Marcin Zajenkowski

Marcin Zajenkowski
University of Warsaw | UW · Faculty of Psychology

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97
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Publications

Publications (97)
Article
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Because conspiracy theories have many negative consequences, understanding the psychological factors underlying their endorsement is an important task for researchers. We examined whether people's time perspective (TP) – the tendency to focus on the certain aspects of the past, present, or future – is associated with conspiracy beliefs. In two stud...
Article
COVID-19 patients and survivors quite often experience depressive symptoms, which can increase risk for lower immune system response and poorer recovery. Vulnerability to depressive symptoms may be elevated in those patients who have the most severe COVID-19 course of illness, that is, patients who require supplementary oxygen therapy or even intub...
Article
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The widespread COVID-19 conspiracy theories are a problem in dealing with the pandemic, as their proponents tend not to adhere to public health regulations. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between religious fundamentalism, delusions, compliance with public health regulations, and religion-related conspiracy beliefs about the...
Article
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In this research we examined relationships between Big Five personality traits, emotion regulation strategies and subjective well-being. In two studies we explored the mediational role of habitual use of two regulation strategies: reappraisal and suppression in the relationship between personality traits and two aspects of well-being (i.e., life sa...
Article
The way people assess their own level of intelligence might have important consequences for many life domains. In two studies (Ns = 232 and 237) we examined the association between self-assessed and objective intelligence and the higher-order structure of personality: two metatraits, Plasticity and Stability, and the General Factor of Personality (...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between grandiose narcissism and the feeling of distress. We referred to the narcissistic admiration and rivalry model. We hypothesized that people with high narcissistic admiration would experience less distress and fear and that intellectual self-confidence would account for this rel...
Article
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There is increasing consensus on the importance of distinguishing between grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissism. Yet, little is known about these traits and their differential correlates in youth. Recent findings in adults suggest that narcissistic vulnerability, rather than grandiosity, is a critical determinant of internal aggression tr...
Article
We tried to understand responses to the 2020 restrictions on abortions in Poland. We found (N = 255) that religious people (predominantly Catholic) were in favor of the ban as were people who held binding moral values. In addition, people who saw the ban negatively and providing opportunities for duty and mating were less in favor of the ban wherea...
Article
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The present study examined the relationship of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with dispositional anger and hostility. We investigated the roles of neuroticism, emotional intelligence, and gender in this relationship, using a sample of 405 participants. The results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with a higher tendency towar...
Article
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Research indicates that grandiose narcissism is associated positively with self-assessed intelligence (SAI). Furthermore, the direction of possible causation is considered to flow from narcissism to SAI. However, an intriguing question is whether the effect might be reciprocal, that is, whether the belief that one is intelligent facilitates the exp...
Article
Individual differences in how people perceive the world, might be important factors underlying their personality traits and pathologies. In the current study (N = 253) we examined the associations between the maladaptive Big Five traits and perceptions of three situations (i.e., a bar, a classroom, and an office). Adversity was the most central per...
Book
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Jedna z najczęściej pojawiających się w literaturze definicji inteligencji opisuje ją jako zdolność, która ułatwia człowiekowi przystosowanie do środowiska. Badania psychologiczne prowadzone już od drugiej połowy XIX w. (m.in. przez Francisa Galtona) zdają się potwierdzać adaptacyjny charakter inteligencji. Od samego początku badacze łączyli sprawn...
Article
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The present study examined how time perspective is associated with working memory updating and cognitive switching. Additionally, stress states and mood as potential mediators of the relationship between time perspective and cognitive performance were analysed. During two sessions participants (n = 200) completed a set of questionnaires measuring t...
Article
Within the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC), it has been theorized that narcissistic admiration is the default mode of narcissistic expression, however, relatively little research has examined this possibility. Furthermore, although narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry have been reported to be inter-correlated positive...
Article
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We examined how the perception of past events might contribute to the understanding of vulnerable narcissism. Across seven samples (NGrand = 1271), we investigated the association between vulnerable narcissism and individual differences in negative view of the past as well as how both were associated with basic personality traits, intrapersonal (i....
Article
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Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism have distinct personality profiles. Specifically, grandiose narcissism correlates positively with Extraversion and negatively with Neuroticism, whereas vulnerable narcissism showed a reverse associations with these traits. Additionally, both types of narcissism have common antagonistic core as they are negatively...
Article
The compatibility between partners in romantic relationships has been found for various characteristics, including intelligence. Theoretically, this phenomenon implies that people are able to discern the intelligence of themselves and others. In practice, however, the accuracy of such estimations is influenced by various factors, such as personalit...
Article
The primary goal of the present research was to investigate the association between trait anger and subjective pleasantness of rewards that differed in terms of evoked arousal. In the first study (n = 124), we assessed trait anger and liking rewarding cues related to either a high- or a low-arousal emotional response. To this end, we used Polish wo...
Article
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The aim of the present investigation was deeper understanding of the distinction between two types of narcissism (grandiose and vulnerable) in their relation to dispositional anger. Prior research indicated that vulnerable narcissism is associated with higher level of dispositional anger in comparison to grandiose narcissism. Furthermore, vulnerabl...
Article
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The negative association between cognitive intelligence (CI) and religiosity has been widely studied and is now well documented. In contrast, the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in this context has been poorly investigated thus far. Some available data indicate that EI, unlike CI, correlates positively with religiosity. To date, however, no stu...
Article
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Individuals with high grandiose narcissism tend to think they are extraordinarily intelligent, and these views determine their psychological well-being. In the current research, we investigated how two aspects of grandiose narcissism—admiration and rivalry—are associated with objective intelligence, subjective intelligence, and intelligence-related...
Article
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Various aspects of psychological time, such as time perspective and time perception, have been studied separately. In the present research, we aimed to integrate these two approaches by examining the link between time perspective and time perception, conceptualized as the subjective passage of time and duration estimation. We also examined the role...
Article
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Mentalizing ability, i.e., an ability to attribute mental states to other beings, has been regarded as a chief cognitive predisposition that allows people to believe in supernatural beings. However, research on mentalizing ability and religiosity is inconsistent and tainted with methodological vagueness. Most notably, the terms “mentalizing” and “e...
Article
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Balanced time perspective (BTP) describes a tendency to focus on past, present and future time horizons that fosters well-being and positive life outcomes. Deviation from the balanced time perspective is a widespread method to measure the balance, but it makes assumptions regarding levels of time perspectives constituting BTP. In the present resear...
Article
Grandiose narcissists typically pursue agentic goals, such as social status, competence, and autonomy. We argue that because high intelligence is a key asset for the attainment of such agentic goals, the concept of intelligence should play a prominent role in grandiose narcissists’ self-regulation and social behavior. We review the relevant literat...
Article
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In 2020, many countries around the world created and enforced heavy restrictions geared towards reducing the spread of the coronavirus (i.e., COVID-19). In this study (N = 263), we examined the role of personality traits (i.e., Big Five and Dark Triad) and individual differences in perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic situation (the situational eig...
Article
The Dunning-Kruger hypothesis states that the degree to which people can estimate their ability accurately depends, in part, upon possessing the ability in question. Consequently, people with lower levels of the ability tend to self-assess their ability less well than people who have relatively higher levels of the ability. The most common method u...
Article
Objectives: This paper presents four independent studies examining emotional experiences in grandiose and vulnerable narcissism across neutral and anger-evoking situations, controlling for the shared variance between neuroticism and vulnerable narcissism. Methods: In Study 1 and 2, we explored the associations of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism...
Article
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An increasing interest in the construct of time perspective (TP), describing dispositional tendencies to use, and overuse particular time horizons, is observed in psychological research literature. Additionally, it has been suggested that people can develop Balanced Time Perspective (BTP). The term BTP refers to the ability to switch effectively be...
Article
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Self-assessed intelligence (SAI) and its correlates have been extensively studied in adults. However, our understanding of how younger people perceive intelligence is limited. The current study aimed to fill this gap by investigating how SAI is associated with objective intelligence, gender, personality traits, and well-being in a sample (N = 428)...
Article
Two forms of narcissism were found to be associated with various personality traits. Grandiose narcissism typically correlates with high levels of extraversion, openness and emotional stability, whereas vulnerable narcissism correlates positively with neuroticism and negatively with extraversion. Both types of narcissism are associated with disagre...
Article
Several empirical investigations have demonstrated a positive association between religiosity and emotional empathy. However, most of these studies relied on self-report measures, and therefore were criticized for reflecting a self-delusion of believers rather than the actual relationship between the two constructs. The current research addressed t...
Article
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Morningness-eveningness, or chronotype, reflects the timing of sleep-wake patterns across a 24-hour day. Extant research has revealed that chronotype correlates with numerous psychological constructs including cognitive ability. In the current research, we examined how people with different chronotypes perceive their intelligence. We expected eveni...
Article
Where do religious beliefs come from, and what predisposes people to believe in the supernatural remains an open question in the science of religion. Contemporary theories explaining religion typically focus on either evolved biological dispositions or social factors. In the current research, we were interested in how individual differences in emot...
Article
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Objective: The current research comprehensively examined how grandiose and vulnerable narcissism are linked to intelligence and intelligence-related beliefs and emotions. Method: In four studies (total N = 1141) we tested the associations between both forms of narcissism, subjectively and objectively assessed intelligence, basic personality trai...
Article
People can estimate their own and their romantic partner's intelligence (IQ) with some level of accuracy, which may facilitate the observation of assortative mating for IQ. However, the degree to which people may overestimate their own (IQ), as well as overestimate their romantic partner's IQ, is less well established. In the current study, we inve...
Article
The characteristics of Openness and Intellect suggest they may be differentially correlated with affect. In Study 1 (n = 224) we examined associations between Openness/Intellect and well-being. Additionally, we included variables related to ability perception: subjectively assessed intelligence and satisfaction with intelligence. In Study 2 (n = 21...
Article
Recently, the most prominent model of self-control, the strength model, was criticized, and other explanations of self-control have been proposed. One of them is a concept of lay, implicit, willpower theories, that is, believing either that willpower is limited (as in the strength model) or nonlimited. Research shows that holding a nonlimited-resou...
Chapter
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Emotional processes are of key importance for the understanding of narcissism, in both its grandiose and its vulnerable forms. The current chapter provides an overview on the links between narcissism and emotionality. The two forms of narcissism differ distinctly in their hedonic tone, with vulnerable narcissism being characterized by negative emot...
Article
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We examined the association between two types of narcissism, grandiose and vulnerable, and self-reported as well as ability emotional intelligence (EI). Grandiose narcissism is characterized by high self–esteem, interpersonal dominance and a tendency to overestimate one’s capabilities, whereas vulnerable narcissism presents defensive, avoidant and...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated the essential role of time perspective (TP) for numerous vital outcomes, such as health, social behaviors, and well-being. Surprisingly, though, to date the association between TP and religiosity has not been systematically investigated. In the present paper, in a series of three studies (a total N > 700), we prov...
Article
The aim of the present studies was to examine the relationship between time perspective and executive control. In two studies, executive control was assessed with tasks that require deliberate inhibition of automatic responses (antisaccade and go/no-go) and time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Additionally, in...
Article
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There have been only few attempts to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and religiosity. However, none of them included measures of ability EI. In two studies, we investigated the potential associations between various aspects of religious belief and ability and trait EI. In Study 1 (N = 240), we found that ability EI was...
Article
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Recent studies show that there might be two types of narcissism: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The former correlates with more adaptive psychological profile and high well-being, whereas the latter is associated with maladaptive functioning including negative emotionality. In the current study, we examined the relationships between two types...
Article
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A hypothesis that anger is related to high energetic arousal (EA), but only at a low level of agreeableness was tested. In the first two studies, the association between trait anger, agreeableness, and EA was explored. In the next two studies, the interactions of agreeableness with constructs conceptually and empirically close to EA, in predicting...
Article
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The aim of this study was to empirically verify a series of hypotheses on the role of time perspective (TP) in predicting aggression, formulated on the basis of TP Theory and models of aggression. Three hundred participants completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Analysis revealed numerous sig...
Article
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This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationshi...
Article
Previous investigations showed that there are significant differences between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. In the present study associations between the two types of narcissism, time perspective (TP) and the five factor model of personality were examined. The two forms of narcissism were associated with different TP profiles. Specifically,...
Article
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This study aimed at testing the effects of morningness-eveningness and endurance on mood and selective attention during morning and evening hours. University students (N = 80) completed the Polish version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory, and two testing sessions scheduled d...
Article
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Both mindfulness and Balanced Time Perspective (BTP) are well confirmed and robust predictors of various aspects of well-being. In the present paper we argue that BTP may be considered one of the potential links between mindfulness and life satisfaction. We collected data from three samples, applying three different measures of mindfulness, as well...
Method
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The Managing the Emotions of Others Scale MEOS (Austin i O’Donnell, 2013); Polska wersja: Jankowski in. (2016). Korzystając proszę się powołać na: Austin, E.J., O’Donnell, M.M. (2013) Development and preliminary validation of a scale to assess managing the emotions of others. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 834–839. Jankowski, K.S., Zaj...
Article
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The present research aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS). MEOS consists of six dimensions: mood enhancing (Enhance), mood worsening (Worsen), concealing emotions from others (Conceal), use of inauthentic displays for self-serving purposes (Inauthentic), poor emotion ski...
Article
Religiosity has been linked to low levels of antisocial personality traits. In the present study (N = 661), we examined the relationship between various aspects of religious beliefs (general religiosity, intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation), empathy, and the Dark Triad. We found that both empathy and general religiosity were negatively as...
Article
In this chapter we explore the role of cognitive processes in time perspective. Extending previous findings, we present how individual differences in time orientation are related to intelligence, goal-directed behaviour, executive control and meta-cognition. First, we show that present fatalistic TP is negatively related to intelligence, and that f...
Article
In three studies we explored the relationship between cognitive ability and various aspects of aggression. In the first investigation we found that intelligence was not associated with external aggression (physical or verbal), however, it tended to correlate negatively with internal processes related with aggressive behaviour (anger and hostility)....
Article
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Working memory deficits might be one of the major cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Some researchers argue, that cognitive control is especially disturbed among schizophrenia patients. It was found, that low working memory capacity in schizophrenia may be explained by the fact that irrelevant stimuli occupy patients' storage space that could...
Article
In the present study we measured three dimensions of mood (energetic arousal, tense arousal, and hedonic tone) using a student sample in six academic situations. The first three measurements took place during neutral lectures, the fourth and fifth before and after an exam, respectively, and the last during the two weeks after the exam when students...
Article
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We investigated the relations between narcissism, self-assessed intelligence and subjective well-being. In three studies, we aimed to replicate previous findings concerning the relationship between narcissism and both objectively and subjectively assessed intelligence (Study 1), as well as to examine whether the latter influenced narcissists’ satis...
Article
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In the present study, we examined mood changes following dancing. Previous works suggested that contextual factors may influence affective states; it has been shown that changes in mood following competition differ from those following recreational exercise. The study has been conducted in Warsaw, Poland. Mood was assessed before and after dance ac...
Article
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We examined how proneness to experience feelings of aggression in frustrating situations and neuroticism are related to three mood dimensions – tense arousal (TA), energetic arousal (EA) and hedonic tone (HT) – measured before and after an exam. Individuals high in sensitivity to frustration had low HT and EA, and high TA after completing the exam....
Article
In the present studies we examine complex relationships between time perspective (the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories; TP) and cognitive ability. Additionally, we consider cognitive, emotional and motivational mediators of these associations. In study 1 (n = 238) we me...
Article
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The paper explores the cognitive mechanisms involved in the verification of sentences with proportional quantifiers (e.g. "More than half of the dots are blue"). The first study shows that the verification of proportional sentences is more demanding than the verification of sentences such as: "There are seven blue and eight yellow dots". The second...
Article
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This paper examines the relationships between individual differences in situational triggers of aggressive behaviors (STAR) and the FFM personality traits. The investigation, conducted among Polish male and female offenders and students, revealed different relationships across samples. Among students, higher sensitivity to frustration and provocati...
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The author examines the relationship between energetic arousal (EA) and the processing of sentences containing natural-language quantifiers. Previous studies and theories have shown that energy may differentially affect various cognitive functions. Recent investigations devoted to quantifiers strongly support the theory that various types of quanti...
Article
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The paper explores the relationship between intelligence and the semantic processing of natural language quantifiers. The first study revealed that intelligence is positively associated with the subjects' performance when solving a picture verification task with one of the four types of sentences: Aristotelian (e.g. ‘All cars are red’), parity (e.g...
Article
Recent studies have shown a consistent relationship between per-capita GDP and the average intelligence of the population. In the present paper we show that intelligence is indeed a powerful predictor of GDP. However, other variables significantly moderate the relationship. The rise in GDP with rising intelligence proved more pronounced in countrie...
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The relationships between national personality traits and intelligence from 51 countries were examined. It was found that extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness measured at the national level were significantly and positively correlated with national IQs; however, in the regression model only the former two were marginally significa...
Article
The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as l...