetically-stable apex-to-base conduit widening generates path length effects limiting the conductance of inner sapwood rings. The axial scaling (b) of conduit hydraulic diameter (Dh) was estimated at annual resolution in a spruce and beech tre...
Article
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The combined effects of climate change and nutrient availability on Arctic vegetation growth are poorly understood. Archaeological sites in the Arctic could represent unique nutrient hotspots for studying the long-term effect of nutrient enrichment. In this study, we analysed a time-series of ring widths of Salix glauca L. collected at nine archaeo...
Article
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Old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest are being fundamentally altered by climate change. A primary example of this is yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis ), a culturally and economically important species, which has suffered widespread decline across its range since the beginning of the twentieth century. We used tree rings to compare the...
Article
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Quantitative wood anatomy (QWA) is a dynamic research approach of increasing interest that can provide answers to a wide range of research questions across different disciplines. However, the lack of common protocols and knowledge gaps hinder the realisation of the full potential of QWA. Therefore, we established the new community-based network Q-N...
Poster
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Ring porosity, i.e. the distribution of vessel size within the ring of Angiosperms, is generally considered a taxon-specific trait. Ring porosity reflects strategies for tree water transport. However, we don’t know if variable conditions affect these patterns. Is ring porosity a stable trait in Mediterranean oaks, or does climate variability alter...
Article
Insect defoliations are a major natural disturbance in high-latitude ecosystems and are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to current climatic change. Defoliations cause severe reductions in biomass and carbon investments that affect the functioning and productivity of tundra ecosystems. Here we combined dendro-anatomical analysis w...
Article
Long-term climate reconstructions are frequently based on tree-ring high-resolution proxies extracted from subfossil peatland trees. Peatlands are peculiar ecosystems characterized by high moisture in the upper soil part which creates a harsh living environment for trees. The climate mostly indirectly influences tree growth determining seasonal var...
Article
Climate warming is expected to positively alter upward and poleward treelines which are controlled by low temperature and a short growing season. Despite the importance of treelines as a bioassay of climate change, a global field assessment and posterior forecasting of tree growth at annual scales is lacking. Using annually resolved tree‐ring data...
Article
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The performance and distribution of woody species strongly depend on their adjustment to environmental conditions based on genotypic and phenotypic properties. Since more intense and frequent drought events are expected due to climate change, xylem hydraulic traits will play a key role under future conditions, and thus knowledge of hydraulic variab...
Article
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Defoliator insects are a major disturbance agent in many forests worldwide. During outbreaks, they can strongly reduce photosynthetic carbon uptake and impact tree growth. In the Alps, larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana) outbreaks affect European larch (Larix decidua) radial growth over several years. However, immediate and legacy effects on xylem f...
Article
Tree growth at high altitude in the Himalayan region is limited by cold temperatures and also strongly influenced by the seasonality of the Asian monsoon. Understanding whether the ongoing increase in temperatures and changes in precipitation regimes in the Himalayan region can stimulate or limit tree growth is of particular importance to predict t...
Preprint
Drought limits the long-distance transport of water in the xylem due to the reduced leaf-to-soil water potential difference and possible embolism-related losses of conductance, and of sugars in the phloem due to the higher viscosity of the dehydrated sugary solution. This condition can have cascading effects in water and carbon fluxes that may ulti...
Article
Full-text available
Drought limits the long-distance transport of water in the xylem due to the reduced leaf-to-soil water potential difference and possible embolism-related losses of conductance, and of sugars in the phloem due to the higher viscosity of the dehydrated sugary solution. This condition can have cascading effects in water and carbon fluxes that may ulti...
Article
Full-text available
Tree growth at northern treelines is generally temperature-limited due to cold and short growing seasons. However, temperature-induced drought stress was repeatedly reported for certain regions of the boreal forest in northwestern North America, provoked by a significant increase in temperature and possibly reinforced by a regime shift of the Pacif...
Presentation
One of the most evident effects of the rapid warming occurring recently in cold and high-latitude forests is the lengthening of the growing season, with the concurrent extension of the period of wood formation. In addition, the increase of evapotranspiration demand is starting to induce drought-stress conditions. By selecting the same black spruce...
Poster
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Global warming and climate change are the topic most discuss in the last past decades. It is well known that plants communities and forests ecosystems are affected by the increasing of the average temperatures and by extreme precipitations and drought, events that are always more frequent and intense (1). The response of plants to climate changes i...
Poster
Full-text available
Global warming and climate change are the topic most discuss in the last past decades. It is well known that plants communities and forests ecosystems are affected by the increasing of the average temperatures and by extreme precipitations and drought, events that are always more frequent and intense (1). The response of plants to climate changes i...
Article
In the Mediterranean basin, diffuse-porous, semi-ring-porous and ring-porous tree species coexist in the same regions. Climate change might differently affect these types, but a mechanistic understanding of drought effects on their xylem structure is lacking. We investigated tree-ring width and xylem functional traits in ring-porous Quercus boissie...
Article
An improved understanding of how tree species will respond to warmer conditions and longer droughts requires comparing their responses across different environmental settings and considering a multi-proxy approach. We used several traits (tree-ring width, formation of intra-annual density fluctuations - IADFs, wood anatomy, Δ13C and δ18O records) t...
Article
Tundra ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, and climate–growth responses of Arctic shrubs are variable and altered by microsite environmental conditions and biotic factors. With warming and drought during the growing season, insect‐driven defoliation is expected to increase in frequency and severity with potential broad‐scale impacts...
Poster
Full-text available
Climate sensitivity of populations at the margins of their distribution range is of key importance to understand species’ responses to future warming conditions. Pinus cembra L. is of particular interest being a typical high-elevation taxon, spread with mostly scattered populations within its actual range, but still overlooked in traditional dendro...
Article
Full-text available
It is noteworthy that the largest part of global vegetation biomass depends on a thin layer of cells: the vascular cambium. Understanding the wood formation processes and relationships with environmental factors is a crucial and timely research question requiring interdisciplinary efforts, also to upscale the information gained and to evaluate impl...
Article
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The original version of this Article contained an error in the Data Availability section, which incorrectly read ‘All data will be freely available via https://www.ams.ethz.ch/research.html.’ The correct version states ‘http://www.ams.ethz.ch/research/published-data.html’ in place of ‘https://www.ams.ethz.ch/research.html’. This has been corrected...
Presentation
Le Alpi rappresentano una regione molto sensibile al cambiamento climatico e per tale motivo sono state ampiamente studiate per ricostruire trend climatici di lungo periodo. Nell’area alpina, le Alpi sud-orientali sono state studiate in misura minore, nonostante esse conservino ecosistemi tra i più interessanti e sensibili al cambiamento globale. T...
Poster
Full-text available
The microsection images were processed with the image analysis software ROXAS (von Arx & Carrer, 2014) that provided the lumen area (LA), cell-wall thickness (CWT), and relative position within the dated annual ring for each tracheid within the dated tree ring.  6 mature larch trees were sampled at the tree-line (about 2200 m a.s.l.) on the southe...
Article
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Though tree-ring chronologies are annually resolved, their dating has never been independently validated at the global scale. Moreover, it is unknown if atmospheric radiocarbon enrichment events of cosmogenic origin leave spatiotemporally consistent fingerprints. Here we measure the 14C content in 484 individual tree rings formed in the periods 770...
Article
The response of forest growth to climate variability varies along environmental gradients. A growth increase and decrease with warming is usually observed in cold-humid and warm-dry regions, respectively. However, it remains poorly known where the sign of these temperature effects switches. Here we introduce a newly developed European tree-ring net...
Article
Full-text available
Climate sensitivity of populations at the margins of their distribution range is of key importance to understand species' responses to future warming conditions. Pinus cembra is of particular interest being a typical high-elevation taxon, spread with mostly scattered populations within its actual range, but still overlooked in traditional dendrochr...
Poster
Full-text available
Tree-ring and xylogenesis studies have shown that the main environmental driver of wood formation in boreal forests is temperature. Quantitative wood anatomy is a new approach to investigate environmental drivers on tree growth at intra-annual scale. The aim of this research is to explore the possibility of detecting cambial phenology information f...
Article
Climate models forecast progressive aridification in the Mediterranean region. These warmer and drier conditions will probably lead to a decrease in carbon fixation and growth rates of drought-prone forests. To improve our knowledge on how water availability drives radial growth, wood anatomy and carbon storage we compared changes during a 40-year...
Article
The Himalayas is one of the most ecologically sensitive and fragile areas in the world. The climate of the region is dominated by the monsoon seasonality, with typical dry winters and abundant summer precipitations. Here, forest vegetation spreads up to the world's highest elevations, where cold temperatures and early spring droughts represent the...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how climate affects xylem formation is critical for predicting the impact of future conditions on tree growth and functioning in the Mediterranean region, which is expected to face warmer and drier conditions. However, mechanisms of growth response to climate at different temporal scales are still largely unknown, being complicated by...
Article
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Under predicted climate change, native silver fir (Abies alba) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are the most likely replacement species for the Norway spruce (Picea abies) monocultures planted across large parts of continental Europe. Our current understanding of the adaptation potential of fir-beech mixed forests to climate change is limited b...
Article
Detection of tree spatial patterns and structural attributes in a forest stand can provide critical information on occurring dynamics, and steer management decisions. However, since tree spatial distribution depends on factors that operate at different scales, including environmental heterogeneity and tree-to-tree interactions, both the extent to w...
Article
Warmer and drier climatic conditions are projected for the 21st century; however, the role played by extreme climatic events on forest vulnerability is still little understood. For example, more severe droughts and heat waves could threaten quaternary relict tree refugia such as Circum-Mediterranean fir forests (CMFF). Using tree-ring data and a pr...
Article
Mediterranean climate promotes two distinct growth peaks separated by summer quiescence in trees. This bimodal pattern has been associated to favourable growing conditions during spring and autumn when mild temperatures and soil-water availability enhance cambial activity. Climatic models predict progressive warming and drying for the Mediterranean...
Article
Relationships between reproductive strategies and population spatial structure have often been suggested for lichens, but there is a lack of supporting aerobiological data. For the first time, this study couples aerobiological investigations on meiospore dispersal by Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. wit...
Article
Interannual variability of wood density - an important plant functional trait and environmental proxy - in conifers is poorly understood. We therefore explored the anatomical basis of density. We hypothesized that earlywood density is determined by tracheid size and latewood density by wall dimensions, reflecting their different functional tasks. T...
Article
Full-text available
The study of xylogenesis or wood formation is a powerful, yet labor intensive monitoring approach to investigate intra-annual tree growth responses to environmental factors. However, it seldom covers more than a few growing seasons, so is in contrast to the much longer lifespan of woody plants and the time scale of many environmental processes. Her...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of xylem cell anatomical features in dated tree rings provides insights into xylem functional responses and past growth conditions at intra-annual resolution. So far, special focus has been given to the lumen of the water-conducting cells, whereas the equally relevant cell wall thickness (CWT) has been less investigated due to methodol...
Article
Background and Aims During the growing season, the cambium of conifer trees produces successive rows of xylem cells, the tracheids, that sequentially pass through the phases of enlargement and secondary wall thickening before dying and becoming functional. Climate variability can strongly influence the kinetics of morphogenetic processes, eventuall...
Article
Climate warming is expected to enhance productivity and growth of woody plants, particularly in temperature-limited environments at the northernmost or uppermost limits of their distribution. However, this warming is spatially uneven and temporally variable, and the rise in temperatures differently affects biomes and growth forms. Here, applying a...